Abstract

Characteristics of a simple and compact spectral light source for obtaining the spectra of highly ionized gases are presented. Krypton and xenon spectrograms have been produced which show spectral lines belonging to a high degree of ionization.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. C. Fawcett, “Classification in the Early 1980's of the Spectra of Highly Ionized Atoms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 1, 195–217 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. Minnhagen, “Review of Methods for the Excitation of the Atomic and Ionic Spectra by Means of High-Frequency Discharges and Sliding Spark,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. C 68, 237–242 (1964).
  3. W. Persson, L. Minnhagen, “The nf and ng Configurations of Ne ii,” Ark. Fys. 37, 273–300 (1968).
  4. B. C. Fawcett, B. B. Jones, R. Wilson, “Vacuum Ultra-Violet Spectra of Multiply Ionized Inert Gases,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 78, 1223–1226 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Bockasten, R. Mallin, N. R. Nilsson, “A Theta-Pinch Discharge as Spectroscopic Light Source,” Ark. Fys. 32, 437–446 (1966).
  6. S. G. Pettersson, “The Spectrum of O iii,” Phys. Scr. 26, 296–318 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Ermisch, E. Schonheit, “Eine lichtquelle mit seitlicher emission fur das vakuum-ultraviolet,” Z. Naturforsch. Teil A 20, 611–622 (1965).
  8. F. G. Meijer, “A Light Source for the Production of Spectra of Noble Gases Ions,” Physica C 106, 103–105 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  9. V. Kaufman, J. Sugar, “Cd i Isoelectronic Sequence: Wavelengths and Energy Levels for Xe vii through Eu xvi,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 4, 1919–1923 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Kaufman, J. Sugar, “In i Isoelectronic Sequence: Wavelengths and Energy Levels for Xe vi Through La ix,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1924–1926 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. O. Di Rocco, J. G. Reyna Almandos, M. Gallardo, W. Presson, “Spectrum of Trebly Ionized Xenon (Xe iv),” Phys. Rev. A 33, 2114–2116 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. Persson, C. G. Wahlstrom, G. Bertucelli, H. O. Di Rocco, J. G. Reyna Almandos, M. Gallardo, “Spectrum of Doubly Ionized Xenon (Xe iii),” Phys. Scr. 38, 347–369 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. Bredice, J Reyna Almandos, M. Gallardo, H. O. Di Rocco, A. G. Trigueiros, “Revised and Extended Analysis of the Low Configurations in Kr iii,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 222–235 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. Bredice, M. Raineri, J. Reyna Almandos, M. Gallardo, “Classified Lines in the Spectrum of Kr ii,” Spectrosc. Lett. 21, 11–17 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Trigueiros, S. G. Pettersson, J. Reyna Almandos, “Transitions Within the n = 4 Complex of Kr vii Obtained from a Theta-Pinch Light Source,” Phys. Scr. 34, 164–166 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Trigueiros, C. J. B. Pagan, J. Reyna Almandos, “Energy Levels of the Configurations 4s 4p, 4s4p, 4s 4d and 4s 5p Five Times Ionized Krypton, Kr vi, Obtained from a Theta-Pinch Light Source,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 166–169 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. E. Schonheit, “Die spektren von ochionisiertem neon, argon, krypton und xenon einer neuen lichtquelle fur das vakuum ultraviolett,” Optik 23, 409–435 (1966).
  18. A. E. Livingston, L. J. Curtis, R. M. Schectman, H. G. Berry, “Energies and Lifetimes of Excited States in Copperlike Kr viii,” Phys. Rev. A 21, 771–781 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  19. B. C. Fawcett, G. E. Bromage, “Classification of Krypton iv, v and Xe vi Spectral Lines,” J. Phys. B 13, 2711–2716 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. R. Roberts, E. J. Knystautas, J. Sugar, “One-Electron Spectrum of Xe viii,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1620–1622 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  21. E. J. Knystautas, J. Sugar, J. R. Roberts, “New Lines Classifications and Energy Levels in the Triplet System of Xe vii,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1726–1727 (1979).
    [CrossRef]

1988 (4)

