Abstract

Taking into account recent developments and present trends in devices and component technologies, the future development of electrically addressed liquid crystal spatial light modulators is considered. In particular, the combination of single-crystal-silicon active backplane and chiral smectic C liquid crystal technologies is shown to be promising. The ultimate limitations of such technologies for producing faster devices of higher complexity and functionality are assessed, and an advanced device, presently under development, is described.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. D. Boreman, E. R. Raudenbush, “Modulation Depth Characteristics of a Liquid Crystal Television Spatial Light Modulator,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2940–2943 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. M. Young, “Low-Cost LCD Video Display for Optical Processing,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1024–1026 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  3. D. Casasent, S.-F. Xia, “Phase Correction of Light Modulators,” Opt. Lett. 11, 398–400 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. P. W. Ross, B. Needham, P. Coates, “Reflective Mode Directly-Driven and Multiplexed Dyed Cholesteric Nematic Phase Change Displays,” Eurodisplay 5 (1981).
  5. I. Underwood, P. H. Willson, R. M. Sillitto, D. G. Vass, “Adaptive Fourier Optical Processor,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 860, 2–8 (1987).
  6. D. J. McKnight, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillitto, “Development of a Spatial Light Modulator—a Randomly Addressed Liquid- Crystal-Over-MOS Array,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4757–4762 (15Nov.1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. M. J. Ranshaw, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillitto, “Phase or Amplitude Modulation by Birefringence in a Liquid Crystal Spatial Light Modulator,” presented at Optical Computing 88 (Toulon, France, 1988).
  8. N. A. Clark, S. T. Lagerwall, “Submicrosecond Bistable Electro-Optic Switching in Liquid Crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 899–901 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  9. Ch. Bahr, G. Heppke, “Optical and Dielectric Investigations on the Electroclinic Effect Exhibited by a Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal with High Spontaneous Polarization,” Liq. Cryst. 2, 825–831 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  10. P. G. de Gennes, The Physics of Liquid Crystals (Oxford U. P., London, 1974).
  11. L. M. Blinov, Electro-Optical and Magneto-Optical Properties of Liquid Crystals (Wiley, London, 1983).
  12. W. A. Crossland, M. Bone, P. W. Ross, “Prospects and Problems of Ferroelectric LCDs,” Proc. Soc. Inf. Display 29, 237–244 (1988).
  13. M. A. Handschy, N. A. Clark, “Structure and Response of Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals in the Surface Stabilized Geometry,” Ferroelectrics 59, 69–116 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. S. Patel, “Electro-Optics of Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals,” Opt. Eng. 26, 129 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  15. M. J. Bradshaw, V. Brimmell, E. P. Raynes, “A Novel Alignment Technique for Ferroelectric Smectics,” Liq. Cryst. 2, 107–110 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  16. J. P. Le Pesant, J. M. Perbet, B. Mourey, M. Harenz, G. Decobert, J. C. Dubois, “Optical Switching of Chiral Smectic C at Room Temperature,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 129, 61–74 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  17. J. S. Patel, J. W. Goodby, “Properties and Applications of Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals,” Opt. Eng. 26, 373–384 (1987).
  18. M. J. Bradshaw et al., “Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Mixtures for Electro-Optical Device Applications,” Proc. Soc. Inf. Display 29, 245–000 (1988).
  19. D. M. Walba, N. A. Clark, “Model for the Molecular Origins of the Polarization in Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 825, 81 (1987).
  20. J. Dijon, C. Ebel, C. Vauchier, F. Baume, J-F. Blerc, M. Estor, T. Leroux, P. Maltese, L. Mulatier, “High Speed SC* Mixtures: an Evaluation of Their Performances,”[SID 88 Digest (Society for Information Display) (ISSN0097-0966X/88/0000-246).]
  21. M. F. Bone, D. Coates, W. A. Crossland, P. Gunn, P. W. Ross, “Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Display Capable of Video Line Address Times,” Displays115–118, (1987).
    [Crossref]
  22. R. E. Aldrich, F. J. Kroll, W. A. Simmons, “A Real Time Fourier Plane Filter,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-20, 1015–1019 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  23. W. A. Crossland, B. Needham, P. W. Ross, “Single-Crystal Silicon Active-Matrix Displays,” Proc. Soc. Inf. Display 26, 175–181 (1985).
  24. W. R. Wu, R. O. Gale, L. J. Hornbeck, J. B. Sampsell, “Electro Optical Performance of an Improved Deformable Mirror Device,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 825, 24–31 (1987).
  25. P. Maltese, J. Dijon, T. Leroux, Fast Addressing Modes for Ferroelectric LC Display Panels (Society for Information Display, San Diego, 1988) (IEEE CH-2678-1/88/0000-0098).
  26. N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, R. C. Chittick, M. F. Bone, “The Novel Application of the Electronic Electro-Optic Effect to Light Valve Technology,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 963, 46–50 (1989).
  27. D. Williams et al., “An Amorphous Silicon/Chiral Smectic Spatial Light Modulator,” J. Phys. D 21, S156–S159 (1988)
    [Crossref]

