Abstract

Anamorphic prism optics makes it possible to obtain a diffraction-limited (λ/8) circular single spot from index guided phased array lasers. It served not only for beam shaping but also for astigmatism correction and spatial filtering. The optical path analysis based on the interferometric fringe scanning phase measurements both in the near and far fields indicates that the phased array lasers can be applied to such diffraction-limited precise optical systems as optical disk recording, laser beam printing, or second harmonics generation.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. Streifer, R. D. Burnham, T. L. Paoli, D. R. Scifres, “Phased Array Diode Lasers,” Laser Focus (June1984).
  2. A. Yariv, ed. Optical Electronics (Holt-Saunders, Location, 1985), Sec. 13, pp. 437–450.
  3. D. R. Scifres, R. A. Sprague, W. Streifer, R. D. Burnham, “Focusing of a 7700-A High Power Phased Array Semiconductor Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 1121–1123 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  4. K. Tatsuno, A. Arimoto, “Measurement and Analysis of Diode Laser Wavefronts,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3520–3525 (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. D. C. van Eck, “Wavefront Measurements on Semiconductor Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 966–968 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  6. N. W. Carlson, V. J. Masin, “Phase Front Measurement of High-Power Diode Lasers for Optical Systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 2079–2083 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. Yaeli, “Phase Measurement of Laser Diode Array Radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 427–429 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. R. Heidel, R. R. Rice, H. R. Appelman, “Use of a Phase Corrector Plate to Generate a Single-Lobed Phased Array Far Field Pattern,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 749–752 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  9. D. E. Ackley, D. Botez, B. Bogner, “Phase-Locked Injection Laser Arrays with Integrated Phase Shifters,” RCA Rev. 44, 625 (1983).
  10. K. Tatsuno, R. Drenten, C. van der Poel, J. Opschoor, G. Acket, “Diffraction-Limited Circular Single Spot from Phased Array Lasers,” in Technical Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), paper WH5.
  11. J. Opschoor, R. R. Drenten, C. J. Reinhoudt, C. J. van der Poel, “Author, Add Title to the Galleys,” in Proceedings, Fourteenth International Symposium on GaAs and Related Compounds, Crete, Greece (1987).
  12. H. Kogelnik, T. Li, “Laser Beams and Resonators,” Appl. Opt. 5, 1550–1566 (1966).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. D. H. Welch, W. Streifer, P. C. Cross, D. R. Scifres, “Y-Junction Semiconductor Laser Arrays: Part II—Experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 752–756 (1987).
    [Crossref]

1987 (1)

D. H. Welch, W. Streifer, P. C. Cross, D. R. Scifres, “Y-Junction Semiconductor Laser Arrays: Part II—Experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 752–756 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (3)

N. W. Carlson, V. J. Masin, “Phase Front Measurement of High-Power Diode Lasers for Optical Systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 2079–2083 (1986).
[Crossref]

J. Yaeli, “Phase Measurement of Laser Diode Array Radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 427–429 (1986).
[Crossref]

J. R. Heidel, R. R. Rice, H. R. Appelman, “Use of a Phase Corrector Plate to Generate a Single-Lobed Phased Array Far Field Pattern,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 749–752 (1986).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

W. Streifer, R. D. Burnham, T. L. Paoli, D. R. Scifres, “Phased Array Diode Lasers,” Laser Focus (June1984).

1983 (2)

D. E. Ackley, D. Botez, B. Bogner, “Phase-Locked Injection Laser Arrays with Integrated Phase Shifters,” RCA Rev. 44, 625 (1983).

D. C. van Eck, “Wavefront Measurements on Semiconductor Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 966–968 (1983).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

D. R. Scifres, R. A. Sprague, W. Streifer, R. D. Burnham, “Focusing of a 7700-A High Power Phased Array Semiconductor Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 1121–1123 (1982).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

1966 (1)

Acket, G.

K. Tatsuno, R. Drenten, C. van der Poel, J. Opschoor, G. Acket, “Diffraction-Limited Circular Single Spot from Phased Array Lasers,” in Technical Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), paper WH5.

Ackley, D. E.

D. E. Ackley, D. Botez, B. Bogner, “Phase-Locked Injection Laser Arrays with Integrated Phase Shifters,” RCA Rev. 44, 625 (1983).

Appelman, H. R.

J. R. Heidel, R. R. Rice, H. R. Appelman, “Use of a Phase Corrector Plate to Generate a Single-Lobed Phased Array Far Field Pattern,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 749–752 (1986).
[Crossref]

Arimoto, A.

Bogner, B.

D. E. Ackley, D. Botez, B. Bogner, “Phase-Locked Injection Laser Arrays with Integrated Phase Shifters,” RCA Rev. 44, 625 (1983).

Botez, D.

D. E. Ackley, D. Botez, B. Bogner, “Phase-Locked Injection Laser Arrays with Integrated Phase Shifters,” RCA Rev. 44, 625 (1983).

Burnham, R. D.

