Abstract

An integrated waveguide–detector coupler (IWDC), in which a controlled fraction of the optical power in a waveguide is selectively coupled to a detector element, has been investigated. The device structure consists of a rib waveguide formed from a sputtered Corning 7059 glass film on an oxidized silicon substrate. A photoconductive detector is fabricated on the same substrate, and the degree of coupling is controlled by tapering the SiO2 cladding layer thickness in the region between the electrodes and by varying the interaction length. Couplers with cladding layer thicknesses ranging from 0.15 to 0.80 μm in the detector interaction region were measured to have coupling values from 400 to 1500 dB/cm for TE modes and to 5800 dB/cm for TM modes, in good agreement with theory. The first integrated optoelectronic 2 × 2 switching matrix using IWDCs as switching cross-points has been demonstrated. We have shown that the passive power splitting in the integrated switch is nearly the ideal 50%.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Erman, P. Jarry, R. Gamonal, J. Gentner, P. Stephan, C. Guedan, “Monolithic Integration of a GaInAs p-i-n Photodiode and an Optical Waveguide: Modeling and Realization Using Chloride Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-6, 399–411 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. K. Chan, J. H. Abeles, K. C. Nguyen, R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, “Integration of High-Speed Optical Taps with InP Waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Tech. Lett. 1, 65–67 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Tsutsumi, Y. Imada, H. Hirai, Y. Yuba, “Analysis of Single-Mode Optical Y-Junctions by the Bound Step and Bend Approximation,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-6, 590–600 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Inoue, K. Hiruma, K. Ishida, H. Sato, H. Matsumura, “Switching Characteristics of GaAs Directional Coupler Optical Switches,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1484–1490 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. W. J. Minford, S. K. Korotky, R. C. Alferness, “Low-Loss Ti:LiNbO3 Waveguide Bends at λ = 1.3 μm,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30, 1790–1794 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. I. MacDonald, E. M. Hara, “Optoelectronic Broadband Switching Array,” Electron. Lett. 14, 502–503 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Granestrand et al., “Strictly Nonblocking 8 × 8 Integrated Optical Switch Matrix,” Electron. Lett. 22, 816–818 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. A. Spanke, “Architectures for Large Nonblocking Optical Space Switches,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 964–967 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Aida, K. Matsuno, M. Toyoshima, “Design and Performance of an Optoelectronic Matrix Switch Using Si-p-i-n Photodiodes,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-6, 131–138 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. K. W. Lam, R. I. MacDonald, “Fast Optoelectronic Crosspoint Electrical Switching of GaAs Photoconductors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. EDL-5, 1–3 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. I. MacDonald, D. K. W. Lam, R. H. Hum, J. P. Noad, “Monolithic Array of Optoelectronic Broadband Switches,” IEEE J.Solid State Circuits SC-19, 219–223 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. J. Klein, R. Kaumanns, H. Beneking, “High-Speed Ga0.47In0.53As Photoconductive Detector for Picosecond Light Pulses,” Electron. Lett. 17, 421–422 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. R. Forrest, G. L. Tangonan, V. Jones, “A Simple 8 × 8 Optoelectronic Crossbar Switch,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-7, 607–614 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. I. MacDonald, D. K. W. Lam, “Optoelectronic Switching Matrices: Recent Developments,” Opt. Eng. 24, 220–224 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  15. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, Orlando, 1985), pp. 565, 760.
  16. W. Streifer, R. D. Burnham, D. R. Scifres, “Substrate Radiation Losses in GaAs Heterostructures Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 177–182 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  17. W. C. Borland, D. E. Zelmon, C. J. Radens, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, “Properties of Four-Layer Planar Optical Waveguides Near Cutoff,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 1172–1178 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. J. Adams, An Introduction to Optical Waveguides (Wiley, Chichester, 1981), pp. 28–31, 75–82.
  19. D. B. Hall, C. Yeh, “Leaky Waves in a Heteroepitaxial Film,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 2271–2274 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  20. E. M. Garmire, K. Honda, “Depolarization in Channel Glass Waveguides,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 220–227 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. Marcuse, “Bending Losses of the Asymmetric Slab Waveguide,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 50, 2551–2563 (1971).
  22. Y. Takuma, M. Miyage, S. Kawakami, “Bent Asymmetric Dielectric Slab Waveguides: A Detailed Analysis,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2291–2298 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. R. G. Hunsperger, A. Yariv, A. Lee, “Parallel End-Butt Coupling for Optical Integrated Circuits,” Appl. Opt. 16, 1026–1032 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. D. Marcuse, “Tilt Offset and End-Separation Loss of Lowest Order Slab Waveguide Mode,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1647–1650 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  25. G. I. Parisi, S. E. Haszko, G. A. Razgonyi, “Tapered Windows in SiO2: The Effect of NH4:HF Dilution and Etching Temperature,” J. Electrochem. Soc. Solid State 124, 917–921 (1977).
  26. M. J. Robertson, S. Ritchie, P. Dayan, “Semiconductor Waveguides: Analysis of Coupling Between Rib Waveguides and Optical Fibers,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 579, 184–191 (1985).
  27. P. E. Jessop, B. K. Garside, D. M. Bruce, “High Speed Switching for Integrated Optical Applications: Phase II Final Report,” Department of Communications contract OST 85-00241 (1987).