F. Bredice, M. Raineri, J. Reyna Almandos, M. Gallardo, “Classified Lines in the Spectrum of Kr ii,” Spectrosc. Lett. 21, 11–17 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Trigueiros, C. J. B. Pagan, J. Reyna Almandos, “Energy Levels of the Configurations 4s 4p, 4s4p, 4s 4d and 4s 5p Five Times Ionized Krypton, Kr vi, Obtained from a Theta-Pinch Light Source,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 166–169 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Persson, C. G. Wahlstrom, G. Bertucelli, H. O. Di Rocco, J. G. Reyna Almandos, M. Gallardo, “Spectrum of Doubly Ionized Xenon (Xe iii),” Phys. Scr. 38, 347–369 (1988).
[CrossRef]

F. Bredice, J Reyna Almandos, M. Gallardo, H. O. Di Rocco, A. G. Trigueiros, “Revised and Extended Analysis of the Low Configurations in Kr iii,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 222–235 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

K. Kaufman, J. Sugar, “In i Isoelectronic Sequence: Wavelengths and Energy Levels for Xe vi Through La ix,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1924–1926 (1987).
[CrossRef]

V. Kaufman, J. Sugar, “Cd i Isoelectronic Sequence: Wavelengths and Energy Levels for Xe vii through Eu xvi,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 4, 1919–1923 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

A. Trigueiros, S. G. Pettersson, J. Reyna Almandos, “Transitions Within the n = 4 Complex of Kr vii Obtained from a Theta-Pinch Light Source,” Phys. Scr. 34, 164–166 (1986).
[CrossRef]

H. O. Di Rocco, J. G. Reyna Almandos, M. Gallardo, W. Presson, “Spectrum of Trebly Ionized Xenon (Xe iv),” Phys. Rev. A 33, 2114–2116 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1982 (1)

S. G. Pettersson, “The Spectrum of O iii,” Phys. Scr. 26, 296–318 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

F. G. Meijer, “A Light Source for the Production of Spectra of Noble Gases Ions,” Physica C 106, 103–105 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (2)

A. E. Livingston, L. J. Curtis, R. M. Schectman, H. G. Berry, “Energies and Lifetimes of Excited States in Copperlike Kr viii,” Phys. Rev. A 21, 771–781 (1980).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Fawcett, G. E. Bromage, “Classification of Krypton iv, v and Xe vi Spectral Lines,” J. Phys. B 13, 2711–2716 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

1968 (1)

W. Persson, L. Minnhagen, “The nf and ng Configurations of Ne ii,” Ark. Fys. 37, 273–300 (1968).

1966 (2)

K. Bockasten, R. Mallin, N. R. Nilsson, “A Theta-Pinch Discharge as Spectroscopic Light Source,” Ark. Fys. 32, 437–446 (1966).

E. Schonheit, “Die spektren von ochionisiertem neon, argon, krypton und xenon einer neuen lichtquelle fur das vakuum ultraviolett,” Optik 23, 409–435 (1966).

1965 (1)

R. Ermisch, E. Schonheit, “Eine lichtquelle mit seitlicher emission fur das vakuum-ultraviolet,” Z. Naturforsch. Teil A 20, 611–622 (1965).

1964 (1)

L. Minnhagen, “Review of Methods for the Excitation of the Atomic and Ionic Spectra by Means of High-Frequency Discharges and Sliding Spark,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. C 68, 237–242 (1964).

1961 (1)

B. C. Fawcett, B. B. Jones, R. Wilson, “Vacuum Ultra-Violet Spectra of Multiply Ionized Inert Gases,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 78, 1223–1226 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Almandos, J Reyna

Almandos, J. G. Reyna

W. Persson, C. G. Wahlstrom, G. Bertucelli, H. O. Di Rocco, J. G. Reyna Almandos, M. Gallardo, “Spectrum of Doubly Ionized Xenon (Xe iii),” Phys. Scr. 38, 347–369 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. O. Di Rocco, J. G. Reyna Almandos, M. Gallardo, W. Presson, “Spectrum of Trebly Ionized Xenon (Xe iv),” Phys. Rev. A 33, 2114–2116 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Almandos, J. Reyna

F. Bredice, M. Raineri, J. Reyna Almandos, M. Gallardo, “Classified Lines in the Spectrum of Kr ii,” Spectrosc. Lett. 21, 11–17 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Trigueiros, C. J. B. Pagan, J. Reyna Almandos, “Energy Levels of the Configurations 4s 4p, 4s4p, 4s 4d and 4s 5p Five Times Ionized Krypton, Kr vi, Obtained from a Theta-Pinch Light Source,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 166–169 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Trigueiros, S. G. Pettersson, J. Reyna Almandos, “Transitions Within the n = 4 Complex of Kr vii Obtained from a Theta-Pinch Light Source,” Phys. Scr. 34, 164–166 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Berry, H. G.