1989 (3)

M. Young, “Low-Cost LCD Video Display for Optical Processing,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1024–1026 (1989).
[Crossref]

D. J. McKnight, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillitto, “Development of a Spatial Light Modulator—a Randomly Addressed Liquid- Crystal-Over-MOS Array,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4757–4762 (15Nov.1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, R. C. Chittick, M. F. Bone, “The Novel Application of the Electronic Electro-Optic Effect to Light Valve Technology,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 963, 46–50 (1989).

1988 (4)

D. Williams et al., “An Amorphous Silicon/Chiral Smectic Spatial Light Modulator,” J. Phys. D 21, S156–S159 (1988)
[Crossref]

W. A. Crossland, M. Bone, P. W. Ross, “Prospects and Problems of Ferroelectric LCDs,” Proc. Soc. Inf. Display 29, 237–244 (1988).

G. D. Boreman, E. R. Raudenbush, “Modulation Depth Characteristics of a Liquid Crystal Television Spatial Light Modulator,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2940–2943 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Bradshaw et al., “Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Mixtures for Electro-Optical Device Applications,” Proc. Soc. Inf. Display 29, 245–000 (1988).

1987 (8)

D. M. Walba, N. A. Clark, “Model for the Molecular Origins of the Polarization in Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 825, 81 (1987).

M. F. Bone, D. Coates, W. A. Crossland, P. Gunn, P. W. Ross, “Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Display Capable of Video Line Address Times,” Displays115–118, (1987).
[Crossref]

J. S. Patel, “Electro-Optics of Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals,” Opt. Eng. 26, 129 (1987).
[Crossref]

M. J. Bradshaw, V. Brimmell, E. P. Raynes, “A Novel Alignment Technique for Ferroelectric Smectics,” Liq. Cryst. 2, 107–110 (1987).
[Crossref]

Ch. Bahr, G. Heppke, “Optical and Dielectric Investigations on the Electroclinic Effect Exhibited by a Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal with High Spontaneous Polarization,” Liq. Cryst. 2, 825–831 (1987).
[Crossref]

J. S. Patel, J. W. Goodby, “Properties and Applications of Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals,” Opt. Eng. 26, 373–384 (1987).

I. Underwood, P. H. Willson, R. M. Sillitto, D. G. Vass, “Adaptive Fourier Optical Processor,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 860, 2–8 (1987).

W. R. Wu, R. O. Gale, L. J. Hornbeck, J. B. Sampsell, “Electro Optical Performance of an Improved Deformable Mirror Device,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 825, 24–31 (1987).