1989 (2)

S. R. Forrest, G. L. Tangonan, V. Jones, “A Simple 8 × 8 Optoelectronic Crossbar Switch,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-7, 607–614 (1989).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Chan, J. H. Abeles, K. C. Nguyen, R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, “Integration of High-Speed Optical Taps with InP Waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Tech. Lett. 1, 65–67 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (3)

K. Tsutsumi, Y. Imada, H. Hirai, Y. Yuba, “Analysis of Single-Mode Optical Y-Junctions by the Bound Step and Bend Approximation,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-6, 590–600 (1988).
[CrossRef]

K. Aida, K. Matsuno, M. Toyoshima, “Design and Performance of an Optoelectronic Matrix Switch Using Si-p-i-n Photodiodes,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-6, 131–138 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. Erman, P. Jarry, R. Gamonal, J. Gentner, P. Stephan, C. Guedan, “Monolithic Integration of a GaInAs p-i-n Photodiode and an Optical Waveguide: Modeling and Realization Using Chloride Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-6, 399–411 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

P. E. Jessop, B. K. Garside, D. M. Bruce, “High Speed Switching for Integrated Optical Applications: Phase II Final Report,” Department of Communications contract OST 85-00241 (1987).

W. C. Borland, D. E. Zelmon, C. J. Radens, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, “Properties of Four-Layer Planar Optical Waveguides Near Cutoff,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 1172–1178 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (5)

D. Marcuse, “Tilt Offset and End-Separation Loss of Lowest Order Slab Waveguide Mode,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1647–1650 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. Granestrand et al., “Strictly Nonblocking 8 × 8 Integrated Optical Switch Matrix,” Electron. Lett. 22, 816–818 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Spanke, “Architectures for Large Nonblocking Optical Space Switches,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 964–967 (1986).
[CrossRef]

H. Inoue, K. Hiruma, K. Ishida, H. Sato, H. Matsumura, “Switching Characteristics of GaAs Directional Coupler Optical Switches,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1484–1490 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Garmire, K. Honda, “Depolarization in Channel Glass Waveguides,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 220–227 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

M. J. Robertson, S. Ritchie, P. Dayan, “Semiconductor Waveguides: Analysis of Coupling Between Rib Waveguides and Optical Fibers,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 579, 184–191 (1985).

