Abstract

The side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR) and single-mode continuous tuning range were measured for planar short-external-cavity semiconductor diode lasers to examine the positional and angular alignment tolerances of the external cavity mirror relative to the laser facet. For inverted rib waveguide lasers, the SMSR was found to be ≤ −25 dB for external cavity lengths of 40–200 μm and ≤ −23 dB for rotational misalignments of ±8°. For parallel alignment of the external cavity mirror and laser facet, continuous single-mode tuning ranges of 1.0 nm, or 110% of a mode spacing, were obtained. At external cavity lengths of <100 μm, the total amount of continuous single-mode tuning, summed over all modes, was ∼72 cm−1, which corresponds to ∼75% spectral coverage.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. P. Bogatov, P. G. Eliseev, L. P. Ivanov, A. S. Logginov, M. A. Manko, K. Ya. Senatorov, “Study of the Single-Mode Injection Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 392–395 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Renner, J. E. Carroll, “Simple System for Broad-Band Single-Mode Tuning of D. H. GaALAs Lasers,” Electron. Lett. 15, 73–74 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Kanada, K. Nawata, “Single-Mode Operation of a Modulated Laser Diode with a Short External Cavity,” Opt. Commun. 31, 81–84 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. R. Preston, K. C. Woollard, K. H. Cameron, “External Cavity Controlled Single Longitudinal Mode Laser Transmitter Module,” Electron. Lett. 17, 931–933 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Kuwahara, H. Imai, M. Sasaki, “Intensity Noise of In-GaAsP/InP Lasers under the Influence of Reflection and Modulation,” Opt. Commun. 46, 315–322 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K.-Y. Liou, “Single-Longitudinal-Mode Operation of Injection Laser Coupled to a Grinrod External Cavity,” Electron. Lett. 19, 750–751 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. P. van der Ziel, R. M. Mikulyak, “Single-Mode Operation of 1.3 μm InGaAsP/InP Buried Crescent Lasers Using a Short External Optical Cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 223–229 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Lin et al., “Short-Coupled-Cavity (SCC) InGaAsP Injection Lasers for CW and High-Speed Single-Longitudinal-Mode Operation,” Electron. Lett. 19, 561–562 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. E. Stephens, T. R. Joseph, T. Findakly, B.-U. Chen, “Optical Frequency Stabilisation of High Power Laser Diodes under Modulation Using Short Optical Waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 20, 424–426 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. R. Andrews, “Enhanced Thermal Stability of Single Longitudinal Mode Coupled Cavity Lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 71–73 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Wenke, R. Gross, P. Meissner, E. Patzak, “Characteristics of a Compact Three Cavity Laser Configuration,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 608–615 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Voumard, R. Salathe, H. Weber, “Resonance Amplifier Model Describing Diode Lasers Coupled to Short External Resonators,” Appl. Phys. 12, 369–378 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. A. Coldren, T. L. Koch, “External-Cavity Laser Design,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 1045–1051, (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. Lin, C. A. Burrus, L. A. Coldren, “Characteristics of Single-Longitudinal-Mode Selection in Short-Coupled-Cavity (SCC) Injection Lasers,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 544–549 (1984).
  15. G. P. Agrawal, “Generalized Rate Equations and Modulation Characteristics of External-Cavity Semiconductor Lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 3110–3115 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. M. Hammer, “Closed Form Theory of Multicavity Reflectors and the Output Power of External Cavity Diode Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1252–1258 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  17. W. Jianglin, Z. Hanyi, W. Qun, Z. Bingkun, “Single-Mode Characteristics of Short Coupled-Cavity Semiconductor Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1005–1009 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  18. K.-Y. Liou, C. A. Burrus, F. Bosch, “Graded-Index-Rod External Coupled-Cavity Laser with Backface Output-Monitor-Stabilized Single-Frequency Operation,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 985–987 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  19. K. R. Preston, “Simple Spectral Control Technique for External Cavity Transmitters,” Electron. Lett. 18, 1092–1094 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. Zhang, J. Wang, Q. Wu, B.-Z. Zhou, “Mode Hopping Suppression of Short-Coupled-Cavity Semiconductor Lasers,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1987), paper MF5.
  21. D. T. Cassidy, L. J. Bonnell, “Trace Gas Detection with Short-External-Cavity InGaAsP Diode Laser Transmitter Modules Operating at 1.58 μm,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2688–2693 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. S. Raab, K. Hoffmann, M. Gabbert, M. V. Glushkov, Yu. V. Kosichkin, “Application of a Diode Laser with an External Resonator in High Resolution Spectroscopy,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 1068–1071 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  23. D. T. Cassidy, “Trace Gas Detection Using 1.3-μm InGaAsP Diode Laser Transmitter Modules,” Appl. Opt. 27, 610–614 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. E. Hartl, G. Muller, “Transition from Gain Guiding to Index Guiding and Characterisation of 1.55 μm Bridge Contacted Ridge Waveguide Lasers,” IEE Proc. 134 Pt.J (1), 22–26 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  25. W. B. Joyce, B. C. DeLoach, “Alignment of Gaussian Beams,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4187–4196 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. D. Marcuse, Light Transmission Optics (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1972), p. 234.