1986 (1)

1985 (2)

J. P. Le Pesant, J. M. Perbet, B. Mourey, M. Harenz, G. Decobert, J. C. Dubois, “Optical Switching of Chiral Smectic C at Room Temperature,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 129, 61–74 (1985).
[Crossref]

W. A. Crossland, B. Needham, P. W. Ross, “Single-Crystal Silicon Active-Matrix Displays,” Proc. Soc. Inf. Display 26, 175–181 (1985).

1984 (1)

M. A. Handschy, N. A. Clark, “Structure and Response of Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals in the Surface Stabilized Geometry,” Ferroelectrics 59, 69–116 (1984).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

P. W. Ross, B. Needham, P. Coates, “Reflective Mode Directly-Driven and Multiplexed Dyed Cholesteric Nematic Phase Change Displays,” Eurodisplay 5 (1981).

1980 (1)

N. A. Clark, S. T. Lagerwall, “Submicrosecond Bistable Electro-Optic Switching in Liquid Crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 899–901 (1980).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

R. E. Aldrich, F. J. Kroll, W. A. Simmons, “A Real Time Fourier Plane Filter,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-20, 1015–1019 (1973).
[Crossref]

Aldrich, R. E.

R. E. Aldrich, F. J. Kroll, W. A. Simmons, “A Real Time Fourier Plane Filter,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-20, 1015–1019 (1973).
[Crossref]

Bahr, Ch.

Ch. Bahr, G. Heppke, “Optical and Dielectric Investigations on the Electroclinic Effect Exhibited by a Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal with High Spontaneous Polarization,” Liq. Cryst. 2, 825–831 (1987).
[Crossref]

Baume, F.

J. Dijon, C. Ebel, C. Vauchier, F. Baume, J-F. Blerc, M. Estor, T. Leroux, P. Maltese, L. Mulatier, “High Speed SC* Mixtures: an Evaluation of Their Performances,”[SID 88 Digest (Society for Information Display) (ISSN0097-0966X/88/0000-246).]

Blerc, J-F.

J. Dijon, C. Ebel, C. Vauchier, F. Baume, J-F. Blerc, M. Estor, T. Leroux, P. Maltese, L. Mulatier, “High Speed SC* Mixtures: an Evaluation of Their Performances,”[SID 88 Digest (Society for Information Display) (ISSN0097-0966X/88/0000-246).]

Blinov, L. M.

L. M. Blinov, Electro-Optical and Magneto-Optical Properties of Liquid Crystals (Wiley, London, 1983).

Bone, M.

W. A. Crossland, M. Bone, P. W. Ross, “Prospects and Problems of Ferroelectric LCDs,” Proc. Soc. Inf. Display 29, 237–244 (1988).

Bone, M. F.

N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, R. C. Chittick, M. F. Bone, “The Novel Application of the Electronic Electro-Optic Effect to Light Valve Technology,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 963, 46–50 (1989).

M. F. Bone, D. Coates, W. A. Crossland, P. Gunn, P. W. Ross, “Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Display Capable of Video Line Address Times,” Displays115–118, (1987).
[Crossref]

Boreman, G. D.

Bradshaw, M. J.

M. J. Bradshaw et al., “Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Mixtures for Electro-Optical Device Applications,” Proc. Soc. Inf. Display 29, 245–000 (1988).

M. J. Bradshaw, V. Brimmell, E. P. Raynes, “A Novel Alignment Technique for Ferroelectric Smectics,” Liq. Cryst. 2, 107–110 (1987).
[Crossref]

Brimmell, V.

M. J. Bradshaw, V. Brimmell, E. P. Raynes, “A Novel Alignment Technique for Ferroelectric Smectics,” Liq. Cryst. 2, 107–110 (1987).
[Crossref]

Casasent, D.

Chittick, R. C.

N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, R. C. Chittick, M. F. Bone, “The Novel Application of the Electronic Electro-Optic Effect to Light Valve Technology,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 963, 46–50 (1989).

Clark, N. A.