R. I. MacDonald, D. K. W. Lam, “Optoelectronic Switching Matrices: Recent Developments,” Opt. Eng. 24, 220–224 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (2)

D. K. W. Lam, R. I. MacDonald, “Fast Optoelectronic Crosspoint Electrical Switching of GaAs Photoconductors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. EDL-5, 1–3 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. I. MacDonald, D. K. W. Lam, R. H. Hum, J. P. Noad, “Monolithic Array of Optoelectronic Broadband Switches,” IEEE J.Solid State Circuits SC-19, 219–223 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

W. J. Minford, S. K. Korotky, R. C. Alferness, “Low-Loss Ti:LiNbO3 Waveguide Bends at λ = 1.3 μm,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30, 1790–1794 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

H. J. Klein, R. Kaumanns, H. Beneking, “High-Speed Ga0.47In0.53As Photoconductive Detector for Picosecond Light Pulses,” Electron. Lett. 17, 421–422 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takuma, M. Miyage, S. Kawakami, “Bent Asymmetric Dielectric Slab Waveguides: A Detailed Analysis,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2291–2298 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

R. I. MacDonald, E. M. Hara, “Optoelectronic Broadband Switching Array,” Electron. Lett. 14, 502–503 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (2)

G. I. Parisi, S. E. Haszko, G. A. Razgonyi, “Tapered Windows in SiO2: The Effect of NH4:HF Dilution and Etching Temperature,” J. Electrochem. Soc. Solid State 124, 917–921 (1977).

R. G. Hunsperger, A. Yariv, A. Lee, “Parallel End-Butt Coupling for Optical Integrated Circuits,” Appl. Opt. 16, 1026–1032 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976 (1)

W. Streifer, R. D. Burnham, D. R. Scifres, “Substrate Radiation Losses in GaAs Heterostructures Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 177–182 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

D. B. Hall, C. Yeh, “Leaky Waves in a Heteroepitaxial Film,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 2271–2274 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

D. Marcuse, “Bending Losses of the Asymmetric Slab Waveguide,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 50, 2551–2563 (1971).

Abeles, J. H.

W. K. Chan, J. H. Abeles, K. C. Nguyen, R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, “Integration of High-Speed Optical Taps with InP Waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Tech. Lett. 1, 65–67 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Adams, M. J.

M. J. Adams, An Introduction to Optical Waveguides (Wiley, Chichester, 1981), pp. 28–31, 75–82.

Aida, K.

K. Aida, K. Matsuno, M. Toyoshima, “Design and Performance of an Optoelectronic Matrix Switch Using Si-p-i-n Photodiodes,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-6, 131–138 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Alferness, R. C.

W. J. Minford, S. K. Korotky, R. C. Alferness, “Low-Loss Ti:LiNbO3 Waveguide Bends at λ = 1.3 μm,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30, 1790–1794 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Beneking, H.

H. J. Klein, R. Kaumanns, H. Beneking, “High-Speed Ga0.47In0.53As Photoconductive Detector for Picosecond Light Pulses,” Electron. Lett. 17, 421–422 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bhat, R.

W. K. Chan, J. H. Abeles, K. C. Nguyen, R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, “Integration of High-Speed Optical Taps with InP Waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Tech. Lett. 1, 65–67 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Borland, W. C.

W. C. Borland, D. E. Zelmon, C. J. Radens, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, “Properties of Four-Layer Planar Optical Waveguides Near Cutoff,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 1172–1178 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, J. T.

W. C. Borland, D. E. Zelmon, C. J. Radens, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, “Properties of Four-Layer Planar Optical Waveguides Near Cutoff,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 1172–1178 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bruce, D. M.

P. E. Jessop, B. K. Garside, D. M. Bruce, “High Speed Switching for Integrated Optical Applications: Phase II Final Report,” Department of Communications contract OST 85-00241 (1987).

Burnham, R. D.

W. Streifer, R. D. Burnham, D. R. Scifres, “Substrate Radiation Losses in GaAs Heterostructures Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 177–182 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Chan, W. K.

W. K. Chan, J. H. Abeles, K. C. Nguyen, R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, “Integration of High-Speed Optical Taps with InP Waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Tech. Lett. 1, 65–67 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Dayan, P.

M. J. Robertson, S. Ritchie, P. Dayan, “Semiconductor Waveguides: Analysis of Coupling Between Rib Waveguides and Optical Fibers,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 579, 184–191 (1985).

Erman, M.