W. Streifer, R. D. Burnham, T. L. Paoli, D. R. Scifres, “Phased Array Diode Lasers,” Laser Focus (June1984).

D. R. Scifres, R. A. Sprague, W. Streifer, R. D. Burnham, “Focusing of a 7700-A High Power Phased Array Semiconductor Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 1121–1123 (1982).
[Crossref]

Carlson, N. W.

N. W. Carlson, V. J. Masin, “Phase Front Measurement of High-Power Diode Lasers for Optical Systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 2079–2083 (1986).
[Crossref]

Cross, P. C.

D. H. Welch, W. Streifer, P. C. Cross, D. R. Scifres, “Y-Junction Semiconductor Laser Arrays: Part II—Experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 752–756 (1987).
[Crossref]

Drenten, R.

K. Tatsuno, R. Drenten, C. van der Poel, J. Opschoor, G. Acket, “Diffraction-Limited Circular Single Spot from Phased Array Lasers,” in Technical Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), paper WH5.

Drenten, R. R.

J. Opschoor, R. R. Drenten, C. J. Reinhoudt, C. J. van der Poel, “Author, Add Title to the Galleys,” in Proceedings, Fourteenth International Symposium on GaAs and Related Compounds, Crete, Greece (1987).

Heidel, J. R.

J. R. Heidel, R. R. Rice, H. R. Appelman, “Use of a Phase Corrector Plate to Generate a Single-Lobed Phased Array Far Field Pattern,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 749–752 (1986).
[Crossref]

Kogelnik, H.

Li, T.

Masin, V. J.

N. W. Carlson, V. J. Masin, “Phase Front Measurement of High-Power Diode Lasers for Optical Systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 2079–2083 (1986).
[Crossref]

Opschoor, J.

J. Opschoor, R. R. Drenten, C. J. Reinhoudt, C. J. van der Poel, “Author, Add Title to the Galleys,” in Proceedings, Fourteenth International Symposium on GaAs and Related Compounds, Crete, Greece (1987).

K. Tatsuno, R. Drenten, C. van der Poel, J. Opschoor, G. Acket, “Diffraction-Limited Circular Single Spot from Phased Array Lasers,” in Technical Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), paper WH5.

Paoli, T. L.

W. Streifer, R. D. Burnham, T. L. Paoli, D. R. Scifres, “Phased Array Diode Lasers,” Laser Focus (June1984).

Reinhoudt, C. J.

J. Opschoor, R. R. Drenten, C. J. Reinhoudt, C. J. van der Poel, “Author, Add Title to the Galleys,” in Proceedings, Fourteenth International Symposium on GaAs and Related Compounds, Crete, Greece (1987).

Rice, R. R.

J. R. Heidel, R. R. Rice, H. R. Appelman, “Use of a Phase Corrector Plate to Generate a Single-Lobed Phased Array Far Field Pattern,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 749–752 (1986).
[Crossref]

Scifres, D. R.

D. H. Welch, W. Streifer, P. C. Cross, D. R. Scifres, “Y-Junction Semiconductor Laser Arrays: Part II—Experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 752–756 (1987).
[Crossref]

W. Streifer, R. D. Burnham, T. L. Paoli, D. R. Scifres, “Phased Array Diode Lasers,” Laser Focus (June1984).

D. R. Scifres, R. A. Sprague, W. Streifer, R. D. Burnham, “Focusing of a 7700-A High Power Phased Array Semiconductor Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 1121–1123 (1982).
[Crossref]

Sprague, R. A.

D. R. Scifres, R. A. Sprague, W. Streifer, R. D. Burnham, “Focusing of a 7700-A High Power Phased Array Semiconductor Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 1121–1123 (1982).
[Crossref]

Streifer, W.

D. H. Welch, W. Streifer, P. C. Cross, D. R. Scifres, “Y-Junction Semiconductor Laser Arrays: Part II—Experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 752–756 (1987).
[Crossref]

W. Streifer, R. D. Burnham, T. L. Paoli, D. R. Scifres, “Phased Array Diode Lasers,” Laser Focus (June1984).

D. R. Scifres, R. A. Sprague, W. Streifer, R. D. Burnham, “Focusing of a 7700-A High Power Phased Array Semiconductor Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 1121–1123 (1982).
[Crossref]

Tatsuno, K.

K. Tatsuno, A. Arimoto, “Measurement and Analysis of Diode Laser Wavefronts,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3520–3525 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Tatsuno, R. Drenten, C. van der Poel, J. Opschoor, G. Acket, “Diffraction-Limited Circular Single Spot from Phased Array Lasers,” in Technical Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), paper WH5.

van der Poel, C.

K. Tatsuno, R. Drenten, C. van der Poel, J. Opschoor, G. Acket, “Diffraction-Limited Circular Single Spot from Phased Array Lasers,” in Technical Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), paper WH5.

van der Poel, C. J.

