Abstract

The first seagoing test of a prototype laser/fiber-optic system for in situ detection of ocean chlorophyll fluorescence is described. Radiation at 488 nm originating from a shipboard argon laser was transmitted through 20 of 200-μm core optical fiber to the distal tip mounted on the microstructure profiler, the Rapid Sampling Vertical Profiler. The backscattered fluorescence emission signal was collected through the same fiber and processed on board ship. A series of measurements indicated that (1) successful isolation of ship-induced vibrations could be achieved using our optical bench framework to maintain optical alignments; (2) ambient chlorophyll concentrations could be detected in situ; (3) a Raman scattering signal from water could also be detected and should provide an internal standard against which chlorophyll fluorescence may be calibrated.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. H. Steele, Ed., Spatial Structure in Plankton Communities, (Plenum, New York, 1978).
  2. K. L. Denman, T. M. Powell, “Effects of Physical Processes on Planktonic Ecosystems in the Coastal Ocean,” Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev. 22, 125 (1984).
  3. D. R. Caldwell, “Small-Scale Physics of the Ocean,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 21, 1192 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  4. D. R. Caldwell, “Small-Scale Physics of the Ocean,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 25, 183 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. C. Gregg, “Diapycnal Mixing in the Thermocline: a Review,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 5249 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. W. Horwood, “Observations on Spatial Heterogeneity of Surface Chlorophyll in One and Two Dimensions,” J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U. K. 58, 487 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. B. Derenbach, H. Astheimer, H. P. Hansen, H. Leach, “Vertical Microscale Distribution of Phytoplankton in Relation to the Thermocline,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 1, 187 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  8. H. Astheimer, H. Haardt, “Small-Scale Patchiness of the Chlorophyll-Fluorescence in the Sea: Aspects of Instrumentation, Data Processing, and Interpretation,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 15, 233 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  9. P. Hamner, W. M. Hamner, “Chemosensory Tracking of Scent Trails by the Planktonic Shrimp Acestes sibogae australis,” Science 195, 886 (1977).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. M. A. R. Koehl, J. R. Strickler, “Copepod Feeding Currents: Food Capture at Low Reynolds Number,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 1062 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. R. Strickler, “Calanoid Copepods, Feeding Currents, and the Role of Gravity,” Science 218, 158 (1982).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. H. J. Price, G. A. Paffenhofer, “Effects of Feeding Experience in the Copepod Eucalanus pileatus: A Cinematographic Study,” Mar. Biol. 84, 35 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  13. T. J. Cowles, R. J. Olson, S. W. Chisholm, “Food Selection by Copepods: Discrimination Between Algal Cells on the Basis of Food Quality,” Mar. Biol. (in press).
  14. K. L. Denman, A. E. Gargett, “Multiple Thermoclines are Barriers to Vertical Exchange in the Subarctic Pacific During SUPER, May 1984,” J. Mar. Res. 46, 77 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  15. M. R. Lewis, W. G. Harrison, N. S. Oakley, D. Herbert, T. Platt, “Vertical Nitrate Fluxes in the Oligotrophic Ocean,” Science 234, 870 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. W. R. Seitz, “Chemical Sensors Based on Fiber Optics,” Anal. Chem. 56, 16 (1984).
  17. S. M. Angel, “Optrodes: Chemically Selective Fiber-Optic Sensors,” Spectroscopy 2, 38 (1987).
  18. T. Hirschfeld, T. Deaton, F. Milanovich, S. Klainer, “Feasibility of Using Fiber Optics for Monitoring Groundwater Contaminants,” Opt. Eng. 22, 527 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  19. W. Chudyk, J. Kenny, G. Jarvis, K. Pohlig, “Monitoring of Groundwater Contaminants Using Laser Fluorescence and Fiber Optics,” Intech 34, 53 (1987).
  20. J. I. Peterson, G. G. Vurek, “Fiber Optic Sensors for Biomedical Applications,” Science 224, 123 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. T. Lund, “Simple and Sensitive in situ Algae Fluorescence Sensor Based on Fibre Optics,” IEE Proc. 131H, 49 (1984).
  22. Y. Kakui, A. Nishimoto, J. Hirono, M. Nanjo, “Underway Analysis of Suspended Biological Particles with an Optical Fiber Cable,” in Mapping Strategies in Chemical Oceanography, A. Zirino, Ed. (American Chemical Society, Washington, DC (1985), pp. 272–292.
  23. D. R. Caldwell, R. M. Dillon, J. N. Moum, “The Rapid Sampling Vertical Profiler: An Evaluation,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 2, 615 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  24. J. N. Moum, D. R. Caldwell, C. A. Paulson, “Mixing in the Equatorial Surface Layer and Thermocline,” J. Geophys. Res. (in press).
  25. J. D. H. Strickland, T. R. Parsons, “A Practical Manual of Seawater Analysis,” Fish. Res. Board Can. Bull. 167, 201 (1972).
  26. M. D. Bristow, D. Nielsen, D. Bundy, R. Furtek, “Use of Water Raman Emission to Correct Airborne Laser Fluorosensor Data for Effects of Water Optical Attenuation,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2889 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  27. F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne Simultaneous Spectroscopic Detection of Laser-Induced Water Raman Backscatter and Fluorescence from Chlorophyll a and Other Naturally Occurring Pigments,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3197 (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. L. R. Poole, W. E. Esaias, “Water Raman Normalization of Airborne Laser Fluorosensor Measurements: A Computer Model Study,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3756 (1982).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. J. P. Dakin, A. J. King, “Limitations of a Single Optical Fiber Fluorimeter System due to Background Fluorescence,” in Proceedings, International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, Apr. 1983; (1983), pp. 195–199.

