Abstract

As part of a cross-sectional study of aging of the human accommodative apparatus, unaccommodated anterior chamber depth, unaccommodated lens thickness, and accommodative amplitude were each determined by two or more independent techniques in 100 normal emmetropic subjects, age 18–70 yr. For anterior chamber depth, the order of accuracy seemed to be: optical pachymetry > slit-lamp Scheimpflug photography > A-scan ultrasonography, although there was good agreement among all three methods. For lens thickness, slitlamp Scheimpflug photography seemed more accurate than A-scan ultrasonography when the generally accepted lenticular sound velocity of 1641 m • s−1 was used for the ultrasonographic calculation. The age-dependent divergence allowed calculation of a putative relationship between lenticular sound velocity and age, indicating that velocity decreased by ~3 m • s−1 • yr−1. Accommodative amplitude declined with age, reaching a minimum, by age 50 yr, of 0.5 diopters as measured by coincidence refractometry. This residual 0.5 diopters may represent the inherent focal depth of the eye’s optical system, rather than active accommodation. Maximum accommodative amplitude based on the subject’s ability to clearly visualize a target through minus lenses was always 1.50 diopters greater than the refractometrically measured maximum, regardless of age. This difference presumably represents increased depth of field provided by pupillary constriction, rather than active accommodation.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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  17. L. Z. Bito, P. L. Kaufman, M. Neider, O. C. Miranda, P. Antal, “The Dynamics of Accommodation (Ciliary Muscle Contraction, Zonular Relaxation and Lenticular Deformation) as a Function of Stimulus Strength and Age in Iridectomized Rhesus Eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28 (ARVO Suppl.), 318 (1987).
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    [CrossRef]
  28. J. F. Koretz, M. W. Neider, P. L. Kaufman, A. M. Bertasso, C. J. DeRousseau, L. Z. Bito, “Slit-Lamp Studies on the Rhesus Monkey Eye. I. Survey of the Anterior Segment,” Exp. Eye Res. 44, 307 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. L. Z. Bito, C. J. DeRousseau, P. L. Kaufman, J. W. Bito, “Age-Dependent Loss of Accommodative Amplitude in Rhesus Monkeys: an Animal Model for Presbyopia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 23, 23 (1982).
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  33. N. P. Brown, “An Advanced Slit-Lamp Camera,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 56, 624 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. N. B. Chin, S. Ishikawa, L. Lappin, J. Davidswitz, G. M. Breinin, “Accommodation in Monkeys Induced by Midbrain Stimulation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 7, 386 (1968).
    [PubMed]
  35. R. D. Biggs, M. Alpern, R. D. Bennett, “The Effect of Sympathomimetic Drugs Upon the Amplitude of Accommodation,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 48, 169 (1959).
    [PubMed]
  36. D. J. Coleman, F. L. Lizzi, R. L. Jack, Ultrasonography of the Eye and Orbit (Lee & Febiger, Philadelphia, PA, 1977), pp.109–120.
  37. P. R. Bevington, Data Reduction and Error Analysis in the Physical Sciences (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969), pp. 92–127.
  38. M. W. Neider, P. A. Goeckner, J. F. Koretz, P. L. Kaufman, “Changes in Human Crystalline Lens Geometry During Accommodation and Aging,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29 (ARVO Suppl.), 190 (1988).
  39. P. L. Kaufman, “Anticholinesterase-Induced Cholinergic Subsensitivity in Primate Accommodative Mechanism,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 85, 622 (1978).
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    [PubMed]

1988 (2)

E. Lutjen-Drecoll, E. Tamm, P. L. Kaufman, “Age-Related Loss of Morphologic Responses to Pilocarpine in Rhesus Monkey Ciliary Muscle,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 1951 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Neider, P. A. Goeckner, J. F. Koretz, P. L. Kaufman, “Changes in Human Crystalline Lens Geometry During Accommodation and Aging,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29 (ARVO Suppl.), 190 (1988).

1987 (4)

J. F. Koretz, M. W. Neider, P. L. Kaufman, A. M. Bertasso, C. J. DeRousseau, L. Z. Bito, “Slit-Lamp Studies on the Rhesus Monkey Eye. I. Survey of the Anterior Segment,” Exp. Eye Res. 44, 307 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Koretz, A. M. Bertasso, M. W. Neider, B. True-Gabelt, P. L. Kaufman, “Slit-Lamp Studies of the Rhesus Monkey Eye.II. Changes in Crystalline Lens Shape, Thickness and Position During Accommodation and Aging,” Exp. Eye Res. 45, 317 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Z. Bito, P. L. Kaufman, M. Neider, O. C. Miranda, P. Antal, “The Dynamics of Accommodation (Ciliary Muscle Contraction, Zonular Relaxation and Lenticular Deformation) as a Function of Stimulus Strength and Age in Iridectomized Rhesus Eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28 (ARVO Suppl.), 318 (1987).