M. Erman, P. Jarry, R. Gamonal, J. Gentner, P. Stephan, C. Guedan, “Monolithic Integration of a GaInAs p-i-n Photodiode and an Optical Waveguide: Modeling and Realization Using Chloride Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-6, 399–411 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

S. R. Forrest, G. L. Tangonan, V. Jones, “A Simple 8 × 8 Optoelectronic Crossbar Switch,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-7, 607–614 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gamonal, R.

M. Erman, P. Jarry, R. Gamonal, J. Gentner, P. Stephan, C. Guedan, “Monolithic Integration of a GaInAs p-i-n Photodiode and an Optical Waveguide: Modeling and Realization Using Chloride Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-6, 399–411 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Garmire, E. M.

E. M. Garmire, K. Honda, “Depolarization in Channel Glass Waveguides,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 220–227 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Garside, B. K.

P. E. Jessop, B. K. Garside, D. M. Bruce, “High Speed Switching for Integrated Optical Applications: Phase II Final Report,” Department of Communications contract OST 85-00241 (1987).

Gentner, J.

M. Erman, P. Jarry, R. Gamonal, J. Gentner, P. Stephan, C. Guedan, “Monolithic Integration of a GaInAs p-i-n Photodiode and an Optical Waveguide: Modeling and Realization Using Chloride Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-6, 399–411 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Granestrand, P.

P. Granestrand et al., “Strictly Nonblocking 8 × 8 Integrated Optical Switch Matrix,” Electron. Lett. 22, 816–818 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Guedan, C.

M. Erman, P. Jarry, R. Gamonal, J. Gentner, P. Stephan, C. Guedan, “Monolithic Integration of a GaInAs p-i-n Photodiode and an Optical Waveguide: Modeling and Realization Using Chloride Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-6, 399–411 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hall, D. B.

D. B. Hall, C. Yeh, “Leaky Waves in a Heteroepitaxial Film,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 2271–2274 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Hara, E. M.

R. I. MacDonald, E. M. Hara, “Optoelectronic Broadband Switching Array,” Electron. Lett. 14, 502–503 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Haszko, S. E.

G. I. Parisi, S. E. Haszko, G. A. Razgonyi, “Tapered Windows in SiO2: The Effect of NH4:HF Dilution and Etching Temperature,” J. Electrochem. Soc. Solid State 124, 917–921 (1977).

Hirai, H.

K. Tsutsumi, Y. Imada, H. Hirai, Y. Yuba, “Analysis of Single-Mode Optical Y-Junctions by the Bound Step and Bend Approximation,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-6, 590–600 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hiruma, K.

Honda, K.

E. M. Garmire, K. Honda, “Depolarization in Channel Glass Waveguides,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 220–227 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hum, R. H.

R. I. MacDonald, D. K. W. Lam, R. H. Hum, J. P. Noad, “Monolithic Array of Optoelectronic Broadband Switches,” IEEE J.Solid State Circuits SC-19, 219–223 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Hunsperger, R. G.

Imada, Y.

K. Tsutsumi, Y. Imada, H. Hirai, Y. Yuba, “Analysis of Single-Mode Optical Y-Junctions by the Bound Step and Bend Approximation,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-6, 590–600 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, H.

Ishida, K.

Jackson, H. E.

W. C. Borland, D. E. Zelmon, C. J. Radens, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, “Properties of Four-Layer Planar Optical Waveguides Near Cutoff,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 1172–1178 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Jarry, P.

M. Erman, P. Jarry, R. Gamonal, J. Gentner, P. Stephan, C. Guedan, “Monolithic Integration of a GaInAs p-i-n Photodiode and an Optical Waveguide: Modeling and Realization Using Chloride Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-6, 399–411 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Jessop, P. E.

P. E. Jessop, B. K. Garside, D. M. Bruce, “High Speed Switching for Integrated Optical Applications: Phase II Final Report,” Department of Communications contract OST 85-00241 (1987).

Jones, V.

S. R. Forrest, G. L. Tangonan, V. Jones, “A Simple 8 × 8 Optoelectronic Crossbar Switch,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-7, 607–614 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kaumanns, R.