1988 (1)

K. L. Denman, A. E. Gargett, “Multiple Thermoclines are Barriers to Vertical Exchange in the Subarctic Pacific During SUPER, May 1984,” J. Mar. Res. 46, 77 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (4)

S. M. Angel, “Optrodes: Chemically Selective Fiber-Optic Sensors,” Spectroscopy 2, 38 (1987).

W. Chudyk, J. Kenny, G. Jarvis, K. Pohlig, “Monitoring of Groundwater Contaminants Using Laser Fluorescence and Fiber Optics,” Intech 34, 53 (1987).

D. R. Caldwell, “Small-Scale Physics of the Ocean,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 25, 183 (1987).
[Crossref]

M. C. Gregg, “Diapycnal Mixing in the Thermocline: a Review,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 5249 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

M. R. Lewis, W. G. Harrison, N. S. Oakley, D. Herbert, T. Platt, “Vertical Nitrate Fluxes in the Oligotrophic Ocean,” Science 234, 870 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

D. R. Caldwell, R. M. Dillon, J. N. Moum, “The Rapid Sampling Vertical Profiler: An Evaluation,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 2, 615 (1985).
[Crossref]

1984 (6)

W. R. Seitz, “Chemical Sensors Based on Fiber Optics,” Anal. Chem. 56, 16 (1984).

H. J. Price, G. A. Paffenhofer, “Effects of Feeding Experience in the Copepod Eucalanus pileatus: A Cinematographic Study,” Mar. Biol. 84, 35 (1984).
[Crossref]

J. I. Peterson, G. G. Vurek, “Fiber Optic Sensors for Biomedical Applications,” Science 224, 123 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Lund, “Simple and Sensitive in situ Algae Fluorescence Sensor Based on Fibre Optics,” IEE Proc. 131H, 49 (1984).

K. L. Denman, T. M. Powell, “Effects of Physical Processes on Planktonic Ecosystems in the Coastal Ocean,” Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev. 22, 125 (1984).

H. Astheimer, H. Haardt, “Small-Scale Patchiness of the Chlorophyll-Fluorescence in the Sea: Aspects of Instrumentation, Data Processing, and Interpretation,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 15, 233 (1984).
[Crossref]

1983 (2)

D. R. Caldwell, “Small-Scale Physics of the Ocean,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 21, 1192 (1983).
[Crossref]

T. Hirschfeld, T. Deaton, F. Milanovich, S. Klainer, “Feasibility of Using Fiber Optics for Monitoring Groundwater Contaminants,” Opt. Eng. 22, 527 (1983).
[Crossref]

1982 (2)

1981 (3)