A. E. Livingston, L. J. Curtis, R. M. Schectman, H. G. Berry, “Energies and Lifetimes of Excited States in Copperlike Kr viii,” Phys. Rev. A 21, 771–781 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Bertucelli, G.

W. Persson, C. G. Wahlstrom, G. Bertucelli, H. O. Di Rocco, J. G. Reyna Almandos, M. Gallardo, “Spectrum of Doubly Ionized Xenon (Xe iii),” Phys. Scr. 38, 347–369 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bockasten, K.

K. Bockasten, R. Mallin, N. R. Nilsson, “A Theta-Pinch Discharge as Spectroscopic Light Source,” Ark. Fys. 32, 437–446 (1966).

Bredice, F.

F. Bredice, J Reyna Almandos, M. Gallardo, H. O. Di Rocco, A. G. Trigueiros, “Revised and Extended Analysis of the Low Configurations in Kr iii,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 222–235 (1988).
[CrossRef]

F. Bredice, M. Raineri, J. Reyna Almandos, M. Gallardo, “Classified Lines in the Spectrum of Kr ii,” Spectrosc. Lett. 21, 11–17 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bromage, G. E.

B. C. Fawcett, G. E. Bromage, “Classification of Krypton iv, v and Xe vi Spectral Lines,” J. Phys. B 13, 2711–2716 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Curtis, L. J.

A. E. Livingston, L. J. Curtis, R. M. Schectman, H. G. Berry, “Energies and Lifetimes of Excited States in Copperlike Kr viii,” Phys. Rev. A 21, 771–781 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Di Rocco, H. O.

W. Persson, C. G. Wahlstrom, G. Bertucelli, H. O. Di Rocco, J. G. Reyna Almandos, M. Gallardo, “Spectrum of Doubly Ionized Xenon (Xe iii),” Phys. Scr. 38, 347–369 (1988).
[CrossRef]

F. Bredice, J Reyna Almandos, M. Gallardo, H. O. Di Rocco, A. G. Trigueiros, “Revised and Extended Analysis of the Low Configurations in Kr iii,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 222–235 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. O. Di Rocco, J. G. Reyna Almandos, M. Gallardo, W. Presson, “Spectrum of Trebly Ionized Xenon (Xe iv),” Phys. Rev. A 33, 2114–2116 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ermisch, R.

R. Ermisch, E. Schonheit, “Eine lichtquelle mit seitlicher emission fur das vakuum-ultraviolet,” Z. Naturforsch. Teil A 20, 611–622 (1965).

Fawcett, B. C.

B. C. Fawcett, “Classification in the Early 1980's of the Spectra of Highly Ionized Atoms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 1, 195–217 (1984).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Fawcett, G. E. Bromage, “Classification of Krypton iv, v and Xe vi Spectral Lines,” J. Phys. B 13, 2711–2716 (1980).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Fawcett, B. B. Jones, R. Wilson, “Vacuum Ultra-Violet Spectra of Multiply Ionized Inert Gases,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 78, 1223–1226 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Gallardo, M.

F. Bredice, J Reyna Almandos, M. Gallardo, H. O. Di Rocco, A. G. Trigueiros, “Revised and Extended Analysis of the Low Configurations in Kr iii,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 222–235 (1988).
[CrossRef]

F. Bredice, M. Raineri, J. Reyna Almandos, M. Gallardo, “Classified Lines in the Spectrum of Kr ii,” Spectrosc. Lett. 21, 11–17 (1988).
[CrossRef]

W. Persson, C. G. Wahlstrom, G. Bertucelli, H. O. Di Rocco, J. G. Reyna Almandos, M. Gallardo, “Spectrum of Doubly Ionized Xenon (Xe iii),” Phys. Scr. 38, 347–369 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. O. Di Rocco, J. G. Reyna Almandos, M. Gallardo, W. Presson, “Spectrum of Trebly Ionized Xenon (Xe iv),” Phys. Rev. A 33, 2114–2116 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Jones, B. B.