1988

1987

E. Hartl, G. Muller, “Transition from Gain Guiding to Index Guiding and Characterisation of 1.55 μm Bridge Contacted Ridge Waveguide Lasers,” IEE Proc. 134 Pt.J (1), 22–26 (1987).
[CrossRef]

W. Jianglin, Z. Hanyi, W. Qun, Z. Bingkun, “Single-Mode Characteristics of Short Coupled-Cavity Semiconductor Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1005–1009 (1987).
[CrossRef]

G. Wenke, R. Gross, P. Meissner, E. Patzak, “Characteristics of a Compact Three Cavity Laser Configuration,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 608–615 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985

J. R. Andrews, “Enhanced Thermal Stability of Single Longitudinal Mode Coupled Cavity Lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 71–73 (1985).
[CrossRef]

K.-Y. Liou, C. A. Burrus, F. Bosch, “Graded-Index-Rod External Coupled-Cavity Laser with Backface Output-Monitor-Stabilized Single-Frequency Operation,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 985–987 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984

W. B. Joyce, B. C. DeLoach, “Alignment of Gaussian Beams,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4187–4196 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. E. Stephens, T. R. Joseph, T. Findakly, B.-U. Chen, “Optical Frequency Stabilisation of High Power Laser Diodes under Modulation Using Short Optical Waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 20, 424–426 (1984).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Coldren, T. L. Koch, “External-Cavity Laser Design,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 1045–1051, (1984).
[CrossRef]

C. Lin, C. A. Burrus, L. A. Coldren, “Characteristics of Single-Longitudinal-Mode Selection in Short-Coupled-Cavity (SCC) Injection Lasers,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 544–549 (1984).

G. P. Agrawal, “Generalized Rate Equations and Modulation Characteristics of External-Cavity Semiconductor Lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 3110–3115 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hammer, “Closed Form Theory of Multicavity Reflectors and the Output Power of External Cavity Diode Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1252–1258 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. P. van der Ziel, R. M. Mikulyak, “Single-Mode Operation of 1.3 μm InGaAsP/InP Buried Crescent Lasers Using a Short External Optical Cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 223–229 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

C. Lin et al., “Short-Coupled-Cavity (SCC) InGaAsP Injection Lasers for CW and High-Speed Single-Longitudinal-Mode Operation,” Electron. Lett. 19, 561–562 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. Kuwahara, H. Imai, M. Sasaki, “Intensity Noise of In-GaAsP/InP Lasers under the Influence of Reflection and Modulation,” Opt. Commun. 46, 315–322 (1983).
[CrossRef]

K.-Y. Liou, “Single-Longitudinal-Mode Operation of Injection Laser Coupled to a Grinrod External Cavity,” Electron. Lett. 19, 750–751 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

K. R. Preston, “Simple Spectral Control Technique for External Cavity Transmitters,” Electron. Lett. 18, 1092–1094 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

S. Raab, K. Hoffmann, M. Gabbert, M. V. Glushkov, Yu. V. Kosichkin, “Application of a Diode Laser with an External Resonator in High Resolution Spectroscopy,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 1068–1071 (1981).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Preston, K. C. Woollard, K. H. Cameron, “External Cavity Controlled Single Longitudinal Mode Laser Transmitter Module,” Electron. Lett. 17, 931–933 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979