M. D. Bristow, D. Nielsen, D. Bundy, R. Furtek, “Use of Water Raman Emission to Correct Airborne Laser Fluorosensor Data for Effects of Water Optical Attenuation,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2889 (1981).
[Crossref]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne Simultaneous Spectroscopic Detection of Laser-Induced Water Raman Backscatter and Fluorescence from Chlorophyll a and Other Naturally Occurring Pigments,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3197 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. R. Koehl, J. R. Strickler, “Copepod Feeding Currents: Food Capture at Low Reynolds Number,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 1062 (1981).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

J. B. Derenbach, H. Astheimer, H. P. Hansen, H. Leach, “Vertical Microscale Distribution of Phytoplankton in Relation to the Thermocline,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 1, 187 (1979).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

J. W. Horwood, “Observations on Spatial Heterogeneity of Surface Chlorophyll in One and Two Dimensions,” J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U. K. 58, 487 (1978).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

P. Hamner, W. M. Hamner, “Chemosensory Tracking of Scent Trails by the Planktonic Shrimp Acestes sibogae australis,” Science 195, 886 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

J. D. H. Strickland, T. R. Parsons, “A Practical Manual of Seawater Analysis,” Fish. Res. Board Can. Bull. 167, 201 (1972).

Angel, S. M.

S. M. Angel, “Optrodes: Chemically Selective Fiber-Optic Sensors,” Spectroscopy 2, 38 (1987).

Astheimer, H.

H. Astheimer, H. Haardt, “Small-Scale Patchiness of the Chlorophyll-Fluorescence in the Sea: Aspects of Instrumentation, Data Processing, and Interpretation,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 15, 233 (1984).
[Crossref]

J. B. Derenbach, H. Astheimer, H. P. Hansen, H. Leach, “Vertical Microscale Distribution of Phytoplankton in Relation to the Thermocline,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 1, 187 (1979).
[Crossref]

Bristow, M. D.

M. D. Bristow, D. Nielsen, D. Bundy, R. Furtek, “Use of Water Raman Emission to Correct Airborne Laser Fluorosensor Data for Effects of Water Optical Attenuation,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2889 (1981).
[Crossref]

Bundy, D.

M. D. Bristow, D. Nielsen, D. Bundy, R. Furtek, “Use of Water Raman Emission to Correct Airborne Laser Fluorosensor Data for Effects of Water Optical Attenuation,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2889 (1981).
[Crossref]

Caldwell, D. R.

D. R. Caldwell, “Small-Scale Physics of the Ocean,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 25, 183 (1987).
[Crossref]

D. R. Caldwell, R. M. Dillon, J. N. Moum, “The Rapid Sampling Vertical Profiler: An Evaluation,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 2, 615 (1985).
[Crossref]

D. R. Caldwell, “Small-Scale Physics of the Ocean,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 21, 1192 (1983).
[Crossref]

J. N. Moum, D. R. Caldwell, C. A. Paulson, “Mixing in the Equatorial Surface Layer and Thermocline,” J. Geophys. Res. (in press).

Chisholm, S. W.

T. J. Cowles, R. J. Olson, S. W. Chisholm, “Food Selection by Copepods: Discrimination Between Algal Cells on the Basis of Food Quality,” Mar. Biol. (in press).

Chudyk, W.

W. Chudyk, J. Kenny, G. Jarvis, K. Pohlig, “Monitoring of Groundwater Contaminants Using Laser Fluorescence and Fiber Optics,” Intech 34, 53 (1987).

Cowles, T. J.

T. J. Cowles, R. J. Olson, S. W. Chisholm, “Food Selection by Copepods: Discrimination Between Algal Cells on the Basis of Food Quality,” Mar. Biol. (in press).

Dakin, J. P.

J. P. Dakin, A. J. King, “Limitations of a Single Optical Fiber Fluorimeter System due to Background Fluorescence,” in Proceedings, International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, Apr. 1983; (1983), pp. 195–199.

Deaton, T.

T. Hirschfeld, T. Deaton, F. Milanovich, S. Klainer, “Feasibility of Using Fiber Optics for Monitoring Groundwater Contaminants,” Opt. Eng. 22, 527 (1983).
[Crossref]

Denman, K. L.