L. Z. Bito, O. C. Miranda, “Presbyopia: Comparative and Evolutionary Perspectives,” Atti Fond. Giorgio Ronchi Suppl. 42, 1 (1987).

1986 (3)

M. W. Neider, K. Crawford, B. True, P. L. Kaufman, L. Z. Bito, “Functional Studies of Accommodation and Presbyopia in Rhesus Monkeys,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27 (ARVO Suppl.), 81 (1986).

D. J. Coleman, “On the Hydraulic Suspension Theory of Accommodation,” Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 84, 846 (1986).
[PubMed]

J. F. Koretz, G. Handelman, “Modelling Age-Related Accommodative Loss in the Human Eye,” Int. J. Math. Modelling 7, 1003 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

J. F. Koretz, G. H. Handelman, “Internal Crystalline Lens Dynamics During Accommodation: Age-Related Changes,” Atti Fond. Giorgio Ronchi 40, 409 (1985).

1983 (2)

J. F. Koretz, G. H. Handelman, “A Model for Accommodation in the Young Human Eye: The Effects of Lens Elastic Anisotropy on the Mechanism,” Vision Res. 23, 1671 (1983).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Kaufman, L. Z. Bito, C. J. DeRousseau, “The Development of Presbyopia in Primates,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U.K. 102, 323 (1983).

1982 (4)

G. H. Handelman, J. F. Koretz, “A Mathematical Representation of Lens Accommodation,” Vision Res. 22, 924 (1982).

J. F. Koretz, G. H. Handelman, “A Model of the Accommodative Mechanism in the Human Eye,” Vision Res. 22, 917 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Z. Bito, C. J. DeRousseau, P. L. Kaufman, J. W. Bito, “Age-Dependent Loss of Accommodative Amplitude in Rhesus Monkeys: an Animal Model for Presbyopia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 23, 23 (1982).
[PubMed]

P. L. Kaufman, L. Z. Bito, “The Occurrence of Senile Cataracts, Ocular Hypertension, and Glaucoma in Rhesus Monkeys,” Exp. Eye Res. 34, 287 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (2)

P. N. Farnsworth, S. E. Shyne, “Anterior Zonular Shifts with Age,” Exp. Eye Res. 28, 291 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Rohen, “Scanning Electron Microscopic Studies of the Zonular Apparatus in Human and Monkey Eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 18, 133 (1979).
[PubMed]

1978 (1)

P. L. Kaufman, “Anticholinesterase-Induced Cholinergic Subsensitivity in Primate Accommodative Mechanism,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 85, 622 (1978).
[PubMed]

1977 (1)

R. F. Fisher, “The Force of Contraction of the Human Ciliary Muscle During Accommodation,” J. Physiol. 270, 51 (1977).
[PubMed]

1975 (1)

J. J. Saladin, L. Stark, “Presbyopia: New Evidence from Impedance Cyclography Supporting the Hess-Gullstrand Theory,” Vision Res. 15, 537 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974 (1)

N. P. Brown, “The Shape of the Lens Equator,” Exp. Eye Res. 20, 571 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (2)

N. P. Brown, “The Change in Shape and Internal Form of the Lens of the Eye on Accommodation,” Exp. Eye Res. 15, 441 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Fisher, “Presbyopia and the Changes with Age in the Human Crystalline Lens,” J. Physiol. 228, 765 (1973).
[PubMed]

1972 (1)

N. P. Brown, “An Advanced Slit-Lamp Camera,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 56, 624 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1970 (1)

D. J. Coleman, “Unified Model for Accommodative Mechanism,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 69, 1063 (1970).
[PubMed]

1969 (1)

G. Swegmark, “Studies with Impedance Cyclography on Human Ocular Accommodation at Different Ages,” Acta Ophthalmol. 46, 1186 (1969).

1968 (2)

W. D. O’Neill, J. M. Doyle, “A Thin Sheel Deformation Analysis of the Human Lens,” Vision Res. 23, 193 (1968).
[CrossRef]

N. B. Chin, S. Ishikawa, L. Lappin, J. Davidswitz, G. M. Breinin, “Accommodation in Monkeys Induced by Midbrain Stimulation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 7, 386 (1968).
[PubMed]

1967 (1)

R. S. Jampel, J. Mindel, “The Nucleus of Accommodation in the Midbrain of the Macaque,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 6, 40 (1967).
[PubMed]

1962 (1)

R. A. Weale, “Presbyopia,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 46, 660 (1962).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1959 (1)

R. D. Biggs, M. Alpern, R. D. Bennett, “The Effect of Sympathomimetic Drugs Upon the Amplitude of Accommodation,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 48, 169 (1959).
[PubMed]

1956 (1)

D. Hamasaki, J. Ong, E. Marg, “The Amplitude of Accommodation in Presbyopia,” Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 33, 3 (1956).
[PubMed]

1922 (1)

A. Duane, “Studies in Monocular and Binocular Accommodation with Their Clinical Applications,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 5, 865 (1922).

