Abstract

The optical properties of holographic kinoforms are described. It is shown that paraxial designs are not adequate for f /Nos. less than ~F/10. A nonparaxial design is introduced that retains the high diffraction efficiency of the paraxial designs, yet also produces an unaberrated diffracted wavefront for the design wavelength. Aberration calculations and computer calculations, based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle, of the point spread functions for these elements show the necessity of using the nonparaxial design. Specifications for a surface profile that takes account of the finite thickness of the diffracting surface are given. A model for kinoforms which can be used in optical design programs is proposed.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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