K. L. Denman, A. E. Gargett, “Multiple Thermoclines are Barriers to Vertical Exchange in the Subarctic Pacific During SUPER, May 1984,” J. Mar. Res. 46, 77 (1988).
[Crossref]

K. L. Denman, T. M. Powell, “Effects of Physical Processes on Planktonic Ecosystems in the Coastal Ocean,” Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev. 22, 125 (1984).

Derenbach, J. B.

J. B. Derenbach, H. Astheimer, H. P. Hansen, H. Leach, “Vertical Microscale Distribution of Phytoplankton in Relation to the Thermocline,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 1, 187 (1979).
[Crossref]

Dillon, R. M.

D. R. Caldwell, R. M. Dillon, J. N. Moum, “The Rapid Sampling Vertical Profiler: An Evaluation,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 2, 615 (1985).
[Crossref]

Esaias, W. E.

Furtek, R.

M. D. Bristow, D. Nielsen, D. Bundy, R. Furtek, “Use of Water Raman Emission to Correct Airborne Laser Fluorosensor Data for Effects of Water Optical Attenuation,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2889 (1981).
[Crossref]

Gargett, A. E.

K. L. Denman, A. E. Gargett, “Multiple Thermoclines are Barriers to Vertical Exchange in the Subarctic Pacific During SUPER, May 1984,” J. Mar. Res. 46, 77 (1988).
[Crossref]

Gregg, M. C.

M. C. Gregg, “Diapycnal Mixing in the Thermocline: a Review,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 5249 (1987).
[Crossref]

Haardt, H.

H. Astheimer, H. Haardt, “Small-Scale Patchiness of the Chlorophyll-Fluorescence in the Sea: Aspects of Instrumentation, Data Processing, and Interpretation,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 15, 233 (1984).
[Crossref]

Hamner, P.

P. Hamner, W. M. Hamner, “Chemosensory Tracking of Scent Trails by the Planktonic Shrimp Acestes sibogae australis,” Science 195, 886 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hamner, W. M.

P. Hamner, W. M. Hamner, “Chemosensory Tracking of Scent Trails by the Planktonic Shrimp Acestes sibogae australis,” Science 195, 886 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hansen, H. P.

J. B. Derenbach, H. Astheimer, H. P. Hansen, H. Leach, “Vertical Microscale Distribution of Phytoplankton in Relation to the Thermocline,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 1, 187 (1979).
[Crossref]

Harrison, W. G.

M. R. Lewis, W. G. Harrison, N. S. Oakley, D. Herbert, T. Platt, “Vertical Nitrate Fluxes in the Oligotrophic Ocean,” Science 234, 870 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herbert, D.

M. R. Lewis, W. G. Harrison, N. S. Oakley, D. Herbert, T. Platt, “Vertical Nitrate Fluxes in the Oligotrophic Ocean,” Science 234, 870 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hirono, J.

Y. Kakui, A. Nishimoto, J. Hirono, M. Nanjo, “Underway Analysis of Suspended Biological Particles with an Optical Fiber Cable,” in Mapping Strategies in Chemical Oceanography, A. Zirino, Ed. (American Chemical Society, Washington, DC (1985), pp. 272–292.

Hirschfeld, T.

T. Hirschfeld, T. Deaton, F. Milanovich, S. Klainer, “Feasibility of Using Fiber Optics for Monitoring Groundwater Contaminants,” Opt. Eng. 22, 527 (1983).
[Crossref]

Hoge, F. E.

Horwood, J. W.

J. W. Horwood, “Observations on Spatial Heterogeneity of Surface Chlorophyll in One and Two Dimensions,” J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U. K. 58, 487 (1978).
[Crossref]

Jarvis, G.

W. Chudyk, J. Kenny, G. Jarvis, K. Pohlig, “Monitoring of Groundwater Contaminants Using Laser Fluorescence and Fiber Optics,” Intech 34, 53 (1987).

Kakui, Y.

Y. Kakui, A. Nishimoto, J. Hirono, M. Nanjo, “Underway Analysis of Suspended Biological Particles with an Optical Fiber Cable,” in Mapping Strategies in Chemical Oceanography, A. Zirino, Ed. (American Chemical Society, Washington, DC (1985), pp. 272–292.

Kenny, J.