Alpern, M.

R. D. Biggs, M. Alpern, R. D. Bennett, “The Effect of Sympathomimetic Drugs Upon the Amplitude of Accommodation,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 48, 169 (1959).
[PubMed]

Antal, P.

L. Z. Bito, P. L. Kaufman, M. Neider, O. C. Miranda, P. Antal, “The Dynamics of Accommodation (Ciliary Muscle Contraction, Zonular Relaxation and Lenticular Deformation) as a Function of Stimulus Strength and Age in Iridectomized Rhesus Eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28 (ARVO Suppl.), 318 (1987).

Bennett, R. D.

R. D. Biggs, M. Alpern, R. D. Bennett, “The Effect of Sympathomimetic Drugs Upon the Amplitude of Accommodation,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 48, 169 (1959).
[PubMed]

Bertasso, A. M.

J. F. Koretz, M. W. Neider, P. L. Kaufman, A. M. Bertasso, C. J. DeRousseau, L. Z. Bito, “Slit-Lamp Studies on the Rhesus Monkey Eye. I. Survey of the Anterior Segment,” Exp. Eye Res. 44, 307 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Koretz, A. M. Bertasso, M. W. Neider, B. True-Gabelt, P. L. Kaufman, “Slit-Lamp Studies of the Rhesus Monkey Eye.II. Changes in Crystalline Lens Shape, Thickness and Position During Accommodation and Aging,” Exp. Eye Res. 45, 317 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bevington, P. R.

P. R. Bevington, Data Reduction and Error Analysis in the Physical Sciences (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969), pp. 92–127.

Biggs, R. D.

R. D. Biggs, M. Alpern, R. D. Bennett, “The Effect of Sympathomimetic Drugs Upon the Amplitude of Accommodation,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 48, 169 (1959).
[PubMed]

Bito, J. W.

L. Z. Bito, C. J. DeRousseau, P. L. Kaufman, J. W. Bito, “Age-Dependent Loss of Accommodative Amplitude in Rhesus Monkeys: an Animal Model for Presbyopia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 23, 23 (1982).
[PubMed]

Bito, L. Z.

J. F. Koretz, M. W. Neider, P. L. Kaufman, A. M. Bertasso, C. J. DeRousseau, L. Z. Bito, “Slit-Lamp Studies on the Rhesus Monkey Eye. I. Survey of the Anterior Segment,” Exp. Eye Res. 44, 307 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Z. Bito, P. L. Kaufman, M. Neider, O. C. Miranda, P. Antal, “The Dynamics of Accommodation (Ciliary Muscle Contraction, Zonular Relaxation and Lenticular Deformation) as a Function of Stimulus Strength and Age in Iridectomized Rhesus Eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28 (ARVO Suppl.), 318 (1987).

L. Z. Bito, O. C. Miranda, “Presbyopia: Comparative and Evolutionary Perspectives,” Atti Fond. Giorgio Ronchi Suppl. 42, 1 (1987).

M. W. Neider, K. Crawford, B. True, P. L. Kaufman, L. Z. Bito, “Functional Studies of Accommodation and Presbyopia in Rhesus Monkeys,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27 (ARVO Suppl.), 81 (1986).

P. L. Kaufman, L. Z. Bito, C. J. DeRousseau, “The Development of Presbyopia in Primates,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U.K. 102, 323 (1983).

L. Z. Bito, C. J. DeRousseau, P. L. Kaufman, J. W. Bito, “Age-Dependent Loss of Accommodative Amplitude in Rhesus Monkeys: an Animal Model for Presbyopia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 23, 23 (1982).
[PubMed]

P. L. Kaufman, L. Z. Bito, “The Occurrence of Senile Cataracts, Ocular Hypertension, and Glaucoma in Rhesus Monkeys,” Exp. Eye Res. 34, 287 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Z. Bito, O. C. Miranda, “Presbyopia: the Need for a Closer Look,” in Presbyopia: Recent Research and Reviews from the Third International Symposium, L. Stark, G. Obrech, Eds. (Fairchild Publications, New York, 1987), pp. 411–429.

Breinin, G. M.

N. B. Chin, S. Ishikawa, L. Lappin, J. Davidswitz, G. M. Breinin, “Accommodation in Monkeys Induced by Midbrain Stimulation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 7, 386 (1968).
[PubMed]

Brown, N. P.