H. J. Klein, R. Kaumanns, H. Beneking, “High-Speed Ga0.47In0.53As Photoconductive Detector for Picosecond Light Pulses,” Electron. Lett. 17, 421–422 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, S.

Klein, H. J.

H. J. Klein, R. Kaumanns, H. Beneking, “High-Speed Ga0.47In0.53As Photoconductive Detector for Picosecond Light Pulses,” Electron. Lett. 17, 421–422 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Korotky, S. K.

W. J. Minford, S. K. Korotky, R. C. Alferness, “Low-Loss Ti:LiNbO3 Waveguide Bends at λ = 1.3 μm,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30, 1790–1794 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Koza, M. A.

W. K. Chan, J. H. Abeles, K. C. Nguyen, R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, “Integration of High-Speed Optical Taps with InP Waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Tech. Lett. 1, 65–67 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lam, D. K. W.

R. I. MacDonald, D. K. W. Lam, “Optoelectronic Switching Matrices: Recent Developments,” Opt. Eng. 24, 220–224 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. I. MacDonald, D. K. W. Lam, R. H. Hum, J. P. Noad, “Monolithic Array of Optoelectronic Broadband Switches,” IEEE J.Solid State Circuits SC-19, 219–223 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. K. W. Lam, R. I. MacDonald, “Fast Optoelectronic Crosspoint Electrical Switching of GaAs Photoconductors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. EDL-5, 1–3 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lee, A.

MacDonald, R. I.

R. I. MacDonald, D. K. W. Lam, “Optoelectronic Switching Matrices: Recent Developments,” Opt. Eng. 24, 220–224 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. I. MacDonald, D. K. W. Lam, R. H. Hum, J. P. Noad, “Monolithic Array of Optoelectronic Broadband Switches,” IEEE J.Solid State Circuits SC-19, 219–223 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. K. W. Lam, R. I. MacDonald, “Fast Optoelectronic Crosspoint Electrical Switching of GaAs Photoconductors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. EDL-5, 1–3 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. I. MacDonald, E. M. Hara, “Optoelectronic Broadband Switching Array,” Electron. Lett. 14, 502–503 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, “Tilt Offset and End-Separation Loss of Lowest Order Slab Waveguide Mode,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1647–1650 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. Marcuse, “Bending Losses of the Asymmetric Slab Waveguide,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 50, 2551–2563 (1971).

Matsumura, H.

Matsuno, K.

K. Aida, K. Matsuno, M. Toyoshima, “Design and Performance of an Optoelectronic Matrix Switch Using Si-p-i-n Photodiodes,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-6, 131–138 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Minford, W. J.

W. J. Minford, S. K. Korotky, R. C. Alferness, “Low-Loss Ti:LiNbO3 Waveguide Bends at λ = 1.3 μm,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30, 1790–1794 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Miyage, M.

Nguyen, K. C.

W. K. Chan, J. H. Abeles, K. C. Nguyen, R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, “Integration of High-Speed Optical Taps with InP Waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Tech. Lett. 1, 65–67 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Noad, J. P.

R. I. MacDonald, D. K. W. Lam, R. H. Hum, J. P. Noad, “Monolithic Array of Optoelectronic Broadband Switches,” IEEE J.Solid State Circuits SC-19, 219–223 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, Orlando, 1985), pp. 565, 760.

Parisi, G. I.

G. I. Parisi, S. E. Haszko, G. A. Razgonyi, “Tapered Windows in SiO2: The Effect of NH4:HF Dilution and Etching Temperature,” J. Electrochem. Soc. Solid State 124, 917–921 (1977).

Radens, C. J.

W. C. Borland, D. E. Zelmon, C. J. Radens, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, “Properties of Four-Layer Planar Optical Waveguides Near Cutoff,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 1172–1178 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Razgonyi, G. A.

G. I. Parisi, S. E. Haszko, G. A. Razgonyi, “Tapered Windows in SiO2: The Effect of NH4:HF Dilution and Etching Temperature,” J. Electrochem. Soc. Solid State 124, 917–921 (1977).

Ritchie, S.