W. Chudyk, J. Kenny, G. Jarvis, K. Pohlig, “Monitoring of Groundwater Contaminants Using Laser Fluorescence and Fiber Optics,” Intech 34, 53 (1987).

King, A. J.

J. P. Dakin, A. J. King, “Limitations of a Single Optical Fiber Fluorimeter System due to Background Fluorescence,” in Proceedings, International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, Apr. 1983; (1983), pp. 195–199.

Klainer, S.

T. Hirschfeld, T. Deaton, F. Milanovich, S. Klainer, “Feasibility of Using Fiber Optics for Monitoring Groundwater Contaminants,” Opt. Eng. 22, 527 (1983).
[Crossref]

Koehl, M. A. R.

M. A. R. Koehl, J. R. Strickler, “Copepod Feeding Currents: Food Capture at Low Reynolds Number,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 1062 (1981).
[Crossref]

Leach, H.

J. B. Derenbach, H. Astheimer, H. P. Hansen, H. Leach, “Vertical Microscale Distribution of Phytoplankton in Relation to the Thermocline,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 1, 187 (1979).
[Crossref]

Lewis, M. R.

M. R. Lewis, W. G. Harrison, N. S. Oakley, D. Herbert, T. Platt, “Vertical Nitrate Fluxes in the Oligotrophic Ocean,” Science 234, 870 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lund, T.

T. Lund, “Simple and Sensitive in situ Algae Fluorescence Sensor Based on Fibre Optics,” IEE Proc. 131H, 49 (1984).

Milanovich, F.

T. Hirschfeld, T. Deaton, F. Milanovich, S. Klainer, “Feasibility of Using Fiber Optics for Monitoring Groundwater Contaminants,” Opt. Eng. 22, 527 (1983).
[Crossref]

Moum, J. N.

D. R. Caldwell, R. M. Dillon, J. N. Moum, “The Rapid Sampling Vertical Profiler: An Evaluation,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 2, 615 (1985).
[Crossref]

J. N. Moum, D. R. Caldwell, C. A. Paulson, “Mixing in the Equatorial Surface Layer and Thermocline,” J. Geophys. Res. (in press).

Nanjo, M.

Y. Kakui, A. Nishimoto, J. Hirono, M. Nanjo, “Underway Analysis of Suspended Biological Particles with an Optical Fiber Cable,” in Mapping Strategies in Chemical Oceanography, A. Zirino, Ed. (American Chemical Society, Washington, DC (1985), pp. 272–292.

Nielsen, D.

M. D. Bristow, D. Nielsen, D. Bundy, R. Furtek, “Use of Water Raman Emission to Correct Airborne Laser Fluorosensor Data for Effects of Water Optical Attenuation,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2889 (1981).
[Crossref]

Nishimoto, A.

Y. Kakui, A. Nishimoto, J. Hirono, M. Nanjo, “Underway Analysis of Suspended Biological Particles with an Optical Fiber Cable,” in Mapping Strategies in Chemical Oceanography, A. Zirino, Ed. (American Chemical Society, Washington, DC (1985), pp. 272–292.

Oakley, N. S.

M. R. Lewis, W. G. Harrison, N. S. Oakley, D. Herbert, T. Platt, “Vertical Nitrate Fluxes in the Oligotrophic Ocean,” Science 234, 870 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Olson, R. J.

T. J. Cowles, R. J. Olson, S. W. Chisholm, “Food Selection by Copepods: Discrimination Between Algal Cells on the Basis of Food Quality,” Mar. Biol. (in press).

Paffenhofer, G. A.

H. J. Price, G. A. Paffenhofer, “Effects of Feeding Experience in the Copepod Eucalanus pileatus: A Cinematographic Study,” Mar. Biol. 84, 35 (1984).
[Crossref]

Parsons, T. R.

J. D. H. Strickland, T. R. Parsons, “A Practical Manual of Seawater Analysis,” Fish. Res. Board Can. Bull. 167, 201 (1972).

Paulson, C. A.

J. N. Moum, D. R. Caldwell, C. A. Paulson, “Mixing in the Equatorial Surface Layer and Thermocline,” J. Geophys. Res. (in press).

Peterson, J. I.