B. C. Fawcett, B. B. Jones, R. Wilson, “Vacuum Ultra-Violet Spectra of Multiply Ionized Inert Gases,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 78, 1223–1226 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, K.

Kaufman, V.

V. Kaufman, J. Sugar, “Cd i Isoelectronic Sequence: Wavelengths and Energy Levels for Xe vii through Eu xvi,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 4, 1919–1923 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Knystautas, E. J.

Livingston, A. E.

A. E. Livingston, L. J. Curtis, R. M. Schectman, H. G. Berry, “Energies and Lifetimes of Excited States in Copperlike Kr viii,” Phys. Rev. A 21, 771–781 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Mallin, R.

K. Bockasten, R. Mallin, N. R. Nilsson, “A Theta-Pinch Discharge as Spectroscopic Light Source,” Ark. Fys. 32, 437–446 (1966).

Meijer, F. G.

F. G. Meijer, “A Light Source for the Production of Spectra of Noble Gases Ions,” Physica C 106, 103–105 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Minnhagen, L.

W. Persson, L. Minnhagen, “The nf and ng Configurations of Ne ii,” Ark. Fys. 37, 273–300 (1968).

L. Minnhagen, “Review of Methods for the Excitation of the Atomic and Ionic Spectra by Means of High-Frequency Discharges and Sliding Spark,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. C 68, 237–242 (1964).

Nilsson, N. R.

K. Bockasten, R. Mallin, N. R. Nilsson, “A Theta-Pinch Discharge as Spectroscopic Light Source,” Ark. Fys. 32, 437–446 (1966).

Pagan, C. J. B.

A. Trigueiros, C. J. B. Pagan, J. Reyna Almandos, “Energy Levels of the Configurations 4s 4p, 4s4p, 4s 4d and 4s 5p Five Times Ionized Krypton, Kr vi, Obtained from a Theta-Pinch Light Source,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 166–169 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Persson, W.

W. Persson, C. G. Wahlstrom, G. Bertucelli, H. O. Di Rocco, J. G. Reyna Almandos, M. Gallardo, “Spectrum of Doubly Ionized Xenon (Xe iii),” Phys. Scr. 38, 347–369 (1988).
[CrossRef]

W. Persson, L. Minnhagen, “The nf and ng Configurations of Ne ii,” Ark. Fys. 37, 273–300 (1968).

Pettersson, S. G.

A. Trigueiros, S. G. Pettersson, J. Reyna Almandos, “Transitions Within the n = 4 Complex of Kr vii Obtained from a Theta-Pinch Light Source,” Phys. Scr. 34, 164–166 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Pettersson, “The Spectrum of O iii,” Phys. Scr. 26, 296–318 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Presson, W.

H. O. Di Rocco, J. G. Reyna Almandos, M. Gallardo, W. Presson, “Spectrum of Trebly Ionized Xenon (Xe iv),” Phys. Rev. A 33, 2114–2116 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Raineri, M.

F. Bredice, M. Raineri, J. Reyna Almandos, M. Gallardo, “Classified Lines in the Spectrum of Kr ii,” Spectrosc. Lett. 21, 11–17 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, J. R.

Schectman, R. M.

A. E. Livingston, L. J. Curtis, R. M. Schectman, H. G. Berry, “Energies and Lifetimes of Excited States in Copperlike Kr viii,” Phys. Rev. A 21, 771–781 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Schonheit, E.

E. Schonheit, “Die spektren von ochionisiertem neon, argon, krypton und xenon einer neuen lichtquelle fur das vakuum ultraviolett,” Optik 23, 409–435 (1966).

R. Ermisch, E. Schonheit, “Eine lichtquelle mit seitlicher emission fur das vakuum-ultraviolet,” Z. Naturforsch. Teil A 20, 611–622 (1965).

Sugar, J.

Trigueiros, A.

A. Trigueiros, C. J. B. Pagan, J. Reyna Almandos, “Energy Levels of the Configurations 4s 4p, 4s4p, 4s 4d and 4s 5p Five Times Ionized Krypton, Kr vi, Obtained from a Theta-Pinch Light Source,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 166–169 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Trigueiros, S. G. Pettersson, J. Reyna Almandos, “Transitions Within the n = 4 Complex of Kr vii Obtained from a Theta-Pinch Light Source,” Phys. Scr. 34, 164–166 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Trigueiros, A. G.