D. Renner, J. E. Carroll, “Simple System for Broad-Band Single-Mode Tuning of D. H. GaALAs Lasers,” Electron. Lett. 15, 73–74 (1979).
[CrossRef]

T. Kanada, K. Nawata, “Single-Mode Operation of a Modulated Laser Diode with a Short External Cavity,” Opt. Commun. 31, 81–84 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977

C. Voumard, R. Salathe, H. Weber, “Resonance Amplifier Model Describing Diode Lasers Coupled to Short External Resonators,” Appl. Phys. 12, 369–378 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1973

A. P. Bogatov, P. G. Eliseev, L. P. Ivanov, A. S. Logginov, M. A. Manko, K. Ya. Senatorov, “Study of the Single-Mode Injection Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 392–395 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, “Generalized Rate Equations and Modulation Characteristics of External-Cavity Semiconductor Lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 3110–3115 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, J. R.

J. R. Andrews, “Enhanced Thermal Stability of Single Longitudinal Mode Coupled Cavity Lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 71–73 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Bingkun, Z.

W. Jianglin, Z. Hanyi, W. Qun, Z. Bingkun, “Single-Mode Characteristics of Short Coupled-Cavity Semiconductor Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1005–1009 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bogatov, A. P.

A. P. Bogatov, P. G. Eliseev, L. P. Ivanov, A. S. Logginov, M. A. Manko, K. Ya. Senatorov, “Study of the Single-Mode Injection Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 392–395 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Bonnell, L. J.

Bosch, F.

K.-Y. Liou, C. A. Burrus, F. Bosch, “Graded-Index-Rod External Coupled-Cavity Laser with Backface Output-Monitor-Stabilized Single-Frequency Operation,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 985–987 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Burrus, C. A.

K.-Y. Liou, C. A. Burrus, F. Bosch, “Graded-Index-Rod External Coupled-Cavity Laser with Backface Output-Monitor-Stabilized Single-Frequency Operation,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 985–987 (1985).
[CrossRef]

C. Lin, C. A. Burrus, L. A. Coldren, “Characteristics of Single-Longitudinal-Mode Selection in Short-Coupled-Cavity (SCC) Injection Lasers,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 544–549 (1984).

Cameron, K. H.

K. R. Preston, K. C. Woollard, K. H. Cameron, “External Cavity Controlled Single Longitudinal Mode Laser Transmitter Module,” Electron. Lett. 17, 931–933 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Carroll, J. E.

D. Renner, J. E. Carroll, “Simple System for Broad-Band Single-Mode Tuning of D. H. GaALAs Lasers,” Electron. Lett. 15, 73–74 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Cassidy, D. T.

Chen, B.-U.

W. E. Stephens, T. R. Joseph, T. Findakly, B.-U. Chen, “Optical Frequency Stabilisation of High Power Laser Diodes under Modulation Using Short Optical Waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 20, 424–426 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

C. Lin, C. A. Burrus, L. A. Coldren, “Characteristics of Single-Longitudinal-Mode Selection in Short-Coupled-Cavity (SCC) Injection Lasers,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 544–549 (1984).

L. A. Coldren, T. L. Koch, “External-Cavity Laser Design,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 1045–1051, (1984).
[CrossRef]

DeLoach, B. C.

Eliseev, P. G.

A. P. Bogatov, P. G. Eliseev, L. P. Ivanov, A. S. Logginov, M. A. Manko, K. Ya. Senatorov, “Study of the Single-Mode Injection Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 392–395 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Findakly, T.

W. E. Stephens, T. R. Joseph, T. Findakly, B.-U. Chen, “Optical Frequency Stabilisation of High Power Laser Diodes under Modulation Using Short Optical Waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 20, 424–426 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Gabbert, M.

S. Raab, K. Hoffmann, M. Gabbert, M. V. Glushkov, Yu. V. Kosichkin, “Application of a Diode Laser with an External Resonator in High Resolution Spectroscopy,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 1068–1071 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Glushkov, M. V.