J. I. Peterson, G. G. Vurek, “Fiber Optic Sensors for Biomedical Applications,” Science 224, 123 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Platt, T.

M. R. Lewis, W. G. Harrison, N. S. Oakley, D. Herbert, T. Platt, “Vertical Nitrate Fluxes in the Oligotrophic Ocean,” Science 234, 870 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pohlig, K.

W. Chudyk, J. Kenny, G. Jarvis, K. Pohlig, “Monitoring of Groundwater Contaminants Using Laser Fluorescence and Fiber Optics,” Intech 34, 53 (1987).

Poole, L. R.

Powell, T. M.

K. L. Denman, T. M. Powell, “Effects of Physical Processes on Planktonic Ecosystems in the Coastal Ocean,” Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev. 22, 125 (1984).

Price, H. J.

H. J. Price, G. A. Paffenhofer, “Effects of Feeding Experience in the Copepod Eucalanus pileatus: A Cinematographic Study,” Mar. Biol. 84, 35 (1984).
[Crossref]

Seitz, W. R.

W. R. Seitz, “Chemical Sensors Based on Fiber Optics,” Anal. Chem. 56, 16 (1984).

Strickland, J. D. H.

J. D. H. Strickland, T. R. Parsons, “A Practical Manual of Seawater Analysis,” Fish. Res. Board Can. Bull. 167, 201 (1972).

Strickler, J. R.

J. R. Strickler, “Calanoid Copepods, Feeding Currents, and the Role of Gravity,” Science 218, 158 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. R. Koehl, J. R. Strickler, “Copepod Feeding Currents: Food Capture at Low Reynolds Number,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 1062 (1981).
[Crossref]

Swift, R. N.

Vurek, G. G.

J. I. Peterson, G. G. Vurek, “Fiber Optic Sensors for Biomedical Applications,” Science 224, 123 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (1)

W. R. Seitz, “Chemical Sensors Based on Fiber Optics,” Anal. Chem. 56, 16 (1984).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Fish. Res. Board Can. Bull. (1)

J. D. H. Strickland, T. R. Parsons, “A Practical Manual of Seawater Analysis,” Fish. Res. Board Can. Bull. 167, 201 (1972).

IEE Proc. (1)

T. Lund, “Simple and Sensitive in situ Algae Fluorescence Sensor Based on Fibre Optics,” IEE Proc. 131H, 49 (1984).

Intech (1)

W. Chudyk, J. Kenny, G. Jarvis, K. Pohlig, “Monitoring of Groundwater Contaminants Using Laser Fluorescence and Fiber Optics,” Intech 34, 53 (1987).

J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. (1)

D. R. Caldwell, R. M. Dillon, J. N. Moum, “The Rapid Sampling Vertical Profiler: An Evaluation,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 2, 615 (1985).
[Crossref]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

M. C. Gregg, “Diapycnal Mixing in the Thermocline: a Review,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 5249 (1987).
[Crossref]

J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U. K. (1)

J. W. Horwood, “Observations on Spatial Heterogeneity of Surface Chlorophyll in One and Two Dimensions,” J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U. K. 58, 487 (1978).
[Crossref]

J. Mar. Res. (1)

K. L. Denman, A. E. Gargett, “Multiple Thermoclines are Barriers to Vertical Exchange in the Subarctic Pacific During SUPER, May 1984,” J. Mar. Res. 46, 77 (1988).
[Crossref]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (1)

M. A. R. Koehl, J. R. Strickler, “Copepod Feeding Currents: Food Capture at Low Reynolds Number,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 1062 (1981).
[Crossref]

Mar. Biol. (1)

H. J. Price, G. A. Paffenhofer, “Effects of Feeding Experience in the Copepod Eucalanus pileatus: A Cinematographic Study,” Mar. Biol. 84, 35 (1984).
[Crossref]

Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. (2)

J. B. Derenbach, H. Astheimer, H. P. Hansen, H. Leach, “Vertical Microscale Distribution of Phytoplankton in Relation to the Thermocline,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 1, 187 (1979).
[Crossref]

H. Astheimer, H. Haardt, “Small-Scale Patchiness of the Chlorophyll-Fluorescence in the Sea: Aspects of Instrumentation, Data Processing, and Interpretation,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 15, 233 (1984).
[Crossref]

Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev. (1)

K. L. Denman, T. M. Powell, “Effects of Physical Processes on Planktonic Ecosystems in the Coastal Ocean,” Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev. 22, 125 (1984).