N. P. Brown, “The Shape of the Lens Equator,” Exp. Eye Res. 20, 571 (1974).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Brown, “The Change in Shape and Internal Form of the Lens of the Eye on Accommodation,” Exp. Eye Res. 15, 441 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. P. Brown, “An Advanced Slit-Lamp Camera,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 56, 624 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chin, N. B.

N. B. Chin, S. Ishikawa, L. Lappin, J. Davidswitz, G. M. Breinin, “Accommodation in Monkeys Induced by Midbrain Stimulation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 7, 386 (1968).
[PubMed]

Coleman, D. J.

D. J. Coleman, “On the Hydraulic Suspension Theory of Accommodation,” Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 84, 846 (1986).
[PubMed]

D. J. Coleman, “Unified Model for Accommodative Mechanism,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 69, 1063 (1970).
[PubMed]

D. J. Coleman, F. L. Lizzi, R. L. Jack, Ultrasonography of the Eye and Orbit (Lee & Febiger, Philadelphia, PA, 1977), pp.109–120.

Crawford, K.

M. W. Neider, K. Crawford, B. True, P. L. Kaufman, L. Z. Bito, “Functional Studies of Accommodation and Presbyopia in Rhesus Monkeys,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27 (ARVO Suppl.), 81 (1986).

Davidswitz, J.

N. B. Chin, S. Ishikawa, L. Lappin, J. Davidswitz, G. M. Breinin, “Accommodation in Monkeys Induced by Midbrain Stimulation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 7, 386 (1968).
[PubMed]

DeRousseau, C. J.

J. F. Koretz, M. W. Neider, P. L. Kaufman, A. M. Bertasso, C. J. DeRousseau, L. Z. Bito, “Slit-Lamp Studies on the Rhesus Monkey Eye. I. Survey of the Anterior Segment,” Exp. Eye Res. 44, 307 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. L. Kaufman, L. Z. Bito, C. J. DeRousseau, “The Development of Presbyopia in Primates,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U.K. 102, 323 (1983).

L. Z. Bito, C. J. DeRousseau, P. L. Kaufman, J. W. Bito, “Age-Dependent Loss of Accommodative Amplitude in Rhesus Monkeys: an Animal Model for Presbyopia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 23, 23 (1982).
[PubMed]

Doyle, J. M.

W. D. O’Neill, J. M. Doyle, “A Thin Sheel Deformation Analysis of the Human Lens,” Vision Res. 23, 193 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Duane, A.

A. Duane, “Studies in Monocular and Binocular Accommodation with Their Clinical Applications,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 5, 865 (1922).

Farnsworth, P. N.

P. N. Farnsworth, S. E. Shyne, “Anterior Zonular Shifts with Age,” Exp. Eye Res. 28, 291 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fisher, R. F.

R. F. Fisher, “The Force of Contraction of the Human Ciliary Muscle During Accommodation,” J. Physiol. 270, 51 (1977).
[PubMed]

R. F. Fisher, “Presbyopia and the Changes with Age in the Human Crystalline Lens,” J. Physiol. 228, 765 (1973).
[PubMed]

Goeckner, P. A.

M. W. Neider, P. A. Goeckner, J. F. Koretz, P. L. Kaufman, “Changes in Human Crystalline Lens Geometry During Accommodation and Aging,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29 (ARVO Suppl.), 190 (1988).

Hamasaki, D.

D. Hamasaki, J. Ong, E. Marg, “The Amplitude of Accommodation in Presbyopia,” Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 33, 3 (1956).
[PubMed]

Handelman, G.

J. F. Koretz, G. Handelman, “Modelling Age-Related Accommodative Loss in the Human Eye,” Int. J. Math. Modelling 7, 1003 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Handelman, G. H.

J. F. Koretz, G. H. Handelman, “Internal Crystalline Lens Dynamics During Accommodation: Age-Related Changes,” Atti Fond. Giorgio Ronchi 40, 409 (1985).

J. F. Koretz, G. H. Handelman, “A Model for Accommodation in the Young Human Eye: The Effects of Lens Elastic Anisotropy on the Mechanism,” Vision Res. 23, 1671 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Koretz, G. H. Handelman, “A Model of the Accommodative Mechanism in the Human Eye,” Vision Res. 22, 917 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Handelman, J. F. Koretz, “A Mathematical Representation of Lens Accommodation,” Vision Res. 22, 924 (1982).

Helmholtz, H.

H. Helmholtz, Treatise on Physiological Optics, Vol. 1, 1851 (Dover, New York, 1924), English language edition.

Ishikawa, S.