S. Raab, K. Hoffmann, M. Gabbert, M. V. Glushkov, Yu. V. Kosichkin, “Application of a Diode Laser with an External Resonator in High Resolution Spectroscopy,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 1068–1071 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Gross, R.

G. Wenke, R. Gross, P. Meissner, E. Patzak, “Characteristics of a Compact Three Cavity Laser Configuration,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 608–615 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hammer, J. M.

J. M. Hammer, “Closed Form Theory of Multicavity Reflectors and the Output Power of External Cavity Diode Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1252–1258 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Hanyi, Z.

W. Jianglin, Z. Hanyi, W. Qun, Z. Bingkun, “Single-Mode Characteristics of Short Coupled-Cavity Semiconductor Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1005–1009 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hartl, E.

E. Hartl, G. Muller, “Transition from Gain Guiding to Index Guiding and Characterisation of 1.55 μm Bridge Contacted Ridge Waveguide Lasers,” IEE Proc. 134 Pt.J (1), 22–26 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, K.

S. Raab, K. Hoffmann, M. Gabbert, M. V. Glushkov, Yu. V. Kosichkin, “Application of a Diode Laser with an External Resonator in High Resolution Spectroscopy,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 1068–1071 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Imai, H.

H. Kuwahara, H. Imai, M. Sasaki, “Intensity Noise of In-GaAsP/InP Lasers under the Influence of Reflection and Modulation,” Opt. Commun. 46, 315–322 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, L. P.

A. P. Bogatov, P. G. Eliseev, L. P. Ivanov, A. S. Logginov, M. A. Manko, K. Ya. Senatorov, “Study of the Single-Mode Injection Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 392–395 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Jianglin, W.

W. Jianglin, Z. Hanyi, W. Qun, Z. Bingkun, “Single-Mode Characteristics of Short Coupled-Cavity Semiconductor Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1005–1009 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Joseph, T. R.

W. E. Stephens, T. R. Joseph, T. Findakly, B.-U. Chen, “Optical Frequency Stabilisation of High Power Laser Diodes under Modulation Using Short Optical Waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 20, 424–426 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Joyce, W. B.

Kanada, T.

T. Kanada, K. Nawata, “Single-Mode Operation of a Modulated Laser Diode with a Short External Cavity,” Opt. Commun. 31, 81–84 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Koch, T. L.

L. A. Coldren, T. L. Koch, “External-Cavity Laser Design,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 1045–1051, (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kosichkin, Yu. V.

S. Raab, K. Hoffmann, M. Gabbert, M. V. Glushkov, Yu. V. Kosichkin, “Application of a Diode Laser with an External Resonator in High Resolution Spectroscopy,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 1068–1071 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kuwahara, H.

H. Kuwahara, H. Imai, M. Sasaki, “Intensity Noise of In-GaAsP/InP Lasers under the Influence of Reflection and Modulation,” Opt. Commun. 46, 315–322 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.

C. Lin, C. A. Burrus, L. A. Coldren, “Characteristics of Single-Longitudinal-Mode Selection in Short-Coupled-Cavity (SCC) Injection Lasers,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 544–549 (1984).

C. Lin et al., “Short-Coupled-Cavity (SCC) InGaAsP Injection Lasers for CW and High-Speed Single-Longitudinal-Mode Operation,” Electron. Lett. 19, 561–562 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Liou, K.-Y.

K.-Y. Liou, C. A. Burrus, F. Bosch, “Graded-Index-Rod External Coupled-Cavity Laser with Backface Output-Monitor-Stabilized Single-Frequency Operation,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 985–987 (1985).
[CrossRef]

K.-Y. Liou, “Single-Longitudinal-Mode Operation of Injection Laser Coupled to a Grinrod External Cavity,” Electron. Lett. 19, 750–751 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Logginov, A. S.

A. P. Bogatov, P. G. Eliseev, L. P. Ivanov, A. S. Logginov, M. A. Manko, K. Ya. Senatorov, “Study of the Single-Mode Injection Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 392–395 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Manko, M. A.

A. P. Bogatov, P. G. Eliseev, L. P. Ivanov, A. S. Logginov, M. A. Manko, K. Ya. Senatorov, “Study of the Single-Mode Injection Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 392–395 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, Light Transmission Optics (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1972), p. 234.