D. M. Walba, N. A. Clark, “Model for the Molecular Origins of the Polarization in Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 825, 81 (1987).

M. A. Handschy, N. A. Clark, “Structure and Response of Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals in the Surface Stabilized Geometry,” Ferroelectrics 59, 69–116 (1984).
[Crossref]

N. A. Clark, S. T. Lagerwall, “Submicrosecond Bistable Electro-Optic Switching in Liquid Crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 899–901 (1980).
[Crossref]

Coates, D.

M. F. Bone, D. Coates, W. A. Crossland, P. Gunn, P. W. Ross, “Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Display Capable of Video Line Address Times,” Displays115–118, (1987).
[Crossref]

Coates, P.

P. W. Ross, B. Needham, P. Coates, “Reflective Mode Directly-Driven and Multiplexed Dyed Cholesteric Nematic Phase Change Displays,” Eurodisplay 5 (1981).

Collings, N.

N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, R. C. Chittick, M. F. Bone, “The Novel Application of the Electronic Electro-Optic Effect to Light Valve Technology,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 963, 46–50 (1989).

Crossland, W. A.

N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, R. C. Chittick, M. F. Bone, “The Novel Application of the Electronic Electro-Optic Effect to Light Valve Technology,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 963, 46–50 (1989).

W. A. Crossland, M. Bone, P. W. Ross, “Prospects and Problems of Ferroelectric LCDs,” Proc. Soc. Inf. Display 29, 237–244 (1988).

M. F. Bone, D. Coates, W. A. Crossland, P. Gunn, P. W. Ross, “Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Display Capable of Video Line Address Times,” Displays115–118, (1987).
[Crossref]

W. A. Crossland, B. Needham, P. W. Ross, “Single-Crystal Silicon Active-Matrix Displays,” Proc. Soc. Inf. Display 26, 175–181 (1985).

de Gennes, P. G.

P. G. de Gennes, The Physics of Liquid Crystals (Oxford U. P., London, 1974).

Decobert, G.

J. P. Le Pesant, J. M. Perbet, B. Mourey, M. Harenz, G. Decobert, J. C. Dubois, “Optical Switching of Chiral Smectic C at Room Temperature,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 129, 61–74 (1985).
[Crossref]

Dijon, J.

J. Dijon, C. Ebel, C. Vauchier, F. Baume, J-F. Blerc, M. Estor, T. Leroux, P. Maltese, L. Mulatier, “High Speed SC* Mixtures: an Evaluation of Their Performances,”[SID 88 Digest (Society for Information Display) (ISSN0097-0966X/88/0000-246).]

P. Maltese, J. Dijon, T. Leroux, Fast Addressing Modes for Ferroelectric LC Display Panels (Society for Information Display, San Diego, 1988) (IEEE CH-2678-1/88/0000-0098).

Dubois, J. C.

J. P. Le Pesant, J. M. Perbet, B. Mourey, M. Harenz, G. Decobert, J. C. Dubois, “Optical Switching of Chiral Smectic C at Room Temperature,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 129, 61–74 (1985).
[Crossref]

Ebel, C.

J. Dijon, C. Ebel, C. Vauchier, F. Baume, J-F. Blerc, M. Estor, T. Leroux, P. Maltese, L. Mulatier, “High Speed SC* Mixtures: an Evaluation of Their Performances,”[SID 88 Digest (Society for Information Display) (ISSN0097-0966X/88/0000-246).]

Estor, M.

J. Dijon, C. Ebel, C. Vauchier, F. Baume, J-F. Blerc, M. Estor, T. Leroux, P. Maltese, L. Mulatier, “High Speed SC* Mixtures: an Evaluation of Their Performances,”[SID 88 Digest (Society for Information Display) (ISSN0097-0966X/88/0000-246).]

Gale, R. O.