N. B. Chin, S. Ishikawa, L. Lappin, J. Davidswitz, G. M. Breinin, “Accommodation in Monkeys Induced by Midbrain Stimulation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 7, 386 (1968).
[PubMed]

Jack, R. L.

D. J. Coleman, F. L. Lizzi, R. L. Jack, Ultrasonography of the Eye and Orbit (Lee & Febiger, Philadelphia, PA, 1977), pp.109–120.

Jampel, R. S.

R. S. Jampel, J. Mindel, “The Nucleus of Accommodation in the Midbrain of the Macaque,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 6, 40 (1967).
[PubMed]

Kaufman, P. L.

M. W. Neider, P. A. Goeckner, J. F. Koretz, P. L. Kaufman, “Changes in Human Crystalline Lens Geometry During Accommodation and Aging,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29 (ARVO Suppl.), 190 (1988).

E. Lutjen-Drecoll, E. Tamm, P. L. Kaufman, “Age-Related Loss of Morphologic Responses to Pilocarpine in Rhesus Monkey Ciliary Muscle,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 1951 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Koretz, M. W. Neider, P. L. Kaufman, A. M. Bertasso, C. J. DeRousseau, L. Z. Bito, “Slit-Lamp Studies on the Rhesus Monkey Eye. I. Survey of the Anterior Segment,” Exp. Eye Res. 44, 307 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Z. Bito, P. L. Kaufman, M. Neider, O. C. Miranda, P. Antal, “The Dynamics of Accommodation (Ciliary Muscle Contraction, Zonular Relaxation and Lenticular Deformation) as a Function of Stimulus Strength and Age in Iridectomized Rhesus Eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28 (ARVO Suppl.), 318 (1987).

J. F. Koretz, A. M. Bertasso, M. W. Neider, B. True-Gabelt, P. L. Kaufman, “Slit-Lamp Studies of the Rhesus Monkey Eye.II. Changes in Crystalline Lens Shape, Thickness and Position During Accommodation and Aging,” Exp. Eye Res. 45, 317 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Neider, K. Crawford, B. True, P. L. Kaufman, L. Z. Bito, “Functional Studies of Accommodation and Presbyopia in Rhesus Monkeys,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27 (ARVO Suppl.), 81 (1986).

P. L. Kaufman, L. Z. Bito, C. J. DeRousseau, “The Development of Presbyopia in Primates,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U.K. 102, 323 (1983).

L. Z. Bito, C. J. DeRousseau, P. L. Kaufman, J. W. Bito, “Age-Dependent Loss of Accommodative Amplitude in Rhesus Monkeys: an Animal Model for Presbyopia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 23, 23 (1982).
[PubMed]

P. L. Kaufman, L. Z. Bito, “The Occurrence of Senile Cataracts, Ocular Hypertension, and Glaucoma in Rhesus Monkeys,” Exp. Eye Res. 34, 287 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. L. Kaufman, “Anticholinesterase-Induced Cholinergic Subsensitivity in Primate Accommodative Mechanism,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 85, 622 (1978).
[PubMed]

Koretz, J. F.

M. W. Neider, P. A. Goeckner, J. F. Koretz, P. L. Kaufman, “Changes in Human Crystalline Lens Geometry During Accommodation and Aging,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29 (ARVO Suppl.), 190 (1988).

J. F. Koretz, A. M. Bertasso, M. W. Neider, B. True-Gabelt, P. L. Kaufman, “Slit-Lamp Studies of the Rhesus Monkey Eye.II. Changes in Crystalline Lens Shape, Thickness and Position During Accommodation and Aging,” Exp. Eye Res. 45, 317 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Koretz, M. W. Neider, P. L. Kaufman, A. M. Bertasso, C. J. DeRousseau, L. Z. Bito, “Slit-Lamp Studies on the Rhesus Monkey Eye. I. Survey of the Anterior Segment,” Exp. Eye Res. 44, 307 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Koretz, G. Handelman, “Modelling Age-Related Accommodative Loss in the Human Eye,” Int. J. Math. Modelling 7, 1003 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Koretz, G. H. Handelman, “Internal Crystalline Lens Dynamics During Accommodation: Age-Related Changes,” Atti Fond. Giorgio Ronchi 40, 409 (1985).

J. F. Koretz, G. H. Handelman, “A Model for Accommodation in the Young Human Eye: The Effects of Lens Elastic Anisotropy on the Mechanism,” Vision Res. 23, 1671 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Handelman, J. F. Koretz, “A Mathematical Representation of Lens Accommodation,” Vision Res. 22, 924 (1982).

J. F. Koretz, G. H. Handelman, “A Model of the Accommodative Mechanism in the Human Eye,” Vision Res. 22, 917 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lappin, L.