J. Opschoor, R. R. Drenten, C. J. Reinhoudt, C. J. van der Poel, “Author, Add Title to the Galleys,” in Proceedings, Fourteenth International Symposium on GaAs and Related Compounds, Crete, Greece (1987).

van Eck, D. C.

D. C. van Eck, “Wavefront Measurements on Semiconductor Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 966–968 (1983).
[Crossref]

Welch, D. H.

D. H. Welch, W. Streifer, P. C. Cross, D. R. Scifres, “Y-Junction Semiconductor Laser Arrays: Part II—Experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 752–756 (1987).
[Crossref]

Yaeli, J.

J. Yaeli, “Phase Measurement of Laser Diode Array Radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 427–429 (1986).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. R. Scifres, R. A. Sprague, W. Streifer, R. D. Burnham, “Focusing of a 7700-A High Power Phased Array Semiconductor Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 1121–1123 (1982).
[Crossref]

J. Yaeli, “Phase Measurement of Laser Diode Array Radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 427–429 (1986).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

J. R. Heidel, R. R. Rice, H. R. Appelman, “Use of a Phase Corrector Plate to Generate a Single-Lobed Phased Array Far Field Pattern,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 749–752 (1986).
[Crossref]

D. C. van Eck, “Wavefront Measurements on Semiconductor Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 966–968 (1983).
[Crossref]

N. W. Carlson, V. J. Masin, “Phase Front Measurement of High-Power Diode Lasers for Optical Systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 2079–2083 (1986).
[Crossref]

D. H. Welch, W. Streifer, P. C. Cross, D. R. Scifres, “Y-Junction Semiconductor Laser Arrays: Part II—Experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 752–756 (1987).
[Crossref]

Laser Focus (1)

W. Streifer, R. D. Burnham, T. L. Paoli, D. R. Scifres, “Phased Array Diode Lasers,” Laser Focus (June1984).

RCA Rev. (1)

D. E. Ackley, D. Botez, B. Bogner, “Phase-Locked Injection Laser Arrays with Integrated Phase Shifters,” RCA Rev. 44, 625 (1983).

Other (3)

K. Tatsuno, R. Drenten, C. van der Poel, J. Opschoor, G. Acket, “Diffraction-Limited Circular Single Spot from Phased Array Lasers,” in Technical Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), paper WH5.

J. Opschoor, R. R. Drenten, C. J. Reinhoudt, C. J. van der Poel, “Author, Add Title to the Galleys,” in Proceedings, Fourteenth International Symposium on GaAs and Related Compounds, Crete, Greece (1987).

A. Yariv, ed. Optical Electronics (Holt-Saunders, Location, 1985), Sec. 13, pp. 437–450.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Difference ΔZ between the beam waist position and the wavefront center due to the Gaussian beam propagation derived from Kogelnik's formula.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fringe scanning interferometer to measure the phase distribution in the near and far fields.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Near and far field intensity profiles for a two-stripe phased array emitting with the fundamental order supermode used in this measurement.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Phase measurement results: (a) near field phase; (b) far field wavefront fringes with some tilt in the vertical plane; (c) wave-front with some defocusing along the optical axis.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Near field and (b) far field phase fronts of a twin lobed two-stripe phased array.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Near field and (b) far field intensity profiles for a five-stripe phased array.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Near field and (b) far field phase fronts of a five-stripe phased array.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Near field image and (b) far field wavefront of a gain guided ten-stripe phased array.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Optical path for a phased array laser showing a spatial filter in the far field and beam waist shift in the near field which causes astigmatism.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Anamorphic beam focusing optics working as beam shaping, spatial filtering, and astigmatism correction. (b) Diffraction-limited circular spot obtained by this optics. (c) Interference fringes in the pupil plane demonstrating the diffraction limited nature of the beam.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Interference pattern change due to defocusing the collimator lens to check the focal depth for this optics.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Inserted half wave plate inhibits the interference between the two lobes.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Single spot obtained by the combination of prism optics and the half wave plate with polarization beam combiner.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Diffraction limited single spot is demonstrated by the combination of prism optics and the phase shifter plate.

Equations (17)

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I ( θ ) = E ( θ ) G ( θ ) ,
E ( θ ) = E 0 exp [ 2 ( a θ λ ) 2 ] , E 0 : const ,
G ( θ ) = | n = 1 N exp { i [ w t Δ ϕ n + k r n ( θ ) ] } | 2 , k = 2 π λ
Δ Z = R Z ,
= ( π λ ) 2 w 0 4 1 Z ,
FD = π 2 λ w 0 2 ,
η = Δ Z FD = w 0 2 λ Z .
w 0 > λ Z ~ 75 μ m ,
G ( θ ) = G 0 cos 2 ( δ 2 ) , G 0 : const ,
δ = 2 π λ d ,
G ( θ ) = G 0 sin 2 ( δ 2 ) ,
M ~ N d a ,
M = m n ,
AD + Δ = M T 2 δ T ,
Δ = M S 2 δ S ,
δ T = δ S = δ
AD = ( M 2 1 ) Δ , M = M T / M S ,

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