W. R. Wu, R. O. Gale, L. J. Hornbeck, J. B. Sampsell, “Electro Optical Performance of an Improved Deformable Mirror Device,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 825, 24–31 (1987).

Goodby, J. W.

J. S. Patel, J. W. Goodby, “Properties and Applications of Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals,” Opt. Eng. 26, 373–384 (1987).

Gunn, P.

M. F. Bone, D. Coates, W. A. Crossland, P. Gunn, P. W. Ross, “Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Display Capable of Video Line Address Times,” Displays115–118, (1987).
[Crossref]

Handschy, M. A.

M. A. Handschy, N. A. Clark, “Structure and Response of Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals in the Surface Stabilized Geometry,” Ferroelectrics 59, 69–116 (1984).
[Crossref]

Harenz, M.

J. P. Le Pesant, J. M. Perbet, B. Mourey, M. Harenz, G. Decobert, J. C. Dubois, “Optical Switching of Chiral Smectic C at Room Temperature,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 129, 61–74 (1985).
[Crossref]

Heppke, G.

Ch. Bahr, G. Heppke, “Optical and Dielectric Investigations on the Electroclinic Effect Exhibited by a Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal with High Spontaneous Polarization,” Liq. Cryst. 2, 825–831 (1987).
[Crossref]

Hornbeck, L. J.

W. R. Wu, R. O. Gale, L. J. Hornbeck, J. B. Sampsell, “Electro Optical Performance of an Improved Deformable Mirror Device,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 825, 24–31 (1987).

Kroll, F. J.

R. E. Aldrich, F. J. Kroll, W. A. Simmons, “A Real Time Fourier Plane Filter,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-20, 1015–1019 (1973).
[Crossref]

Lagerwall, S. T.

N. A. Clark, S. T. Lagerwall, “Submicrosecond Bistable Electro-Optic Switching in Liquid Crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 899–901 (1980).
[Crossref]

Le Pesant, J. P.

J. P. Le Pesant, J. M. Perbet, B. Mourey, M. Harenz, G. Decobert, J. C. Dubois, “Optical Switching of Chiral Smectic C at Room Temperature,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 129, 61–74 (1985).
[Crossref]

Leroux, T.

J. Dijon, C. Ebel, C. Vauchier, F. Baume, J-F. Blerc, M. Estor, T. Leroux, P. Maltese, L. Mulatier, “High Speed SC* Mixtures: an Evaluation of Their Performances,”[SID 88 Digest (Society for Information Display) (ISSN0097-0966X/88/0000-246).]

P. Maltese, J. Dijon, T. Leroux, Fast Addressing Modes for Ferroelectric LC Display Panels (Society for Information Display, San Diego, 1988) (IEEE CH-2678-1/88/0000-0098).

Maltese, P.

P. Maltese, J. Dijon, T. Leroux, Fast Addressing Modes for Ferroelectric LC Display Panels (Society for Information Display, San Diego, 1988) (IEEE CH-2678-1/88/0000-0098).

J. Dijon, C. Ebel, C. Vauchier, F. Baume, J-F. Blerc, M. Estor, T. Leroux, P. Maltese, L. Mulatier, “High Speed SC* Mixtures: an Evaluation of Their Performances,”[SID 88 Digest (Society for Information Display) (ISSN0097-0966X/88/0000-246).]

McKnight, D. J.

Mourey, B.

J. P. Le Pesant, J. M. Perbet, B. Mourey, M. Harenz, G. Decobert, J. C. Dubois, “Optical Switching of Chiral Smectic C at Room Temperature,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 129, 61–74 (1985).
[Crossref]

Mulatier, L.

J. Dijon, C. Ebel, C. Vauchier, F. Baume, J-F. Blerc, M. Estor, T. Leroux, P. Maltese, L. Mulatier, “High Speed SC* Mixtures: an Evaluation of Their Performances,”[SID 88 Digest (Society for Information Display) (ISSN0097-0966X/88/0000-246).]