Meissner, P.

G. Wenke, R. Gross, P. Meissner, E. Patzak, “Characteristics of a Compact Three Cavity Laser Configuration,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 608–615 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Mikulyak, R. M.

J. P. van der Ziel, R. M. Mikulyak, “Single-Mode Operation of 1.3 μm InGaAsP/InP Buried Crescent Lasers Using a Short External Optical Cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 223–229 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Muller, G.

E. Hartl, G. Muller, “Transition from Gain Guiding to Index Guiding and Characterisation of 1.55 μm Bridge Contacted Ridge Waveguide Lasers,” IEE Proc. 134 Pt.J (1), 22–26 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Nawata, K.

T. Kanada, K. Nawata, “Single-Mode Operation of a Modulated Laser Diode with a Short External Cavity,” Opt. Commun. 31, 81–84 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Patzak, E.

G. Wenke, R. Gross, P. Meissner, E. Patzak, “Characteristics of a Compact Three Cavity Laser Configuration,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 608–615 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Preston, K. R.

K. R. Preston, “Simple Spectral Control Technique for External Cavity Transmitters,” Electron. Lett. 18, 1092–1094 (1982).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Preston, K. C. Woollard, K. H. Cameron, “External Cavity Controlled Single Longitudinal Mode Laser Transmitter Module,” Electron. Lett. 17, 931–933 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Qun, W.

W. Jianglin, Z. Hanyi, W. Qun, Z. Bingkun, “Single-Mode Characteristics of Short Coupled-Cavity Semiconductor Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1005–1009 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Raab, S.

S. Raab, K. Hoffmann, M. Gabbert, M. V. Glushkov, Yu. V. Kosichkin, “Application of a Diode Laser with an External Resonator in High Resolution Spectroscopy,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 1068–1071 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Renner, D.

D. Renner, J. E. Carroll, “Simple System for Broad-Band Single-Mode Tuning of D. H. GaALAs Lasers,” Electron. Lett. 15, 73–74 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Salathe, R.

C. Voumard, R. Salathe, H. Weber, “Resonance Amplifier Model Describing Diode Lasers Coupled to Short External Resonators,” Appl. Phys. 12, 369–378 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, M.

H. Kuwahara, H. Imai, M. Sasaki, “Intensity Noise of In-GaAsP/InP Lasers under the Influence of Reflection and Modulation,” Opt. Commun. 46, 315–322 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Senatorov, K. Ya.

A. P. Bogatov, P. G. Eliseev, L. P. Ivanov, A. S. Logginov, M. A. Manko, K. Ya. Senatorov, “Study of the Single-Mode Injection Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 392–395 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Stephens, W. E.

W. E. Stephens, T. R. Joseph, T. Findakly, B.-U. Chen, “Optical Frequency Stabilisation of High Power Laser Diodes under Modulation Using Short Optical Waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 20, 424–426 (1984).
[CrossRef]

van der Ziel, J. P.

J. P. van der Ziel, R. M. Mikulyak, “Single-Mode Operation of 1.3 μm InGaAsP/InP Buried Crescent Lasers Using a Short External Optical Cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 223–229 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Voumard, C.

C. Voumard, R. Salathe, H. Weber, “Resonance Amplifier Model Describing Diode Lasers Coupled to Short External Resonators,” Appl. Phys. 12, 369–378 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

H. Zhang, J. Wang, Q. Wu, B.-Z. Zhou, “Mode Hopping Suppression of Short-Coupled-Cavity Semiconductor Lasers,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1987), paper MF5.

Weber, H.

C. Voumard, R. Salathe, H. Weber, “Resonance Amplifier Model Describing Diode Lasers Coupled to Short External Resonators,” Appl. Phys. 12, 369–378 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Wenke, G.

G. Wenke, R. Gross, P. Meissner, E. Patzak, “Characteristics of a Compact Three Cavity Laser Configuration,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 608–615 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Woollard, K. C.

K. R. Preston, K. C. Woollard, K. H. Cameron, “External Cavity Controlled Single Longitudinal Mode Laser Transmitter Module,” Electron. Lett. 17, 931–933 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q.