N. B. Chin, S. Ishikawa, L. Lappin, J. Davidswitz, G. M. Breinin, “Accommodation in Monkeys Induced by Midbrain Stimulation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 7, 386 (1968).
[PubMed]

Lizzi, F. L.

D. J. Coleman, F. L. Lizzi, R. L. Jack, Ultrasonography of the Eye and Orbit (Lee & Febiger, Philadelphia, PA, 1977), pp.109–120.

Lutjen-Drecoll, E.

E. Lutjen-Drecoll, E. Tamm, P. L. Kaufman, “Age-Related Loss of Morphologic Responses to Pilocarpine in Rhesus Monkey Ciliary Muscle,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 1951 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Marg, E.

D. Hamasaki, J. Ong, E. Marg, “The Amplitude of Accommodation in Presbyopia,” Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 33, 3 (1956).
[PubMed]

Mindel, J.

R. S. Jampel, J. Mindel, “The Nucleus of Accommodation in the Midbrain of the Macaque,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 6, 40 (1967).
[PubMed]

Miranda, O. C.

L. Z. Bito, O. C. Miranda, “Presbyopia: Comparative and Evolutionary Perspectives,” Atti Fond. Giorgio Ronchi Suppl. 42, 1 (1987).

L. Z. Bito, P. L. Kaufman, M. Neider, O. C. Miranda, P. Antal, “The Dynamics of Accommodation (Ciliary Muscle Contraction, Zonular Relaxation and Lenticular Deformation) as a Function of Stimulus Strength and Age in Iridectomized Rhesus Eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28 (ARVO Suppl.), 318 (1987).

L. Z. Bito, O. C. Miranda, “Presbyopia: the Need for a Closer Look,” in Presbyopia: Recent Research and Reviews from the Third International Symposium, L. Stark, G. Obrech, Eds. (Fairchild Publications, New York, 1987), pp. 411–429.

Moses, R. A.

R. A. Moses, “Accommodation,” in Adler’s Physiology of the Eye. Clinical Application, R. A. Moses, W. M. Hart, Eds. (C. V. Mosby, St. Louis, MO, 1987), Chap. 11, pp. 291–310.

Neider, M.

L. Z. Bito, P. L. Kaufman, M. Neider, O. C. Miranda, P. Antal, “The Dynamics of Accommodation (Ciliary Muscle Contraction, Zonular Relaxation and Lenticular Deformation) as a Function of Stimulus Strength and Age in Iridectomized Rhesus Eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28 (ARVO Suppl.), 318 (1987).

Neider, M. W.

M. W. Neider, P. A. Goeckner, J. F. Koretz, P. L. Kaufman, “Changes in Human Crystalline Lens Geometry During Accommodation and Aging,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29 (ARVO Suppl.), 190 (1988).

J. F. Koretz, A. M. Bertasso, M. W. Neider, B. True-Gabelt, P. L. Kaufman, “Slit-Lamp Studies of the Rhesus Monkey Eye.II. Changes in Crystalline Lens Shape, Thickness and Position During Accommodation and Aging,” Exp. Eye Res. 45, 317 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Koretz, M. W. Neider, P. L. Kaufman, A. M. Bertasso, C. J. DeRousseau, L. Z. Bito, “Slit-Lamp Studies on the Rhesus Monkey Eye. I. Survey of the Anterior Segment,” Exp. Eye Res. 44, 307 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Neider, K. Crawford, B. True, P. L. Kaufman, L. Z. Bito, “Functional Studies of Accommodation and Presbyopia in Rhesus Monkeys,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27 (ARVO Suppl.), 81 (1986).

O’Neill, W. D.

W. D. O’Neill, J. M. Doyle, “A Thin Sheel Deformation Analysis of the Human Lens,” Vision Res. 23, 193 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Ong, J.

D. Hamasaki, J. Ong, E. Marg, “The Amplitude of Accommodation in Presbyopia,” Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 33, 3 (1956).
[PubMed]

Rohen, J. W.

J. W. Rohen, “Scanning Electron Microscopic Studies of the Zonular Apparatus in Human and Monkey Eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 18, 133 (1979).
[PubMed]

Saladin, J. J.

J. J. Saladin, L. Stark, “Presbyopia: New Evidence from Impedance Cyclography Supporting the Hess-Gullstrand Theory,” Vision Res. 15, 537 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shyne, S. E.

P. N. Farnsworth, S. E. Shyne, “Anterior Zonular Shifts with Age,” Exp. Eye Res. 28, 291 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stark, L.

J. J. Saladin, L. Stark, “Presbyopia: New Evidence from Impedance Cyclography Supporting the Hess-Gullstrand Theory,” Vision Res. 15, 537 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swegmark, G.

G. Swegmark, “Studies with Impedance Cyclography on Human Ocular Accommodation at Different Ages,” Acta Ophthalmol. 46, 1186 (1969).