Needham, B.

W. A. Crossland, B. Needham, P. W. Ross, “Single-Crystal Silicon Active-Matrix Displays,” Proc. Soc. Inf. Display 26, 175–181 (1985).

P. W. Ross, B. Needham, P. Coates, “Reflective Mode Directly-Driven and Multiplexed Dyed Cholesteric Nematic Phase Change Displays,” Eurodisplay 5 (1981).

Patel, J. S.

J. S. Patel, J. W. Goodby, “Properties and Applications of Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals,” Opt. Eng. 26, 373–384 (1987).

J. S. Patel, “Electro-Optics of Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals,” Opt. Eng. 26, 129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Perbet, J. M.

J. P. Le Pesant, J. M. Perbet, B. Mourey, M. Harenz, G. Decobert, J. C. Dubois, “Optical Switching of Chiral Smectic C at Room Temperature,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 129, 61–74 (1985).
[Crossref]

Ranshaw, M. J.

M. J. Ranshaw, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillitto, “Phase or Amplitude Modulation by Birefringence in a Liquid Crystal Spatial Light Modulator,” presented at Optical Computing 88 (Toulon, France, 1988).

Raudenbush, E. R.

Raynes, E. P.

M. J. Bradshaw, V. Brimmell, E. P. Raynes, “A Novel Alignment Technique for Ferroelectric Smectics,” Liq. Cryst. 2, 107–110 (1987).
[Crossref]

Ross, P. W.

W. A. Crossland, M. Bone, P. W. Ross, “Prospects and Problems of Ferroelectric LCDs,” Proc. Soc. Inf. Display 29, 237–244 (1988).

M. F. Bone, D. Coates, W. A. Crossland, P. Gunn, P. W. Ross, “Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Display Capable of Video Line Address Times,” Displays115–118, (1987).
[Crossref]

W. A. Crossland, B. Needham, P. W. Ross, “Single-Crystal Silicon Active-Matrix Displays,” Proc. Soc. Inf. Display 26, 175–181 (1985).

P. W. Ross, B. Needham, P. Coates, “Reflective Mode Directly-Driven and Multiplexed Dyed Cholesteric Nematic Phase Change Displays,” Eurodisplay 5 (1981).

Sampsell, J. B.

W. R. Wu, R. O. Gale, L. J. Hornbeck, J. B. Sampsell, “Electro Optical Performance of an Improved Deformable Mirror Device,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 825, 24–31 (1987).

Sillitto, R. M.

D. J. McKnight, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillitto, “Development of a Spatial Light Modulator—a Randomly Addressed Liquid- Crystal-Over-MOS Array,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4757–4762 (15Nov.1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Underwood, P. H. Willson, R. M. Sillitto, D. G. Vass, “Adaptive Fourier Optical Processor,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 860, 2–8 (1987).

M. J. Ranshaw, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillitto, “Phase or Amplitude Modulation by Birefringence in a Liquid Crystal Spatial Light Modulator,” presented at Optical Computing 88 (Toulon, France, 1988).

Simmons, W. A.

R. E. Aldrich, F. J. Kroll, W. A. Simmons, “A Real Time Fourier Plane Filter,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-20, 1015–1019 (1973).
[Crossref]

Underwood, I.

I. Underwood, P. H. Willson, R. M. Sillitto, D. G. Vass, “Adaptive Fourier Optical Processor,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 860, 2–8 (1987).

Vass, D. G.

D. J. McKnight, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillitto, “Development of a Spatial Light Modulator—a Randomly Addressed Liquid- Crystal-Over-MOS Array,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4757–4762 (15Nov.1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Underwood, P. H. Willson, R. M. Sillitto, D. G. Vass, “Adaptive Fourier Optical Processor,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 860, 2–8 (1987).

M. J. Ranshaw, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillitto, “Phase or Amplitude Modulation by Birefringence in a Liquid Crystal Spatial Light Modulator,” presented at Optical Computing 88 (Toulon, France, 1988).