H. Zhang, J. Wang, Q. Wu, B.-Z. Zhou, “Mode Hopping Suppression of Short-Coupled-Cavity Semiconductor Lasers,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1987), paper MF5.

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang, J. Wang, Q. Wu, B.-Z. Zhou, “Mode Hopping Suppression of Short-Coupled-Cavity Semiconductor Lasers,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1987), paper MF5.

Zhou, B.-Z.

H. Zhang, J. Wang, Q. Wu, B.-Z. Zhou, “Mode Hopping Suppression of Short-Coupled-Cavity Semiconductor Lasers,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1987), paper MF5.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys.

C. Voumard, R. Salathe, H. Weber, “Resonance Amplifier Model Describing Diode Lasers Coupled to Short External Resonators,” Appl. Phys. 12, 369–378 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. R. Andrews, “Enhanced Thermal Stability of Single Longitudinal Mode Coupled Cavity Lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 71–73 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

D. Renner, J. E. Carroll, “Simple System for Broad-Band Single-Mode Tuning of D. H. GaALAs Lasers,” Electron. Lett. 15, 73–74 (1979).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Preston, K. C. Woollard, K. H. Cameron, “External Cavity Controlled Single Longitudinal Mode Laser Transmitter Module,” Electron. Lett. 17, 931–933 (1981).
[CrossRef]

K.-Y. Liou, “Single-Longitudinal-Mode Operation of Injection Laser Coupled to a Grinrod External Cavity,” Electron. Lett. 19, 750–751 (1983).
[CrossRef]

C. Lin et al., “Short-Coupled-Cavity (SCC) InGaAsP Injection Lasers for CW and High-Speed Single-Longitudinal-Mode Operation,” Electron. Lett. 19, 561–562 (1983).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Stephens, T. R. Joseph, T. Findakly, B.-U. Chen, “Optical Frequency Stabilisation of High Power Laser Diodes under Modulation Using Short Optical Waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 20, 424–426 (1984).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Preston, “Simple Spectral Control Technique for External Cavity Transmitters,” Electron. Lett. 18, 1092–1094 (1982).
[CrossRef]

IEE Proc.

E. Hartl, G. Muller, “Transition from Gain Guiding to Index Guiding and Characterisation of 1.55 μm Bridge Contacted Ridge Waveguide Lasers,” IEE Proc. 134 Pt.J (1), 22–26 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

A. P. Bogatov, P. G. Eliseev, L. P. Ivanov, A. S. Logginov, M. A. Manko, K. Ya. Senatorov, “Study of the Single-Mode Injection Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 392–395 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. P. van der Ziel, R. M. Mikulyak, “Single-Mode Operation of 1.3 μm InGaAsP/InP Buried Crescent Lasers Using a Short External Optical Cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 223–229 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hammer, “Closed Form Theory of Multicavity Reflectors and the Output Power of External Cavity Diode Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1252–1258 (1984).
[CrossRef]

W. Jianglin, Z. Hanyi, W. Qun, Z. Bingkun, “Single-Mode Characteristics of Short Coupled-Cavity Semiconductor Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1005–1009 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.

K.-Y. Liou, C. A. Burrus, F. Bosch, “Graded-Index-Rod External Coupled-Cavity Laser with Backface Output-Monitor-Stabilized Single-Frequency Operation,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 985–987 (1985).
[CrossRef]

G. Wenke, R. Gross, P. Meissner, E. Patzak, “Characteristics of a Compact Three Cavity Laser Configuration,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 608–615 (1987).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Coldren, T. L. Koch, “External-Cavity Laser Design,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 1045–1051, (1984).
[CrossRef]

C. Lin, C. A. Burrus, L. A. Coldren, “Characteristics of Single-Longitudinal-Mode Selection in Short-Coupled-Cavity (SCC) Injection Lasers,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 544–549 (1984).

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G. P. Agrawal, “Generalized Rate Equations and Modulation Characteristics of External-Cavity Semiconductor Lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 3110–3115 (1984).
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Opt. Commun.