M. J. Robertson, S. Ritchie, P. Dayan, “Semiconductor Waveguides: Analysis of Coupling Between Rib Waveguides and Optical Fibers,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 579, 184–191 (1985).

Robertson, M. J.

M. J. Robertson, S. Ritchie, P. Dayan, “Semiconductor Waveguides: Analysis of Coupling Between Rib Waveguides and Optical Fibers,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 579, 184–191 (1985).

Sato, H.

Scifres, D. R.

W. Streifer, R. D. Burnham, D. R. Scifres, “Substrate Radiation Losses in GaAs Heterostructures Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 177–182 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Spanke, R. A.

R. A. Spanke, “Architectures for Large Nonblocking Optical Space Switches,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 964–967 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Stephan, P.

M. Erman, P. Jarry, R. Gamonal, J. Gentner, P. Stephan, C. Guedan, “Monolithic Integration of a GaInAs p-i-n Photodiode and an Optical Waveguide: Modeling and Realization Using Chloride Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-6, 399–411 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Streifer, W.

W. Streifer, R. D. Burnham, D. R. Scifres, “Substrate Radiation Losses in GaAs Heterostructures Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 177–182 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Takuma, Y.

Tangonan, G. L.

S. R. Forrest, G. L. Tangonan, V. Jones, “A Simple 8 × 8 Optoelectronic Crossbar Switch,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-7, 607–614 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Toyoshima, M.

K. Aida, K. Matsuno, M. Toyoshima, “Design and Performance of an Optoelectronic Matrix Switch Using Si-p-i-n Photodiodes,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-6, 131–138 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Tsutsumi, K.

K. Tsutsumi, Y. Imada, H. Hirai, Y. Yuba, “Analysis of Single-Mode Optical Y-Junctions by the Bound Step and Bend Approximation,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-6, 590–600 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

Yeh, C.

D. B. Hall, C. Yeh, “Leaky Waves in a Heteroepitaxial Film,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 2271–2274 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Yuba, Y.

K. Tsutsumi, Y. Imada, H. Hirai, Y. Yuba, “Analysis of Single-Mode Optical Y-Junctions by the Bound Step and Bend Approximation,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-6, 590–600 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Zelmon, D. E.

W. C. Borland, D. E. Zelmon, C. J. Radens, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, “Properties of Four-Layer Planar Optical Waveguides Near Cutoff,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 1172–1178 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

D. Marcuse, “Bending Losses of the Asymmetric Slab Waveguide,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 50, 2551–2563 (1971).

Department of Communications contract OST 85-00241 (1)

P. E. Jessop, B. K. Garside, D. M. Bruce, “High Speed Switching for Integrated Optical Applications: Phase II Final Report,” Department of Communications contract OST 85-00241 (1987).

Electron. Lett. (3)

R. I. MacDonald, E. M. Hara, “Optoelectronic Broadband Switching Array,” Electron. Lett. 14, 502–503 (1978).
[CrossRef]

P. Granestrand et al., “Strictly Nonblocking 8 × 8 Integrated Optical Switch Matrix,” Electron. Lett. 22, 816–818 (1986).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Klein, R. Kaumanns, H. Beneking, “High-Speed Ga0.47In0.53As Photoconductive Detector for Picosecond Light Pulses,” Electron. Lett. 17, 421–422 (1981).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

D. K. W. Lam, R. I. MacDonald, “Fast Optoelectronic Crosspoint Electrical Switching of GaAs Photoconductors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. EDL-5, 1–3 (1984).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

W. Streifer, R. D. Burnham, D. R. Scifres, “Substrate Radiation Losses in GaAs Heterostructures Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 177–182 (1976).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Borland, D. E. Zelmon, C. J. Radens, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, “Properties of Four-Layer Planar Optical Waveguides Near Cutoff,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 1172–1178 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Spanke, “Architectures for Large Nonblocking Optical Space Switches,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 964–967 (1986).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J.Solid State Circuits (1)

R. I. MacDonald, D. K. W. Lam, R. H. Hum, J. P. Noad, “Monolithic Array of Optoelectronic Broadband Switches,” IEEE J.Solid State Circuits SC-19, 219–223 (1984).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Tech. Lett. (1)