Vauchier, C.

J. Dijon, C. Ebel, C. Vauchier, F. Baume, J-F. Blerc, M. Estor, T. Leroux, P. Maltese, L. Mulatier, “High Speed SC* Mixtures: an Evaluation of Their Performances,”[SID 88 Digest (Society for Information Display) (ISSN0097-0966X/88/0000-246).]

Walba, D. M.

D. M. Walba, N. A. Clark, “Model for the Molecular Origins of the Polarization in Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 825, 81 (1987).

Williams, D.

D. Williams et al., “An Amorphous Silicon/Chiral Smectic Spatial Light Modulator,” J. Phys. D 21, S156–S159 (1988)
[Crossref]

Willson, P. H.

I. Underwood, P. H. Willson, R. M. Sillitto, D. G. Vass, “Adaptive Fourier Optical Processor,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 860, 2–8 (1987).

Wu, W. R.

W. R. Wu, R. O. Gale, L. J. Hornbeck, J. B. Sampsell, “Electro Optical Performance of an Improved Deformable Mirror Device,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 825, 24–31 (1987).

Xia, S.-F.

Young, M.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

N. A. Clark, S. T. Lagerwall, “Submicrosecond Bistable Electro-Optic Switching in Liquid Crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 899–901 (1980).
[Crossref]

Displays (1)

M. F. Bone, D. Coates, W. A. Crossland, P. Gunn, P. W. Ross, “Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Display Capable of Video Line Address Times,” Displays115–118, (1987).
[Crossref]

Eurodisplay (1)

P. W. Ross, B. Needham, P. Coates, “Reflective Mode Directly-Driven and Multiplexed Dyed Cholesteric Nematic Phase Change Displays,” Eurodisplay 5 (1981).

Ferroelectrics (1)

M. A. Handschy, N. A. Clark, “Structure and Response of Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals in the Surface Stabilized Geometry,” Ferroelectrics 59, 69–116 (1984).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

R. E. Aldrich, F. J. Kroll, W. A. Simmons, “A Real Time Fourier Plane Filter,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-20, 1015–1019 (1973).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D (1)

D. Williams et al., “An Amorphous Silicon/Chiral Smectic Spatial Light Modulator,” J. Phys. D 21, S156–S159 (1988)
[Crossref]

Liq. Cryst. (2)

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[Crossref]

Ch. Bahr, G. Heppke, “Optical and Dielectric Investigations on the Electroclinic Effect Exhibited by a Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal with High Spontaneous Polarization,” Liq. Cryst. 2, 825–831 (1987).
[Crossref]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

J. P. Le Pesant, J. M. Perbet, B. Mourey, M. Harenz, G. Decobert, J. C. Dubois, “Optical Switching of Chiral Smectic C at Room Temperature,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 129, 61–74 (1985).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (2)

J. S. Patel, J. W. Goodby, “Properties and Applications of Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals,” Opt. Eng. 26, 373–384 (1987).

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[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Soc. Inf. Display (3)

M. J. Bradshaw et al., “Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Mixtures for Electro-Optical Device Applications,” Proc. Soc. Inf. Display 29, 245–000 (1988).

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Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (4)

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Other (5)

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cell configuration of a ferroelectric smectic liquid crystal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Response times for SCE6 (BDH).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Principle of dynamic memory active backplane addressing.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Power dissipation in the three types of addressing structure.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dynamic memory SLM design constraints.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Multiplex SLM 2DX M128.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Image on 128 × 128 SLM.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Principle of multiplexed address.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Potential SLM devices on chiral smectic liquid crystals.

Tables (2)

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Table I Performance of CMOS Silicon VLSI

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Table II Assumptions Used to Calculate Dynamic Memory Design Constraint

Equations (1)

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Δ V = 2 P s ( C LC + C sub ) ,

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