Opt. Eng. (1)

T. Hirschfeld, T. Deaton, F. Milanovich, S. Klainer, “Feasibility of Using Fiber Optics for Monitoring Groundwater Contaminants,” Opt. Eng. 22, 527 (1983).
[Crossref]

Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. (2)

D. R. Caldwell, “Small-Scale Physics of the Ocean,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 21, 1192 (1983).
[Crossref]

D. R. Caldwell, “Small-Scale Physics of the Ocean,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 25, 183 (1987).
[Crossref]

Science (4)

J. R. Strickler, “Calanoid Copepods, Feeding Currents, and the Role of Gravity,” Science 218, 158 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Hamner, W. M. Hamner, “Chemosensory Tracking of Scent Trails by the Planktonic Shrimp Acestes sibogae australis,” Science 195, 886 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Lewis, W. G. Harrison, N. S. Oakley, D. Herbert, T. Platt, “Vertical Nitrate Fluxes in the Oligotrophic Ocean,” Science 234, 870 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. I. Peterson, G. G. Vurek, “Fiber Optic Sensors for Biomedical Applications,” Science 224, 123 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spectroscopy (1)

S. M. Angel, “Optrodes: Chemically Selective Fiber-Optic Sensors,” Spectroscopy 2, 38 (1987).

Other (5)

J. H. Steele, Ed., Spatial Structure in Plankton Communities, (Plenum, New York, 1978).

T. J. Cowles, R. J. Olson, S. W. Chisholm, “Food Selection by Copepods: Discrimination Between Algal Cells on the Basis of Food Quality,” Mar. Biol. (in press).

Y. Kakui, A. Nishimoto, J. Hirono, M. Nanjo, “Underway Analysis of Suspended Biological Particles with an Optical Fiber Cable,” in Mapping Strategies in Chemical Oceanography, A. Zirino, Ed. (American Chemical Society, Washington, DC (1985), pp. 272–292.

J. P. Dakin, A. J. King, “Limitations of a Single Optical Fiber Fluorimeter System due to Background Fluorescence,” in Proceedings, International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, Apr. 1983; (1983), pp. 195–199.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Shipboard arrangement of optical components on the optical bench. M1–6, mirrors; F1, neutral density filters; F2, 488-nm bandpass interference filter; M2, M3, periscope; L1, L2, ×2 beam expanding telescope; DBS, dichroic beam splitter; F3, long-pass 530-nm interference filter; L4, achromatic lens; L3, 0.25-N.A. microscope objective. The He–Ne laser was used in the alignment procedure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fluorescence spectra obtained with 488-nm Ar laser excitation through 20 m of 200-μm diam Diaguide fiber-optic cable of A, surface seawater; B, distilled water; and C, the difference spectrum of surface seawater minus distilled water. Note the water Raman signal centered at 585 nm and the strong chlorophyll fluorescence peak at 685nm. (Surface seawater chlorophyll pigment concentration was 0.98 μg liter−1.)

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of fluorescence spectra at 6- and 3-mW laser power at the tip. Integrated values between 670 and 705 nm were 63,085 and 33,725, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Placement of the fiber-optic tip mounted on the outer diameter of the RSVP sensor nose cone. The two white-tipped shear probes are 0.64 cm in diameter. A thermistor and white conductivity cell are located in a flowthrough passageway ~ 6.4 cm to the left of the fiber tip.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fluorescence spectrum from 9-m depth obtained with the laser on compared with the upward radiance spectrum collected with the laser off.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Fluorescence spectra from 1, 5, and 9 m with background radiance spectra subtracted. Spectra are offset on ordinate to illustrate the similarity between the spectra.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Time series (80 s) of pressure, σ t , salinity, and temperature from 9-m depth [σ t = (density, −1000) * 1000]. Salinity and σ t were computed using standard algorithms from measurements of pressure, temperature, and electrical conductivity.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Summary of Physical and Optical Properties at the Three Depths Sampled with the RSVP and Fiber-Optic Fluorometer

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