Tamm, E.

E. Lutjen-Drecoll, E. Tamm, P. L. Kaufman, “Age-Related Loss of Morphologic Responses to Pilocarpine in Rhesus Monkey Ciliary Muscle,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 1951 (1988).
[CrossRef]

True, B.

M. W. Neider, K. Crawford, B. True, P. L. Kaufman, L. Z. Bito, “Functional Studies of Accommodation and Presbyopia in Rhesus Monkeys,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27 (ARVO Suppl.), 81 (1986).

True-Gabelt, B.

J. F. Koretz, A. M. Bertasso, M. W. Neider, B. True-Gabelt, P. L. Kaufman, “Slit-Lamp Studies of the Rhesus Monkey Eye.II. Changes in Crystalline Lens Shape, Thickness and Position During Accommodation and Aging,” Exp. Eye Res. 45, 317 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weale, R. A.

R. A. Weale, “Presbyopia,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 46, 660 (1962).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acta Ophthalmol. (1)

G. Swegmark, “Studies with Impedance Cyclography on Human Ocular Accommodation at Different Ages,” Acta Ophthalmol. 46, 1186 (1969).

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (4)

D. J. Coleman, “Unified Model for Accommodative Mechanism,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 69, 1063 (1970).
[PubMed]

A. Duane, “Studies in Monocular and Binocular Accommodation with Their Clinical Applications,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 5, 865 (1922).

R. D. Biggs, M. Alpern, R. D. Bennett, “The Effect of Sympathomimetic Drugs Upon the Amplitude of Accommodation,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 48, 169 (1959).
[PubMed]

P. L. Kaufman, “Anticholinesterase-Induced Cholinergic Subsensitivity in Primate Accommodative Mechanism,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 85, 622 (1978).
[PubMed]

Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. (1)

D. Hamasaki, J. Ong, E. Marg, “The Amplitude of Accommodation in Presbyopia,” Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 33, 3 (1956).
[PubMed]

Arch. Ophthalmol. (1)

E. Lutjen-Drecoll, E. Tamm, P. L. Kaufman, “Age-Related Loss of Morphologic Responses to Pilocarpine in Rhesus Monkey Ciliary Muscle,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 1951 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Atti Fond. Giorgio Ronchi (1)

J. F. Koretz, G. H. Handelman, “Internal Crystalline Lens Dynamics During Accommodation: Age-Related Changes,” Atti Fond. Giorgio Ronchi 40, 409 (1985).

Atti Fond. Giorgio Ronchi Suppl. (1)

L. Z. Bito, O. C. Miranda, “Presbyopia: Comparative and Evolutionary Perspectives,” Atti Fond. Giorgio Ronchi Suppl. 42, 1 (1987).

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (2)

R. A. Weale, “Presbyopia,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 46, 660 (1962).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. P. Brown, “An Advanced Slit-Lamp Camera,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 56, 624 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Exp. Eye Res. (6)

J. F. Koretz, M. W. Neider, P. L. Kaufman, A. M. Bertasso, C. J. DeRousseau, L. Z. Bito, “Slit-Lamp Studies on the Rhesus Monkey Eye. I. Survey of the Anterior Segment,” Exp. Eye Res. 44, 307 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Koretz, A. M. Bertasso, M. W. Neider, B. True-Gabelt, P. L. Kaufman, “Slit-Lamp Studies of the Rhesus Monkey Eye.II. Changes in Crystalline Lens Shape, Thickness and Position During Accommodation and Aging,” Exp. Eye Res. 45, 317 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. N. Farnsworth, S. E. Shyne, “Anterior Zonular Shifts with Age,” Exp. Eye Res. 28, 291 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. P. Brown, “The Change in Shape and Internal Form of the Lens of the Eye on Accommodation,” Exp. Eye Res. 15, 441 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. P. Brown, “The Shape of the Lens Equator,” Exp. Eye Res. 20, 571 (1974).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Kaufman, L. Z. Bito, “The Occurrence of Senile Cataracts, Ocular Hypertension, and Glaucoma in Rhesus Monkeys,” Exp. Eye Res. 34, 287 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. J. Math. Modelling (1)

J. F. Koretz, G. Handelman, “Modelling Age-Related Accommodative Loss in the Human Eye,” Int. J. Math. Modelling 7, 1003 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. (2)

N. B. Chin, S. Ishikawa, L. Lappin, J. Davidswitz, G. M. Breinin, “Accommodation in Monkeys Induced by Midbrain Stimulation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 7, 386 (1968).
[PubMed]

R. S. Jampel, J. Mindel, “The Nucleus of Accommodation in the Midbrain of the Macaque,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 6, 40 (1967).
[PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (5)

M. W. Neider, P. A. Goeckner, J. F. Koretz, P. L. Kaufman, “Changes in Human Crystalline Lens Geometry During Accommodation and Aging,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29 (ARVO Suppl.), 190 (1988).