H. Kuwahara, H. Imai, M. Sasaki, “Intensity Noise of In-GaAsP/InP Lasers under the Influence of Reflection and Modulation,” Opt. Commun. 46, 315–322 (1983).
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S. Raab, K. Hoffmann, M. Gabbert, M. V. Glushkov, Yu. V. Kosichkin, “Application of a Diode Laser with an External Resonator in High Resolution Spectroscopy,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 1068–1071 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other

H. Zhang, J. Wang, Q. Wu, B.-Z. Zhou, “Mode Hopping Suppression of Short-Coupled-Cavity Semiconductor Lasers,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1987), paper MF5.

D. Marcuse, Light Transmission Optics (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1972), p. 234.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the (a) experimental apparatus used in the SMSR and SM tuning measurements and (b) the shortexternal-cavity configuration showing the tilt and rotate convention.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Trace of the spectral output of an IRW laser for (a) no feedback and (b) with feedback from a planar external mirror. The inset in (b) shows the spectral output expanded so that the vertical spacings are reduced by 200×.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plots of the (a) SMSR in percent and (b) SM tuning in cm−1 as a function of the external cavity length L. The SMSR was measured with a scanning monochromator and oscilloscope. A similar procedure was used for the tuning measurements where the external cavity was continuously optimized as the wavelength was tuned.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Plots of the (a) SMSR in percent and (b) SM tuning in cm−1 as a function of rotation angle. The external mirror was rotated about the axis perpendicular to the plane of the laser active region.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Trace of the single-mode tuning as a function of the external cavity length L where the tuning is summed over all possible modes. Trace A shows the total spectral range covered by all modes that lase single mode. Trace B is the total spectral range covered by the continuous single-mode tuning summed over all modes.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Plots of the far field intensity distribution and theoretical reflectivity of the external mirror. The far fields in (a) show the experimental values of the parallel (∥) and perpendicular (⊥) components and also the fitted Gaussian fields. The reflectivities shown in (b) were calculated using Eq. (2).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Geometry of the laser and external mirror used in the theoretical calculation of the amount of optical feedback.

Equations (15)

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T = τ x τ y cos 2 2 θ x ,
τ i = 2 ω 0 i ω i exp [ k 2 2 ω 0 i 2 sin 2 2 θ i ( 1 + L cos 2 θ i R i ) 2 ] × exp [ 2 L 2 ω i 2 sin 2 2 θ i ] , i = x , y .
x = z sin 2 θ + x cos 2 θ + L sin 2 θ ,
z = + z cos 2 θ + x sin 2 θ ,
E ( x , y , z ) = E x ( x , z ) E y ( y , z )
E x ( x , z ) = ( 2 π ) 1 / 4 1 ω x exp [ x 2 ω x 2 ] × exp { i [ k z + π x 2 λ R x arctan ( λ z π ω 0 x 2 ) ] } ,
cos 2 2 θ x τ x = | + E x ( x , z = 0 ) E x ( x , z ) d x | 2 .
τ x = | + E 0 2 π ω 0 x ω x exp { x 2 ( 1 ω 0 x 2 + cos 2 2 θ x ω x 2 + i π λ R x cos 2 2 θ x ) 2 x ( L sin 2 θ x cos 2 θ x ω x 2 + i π L λ R x sin 2 θ x cos 2 θ x + i π λ sin 2 θ x ) [ L 2 sin 2 2 θ x ω x 2 + i π L 2 λ R x sin 2 2 θ x i arctan ( λ L π ω 0 x 2 ) ] } d x | 2 .
+ exp ( a x 2 2 b x c ) d x = π a exp ( b 2 a c ) ,
π a a * exp [ ( b 2 a c ) + ( b 2 a c ) * ] .
a = 1 ω 0 x 2 + cos 2 2 θ x ω x 2 + i π λ R x cos 2 2 θ x ,
b = L sin 2 θ x cos 2 θ x ω x 2 + i π λ sin 2 θ x ( 1 + L cos 2 θ x R x ) ,
c = L 2 sin 2 2 θ x ω x 2 + i π L 2 λ R x sin 2 2 θ x .
τ x = 2 ω 0 x ω x exp [ k 2 2 ω 0 x 2 sin 2 2 θ x ( 1 + L cos 2 θ x R x ) 2 ] × exp ( 2 L 2 ω x 2 sin 2 2 θ x ) .
T = τ x τ y cos 2 2 θ x .

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