W. K. Chan, J. H. Abeles, K. C. Nguyen, R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, “Integration of High-Speed Optical Taps with InP Waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Tech. Lett. 1, 65–67 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

W. J. Minford, S. K. Korotky, R. C. Alferness, “Low-Loss Ti:LiNbO3 Waveguide Bends at λ = 1.3 μm,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30, 1790–1794 (1982).
[CrossRef]

IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. (6)

M. Erman, P. Jarry, R. Gamonal, J. Gentner, P. Stephan, C. Guedan, “Monolithic Integration of a GaInAs p-i-n Photodiode and an Optical Waveguide: Modeling and Realization Using Chloride Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-6, 399–411 (1988).
[CrossRef]

K. Aida, K. Matsuno, M. Toyoshima, “Design and Performance of an Optoelectronic Matrix Switch Using Si-p-i-n Photodiodes,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-6, 131–138 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Forrest, G. L. Tangonan, V. Jones, “A Simple 8 × 8 Optoelectronic Crossbar Switch,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-7, 607–614 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. Tsutsumi, Y. Imada, H. Hirai, Y. Yuba, “Analysis of Single-Mode Optical Y-Junctions by the Bound Step and Bend Approximation,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-6, 590–600 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Marcuse, “Tilt Offset and End-Separation Loss of Lowest Order Slab Waveguide Mode,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1647–1650 (1986).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Garmire, K. Honda, “Depolarization in Channel Glass Waveguides,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 220–227 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. B. Hall, C. Yeh, “Leaky Waves in a Heteroepitaxial Film,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 2271–2274 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. Solid State (1)

G. I. Parisi, S. E. Haszko, G. A. Razgonyi, “Tapered Windows in SiO2: The Effect of NH4:HF Dilution and Etching Temperature,” J. Electrochem. Soc. Solid State 124, 917–921 (1977).

Opt. Eng. (1)

R. I. MacDonald, D. K. W. Lam, “Optoelectronic Switching Matrices: Recent Developments,” Opt. Eng. 24, 220–224 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

M. J. Robertson, S. Ritchie, P. Dayan, “Semiconductor Waveguides: Analysis of Coupling Between Rib Waveguides and Optical Fibers,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 579, 184–191 (1985).

Other (2)

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, Orlando, 1985), pp. 565, 760.

M. J. Adams, An Introduction to Optical Waveguides (Wiley, Chichester, 1981), pp. 28–31, 75–82.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic cross-sectional view of the structure of the integrated waveguide–coupler showing the four planar layers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated leaky waveguide losses of the TE0, TE1, and TE2 modes as a function of waveguide thickness when d = 0.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated leaky waveguide losses of the TE0 and TM0 modes as a function of SiO2 thickness for waveguide thickness a = 0.6 and 0.7 μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Profiles of two ideal SiO2 tapers where (A) the taper is composed of fixed radius of curvature and (B) the taper is a linear abruptly tilted taper.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated taper insertion loss as a function of taper length for the ideal taper profiles shown in Fig. 4.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic cross-sectional view of an integrated waveguide–detector coupler.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Calculated and experimentally measured leaky waveguide loss as a function of SiO2 thickness measured at a wavelength of 633 nm. The calculated loss is shown as solid lines for a waveguide thickness of 0.6 and 0.7 μm and both TE0 and TM0 modes.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Topology of a 2 × 2 optoelectronic switch using IWDCs.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(A) Optical photograph of 2 × 2 optoelectronic switch using IWDCs. The blocking trench is shown at the top, and three test waveguides containing no couplers are shown on the right. (B) Enlarged view of a single IWDC element.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Measured diffusion current crosstalk as a function of offset distance and modulation frequency for a typical detector.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

L et = total loss in the paper loss ( d ) = 0 L t loss [ d + ( s d ) z / L t ] d z / loss ( d ) ,
L et 0 exp ( 2 p 0 ( s d ) z / L t ) d z L t / 2 p 0 ( s d ) ,

Metrics