L. Z. Bito, C. J. DeRousseau, P. L. Kaufman, J. W. Bito, “Age-Dependent Loss of Accommodative Amplitude in Rhesus Monkeys: an Animal Model for Presbyopia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 23, 23 (1982).
[PubMed]

J. W. Rohen, “Scanning Electron Microscopic Studies of the Zonular Apparatus in Human and Monkey Eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 18, 133 (1979).
[PubMed]

M. W. Neider, K. Crawford, B. True, P. L. Kaufman, L. Z. Bito, “Functional Studies of Accommodation and Presbyopia in Rhesus Monkeys,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27 (ARVO Suppl.), 81 (1986).

L. Z. Bito, P. L. Kaufman, M. Neider, O. C. Miranda, P. Antal, “The Dynamics of Accommodation (Ciliary Muscle Contraction, Zonular Relaxation and Lenticular Deformation) as a Function of Stimulus Strength and Age in Iridectomized Rhesus Eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28 (ARVO Suppl.), 318 (1987).

J. Physiol (2)

R. F. Fisher, “The Force of Contraction of the Human Ciliary Muscle During Accommodation,” J. Physiol. 270, 51 (1977).
[PubMed]

R. F. Fisher, “Presbyopia and the Changes with Age in the Human Crystalline Lens,” J. Physiol. 228, 765 (1973).
[PubMed]

Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. (1)

D. J. Coleman, “On the Hydraulic Suspension Theory of Accommodation,” Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 84, 846 (1986).
[PubMed]

Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U.K. (1)

P. L. Kaufman, L. Z. Bito, C. J. DeRousseau, “The Development of Presbyopia in Primates,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U.K. 102, 323 (1983).

Vision Res. (5)

J. J. Saladin, L. Stark, “Presbyopia: New Evidence from Impedance Cyclography Supporting the Hess-Gullstrand Theory,” Vision Res. 15, 537 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. D. O’Neill, J. M. Doyle, “A Thin Sheel Deformation Analysis of the Human Lens,” Vision Res. 23, 193 (1968).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Handelman, J. F. Koretz, “A Mathematical Representation of Lens Accommodation,” Vision Res. 22, 924 (1982).

J. F. Koretz, G. H. Handelman, “A Model of the Accommodative Mechanism in the Human Eye,” Vision Res. 22, 917 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Koretz, G. H. Handelman, “A Model for Accommodation in the Young Human Eye: The Effects of Lens Elastic Anisotropy on the Mechanism,” Vision Res. 23, 1671 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study, ETDRS Manual of Operations, 1983, Chap. 12, pp. 1–70 (NTIS, 5285 Port Royal Rd., Springfield, VA), Session PB85-223306/AS.

D. J. Coleman, F. L. Lizzi, R. L. Jack, Ultrasonography of the Eye and Orbit (Lee & Febiger, Philadelphia, PA, 1977), pp.109–120.

P. R. Bevington, Data Reduction and Error Analysis in the Physical Sciences (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969), pp. 92–127.

H. Helmholtz, Treatise on Physiological Optics, Vol. 1, 1851 (Dover, New York, 1924), English language edition.

R. A. Moses, “Accommodation,” in Adler’s Physiology of the Eye. Clinical Application, R. A. Moses, W. M. Hart, Eds. (C. V. Mosby, St. Louis, MO, 1987), Chap. 11, pp. 291–310.

L. Z. Bito, O. C. Miranda, “Presbyopia: the Need for a Closer Look,” in Presbyopia: Recent Research and Reviews from the Third International Symposium, L. Stark, G. Obrech, Eds. (Fairchild Publications, New York, 1987), pp. 411–429.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Comparisons of anterior chamber depth in millimeters obtained by pachymetry, ultrasonography, and slit-lamp photography:(a) pachymetry (abscissa) vs ultrasonography; (b) pachymetry (abscissa) vs photography; (c) ultrasonography (abscissa) vs photography. Refer to text for statistics.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of unaccommodated lens thickness in millimeters obtained by ultrasonography (abscissa) vs photography (ordinate). See text for statistics.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of accommodative amplitude in diopters obtained by Hartinger refractometry in the phenylephrine-treated right eye (abscissa) vs amplitude induced by placing minus lenses in front of the nonphenylephrine-treated left eye (subject report).Statistics are reported in text.

Equations (1)

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sound velocity  (  s 1 )   =  1733  (  s 1 ) 2 . 830   (  s 1 yr 1 )    age  ( yr )  .

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