Wahlstrom, C. G.

W. Persson, C. G. Wahlstrom, G. Bertucelli, H. O. Di Rocco, J. G. Reyna Almandos, M. Gallardo, “Spectrum of Doubly Ionized Xenon (Xe iii),” Phys. Scr. 38, 347–369 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, R.

B. C. Fawcett, B. B. Jones, R. Wilson, “Vacuum Ultra-Violet Spectra of Multiply Ionized Inert Gases,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 78, 1223–1226 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Ark. Fys. (2)

W. Persson, L. Minnhagen, “The nf and ng Configurations of Ne ii,” Ark. Fys. 37, 273–300 (1968).

K. Bockasten, R. Mallin, N. R. Nilsson, “A Theta-Pinch Discharge as Spectroscopic Light Source,” Ark. Fys. 32, 437–446 (1966).

J. Opt. Soc. Am B (1)

V. Kaufman, J. Sugar, “Cd i Isoelectronic Sequence: Wavelengths and Energy Levels for Xe vii through Eu xvi,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 4, 1919–1923 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

J. Phys. B (1)

B. C. Fawcett, G. E. Bromage, “Classification of Krypton iv, v and Xe vi Spectral Lines,” J. Phys. B 13, 2711–2716 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. C (1)

L. Minnhagen, “Review of Methods for the Excitation of the Atomic and Ionic Spectra by Means of High-Frequency Discharges and Sliding Spark,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. C 68, 237–242 (1964).

Optik (1)

E. Schonheit, “Die spektren von ochionisiertem neon, argon, krypton und xenon einer neuen lichtquelle fur das vakuum ultraviolett,” Optik 23, 409–435 (1966).

Phys. Rev. A (3)

A. E. Livingston, L. J. Curtis, R. M. Schectman, H. G. Berry, “Energies and Lifetimes of Excited States in Copperlike Kr viii,” Phys. Rev. A 21, 771–781 (1980).
[CrossRef]

H. O. Di Rocco, J. G. Reyna Almandos, M. Gallardo, W. Presson, “Spectrum of Trebly Ionized Xenon (Xe iv),” Phys. Rev. A 33, 2114–2116 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. Trigueiros, C. J. B. Pagan, J. Reyna Almandos, “Energy Levels of the Configurations 4s 4p, 4s4p, 4s 4d and 4s 5p Five Times Ionized Krypton, Kr vi, Obtained from a Theta-Pinch Light Source,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 166–169 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Scr. (3)

W. Persson, C. G. Wahlstrom, G. Bertucelli, H. O. Di Rocco, J. G. Reyna Almandos, M. Gallardo, “Spectrum of Doubly Ionized Xenon (Xe iii),” Phys. Scr. 38, 347–369 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Trigueiros, S. G. Pettersson, J. Reyna Almandos, “Transitions Within the n = 4 Complex of Kr vii Obtained from a Theta-Pinch Light Source,” Phys. Scr. 34, 164–166 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Pettersson, “The Spectrum of O iii,” Phys. Scr. 26, 296–318 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Physica C (1)

F. G. Meijer, “A Light Source for the Production of Spectra of Noble Gases Ions,” Physica C 106, 103–105 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Phys. Soc. London (1)

B. C. Fawcett, B. B. Jones, R. Wilson, “Vacuum Ultra-Violet Spectra of Multiply Ionized Inert Gases,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 78, 1223–1226 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Spectrosc. Lett. (1)

F. Bredice, M. Raineri, J. Reyna Almandos, M. Gallardo, “Classified Lines in the Spectrum of Kr ii,” Spectrosc. Lett. 21, 11–17 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Z. Naturforsch. Teil A (1)

R. Ermisch, E. Schonheit, “Eine lichtquelle mit seitlicher emission fur das vakuum-ultraviolet,” Z. Naturforsch. Teil A 20, 611–622 (1965).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the light source.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the electronic circuit.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Krypton spectrogram in the VUV region. Some Kr lines from Refs. 15 and 1719 are shown.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Xenon spectrogram in the VUV region. Some Xe and O iii lines from Refs. 4, 6, 10, 20, and 21 are shown.

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