Abstract

Exposing dichromated gelatin holograms to microwave radiation considerably increases their resistance to heating, either for wide or narrowband holograms. No wavelength shift was observed for the former and only a small shift was observed for the latter. This behavior can be explained in the framework of Chang's models, taking into account the effects of microwaves on polar molecules and the potential positions of the water molecules within the medium. These results and their interpretation suggest further experiments to measure the different environments of the water molecules inside the gelatin and to use microwaves at the resonance frequencies of the water.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. J. Chang, “Dichromated Gelatin Holograms and Their Applications,” Opt. Eng. 19, 642–648 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. K. Curran, T. A. Shankoff, “The Mechanism of Hologram Formation is Dichromated Gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 9, 1651–1657 (1970).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. O. Salminen, T. Keinonen, “On Absorption and Refractive Index Modulations of Dichromated Gelatin Gratings,” Opt. Acta 29, 531–540 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Djabourov, “La Gélification Thermoréversible du Système Eau-Gelatine,” Thèse de Doctorat d'Etat es Sciences Physiques, Paris, U. Pierre et Marie Curie (1986).
  5. J. Kosar, Light Sensitive Systems (Wiley, New York, 1965), Chap. 2.
  6. H. J. Van Zante, The Microwave Oven (Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1973).
  7. J. M. Rebordão, A. A. Andrade, “Microwave Drying Effects on Dichromated Gelatin Holograms,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1051, 96–103 (1989).

1989 (1)

J. M. Rebordão, A. A. Andrade, “Microwave Drying Effects on Dichromated Gelatin Holograms,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1051, 96–103 (1989).

1982 (1)

O. Salminen, T. Keinonen, “On Absorption and Refractive Index Modulations of Dichromated Gelatin Gratings,” Opt. Acta 29, 531–540 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

B. J. Chang, “Dichromated Gelatin Holograms and Their Applications,” Opt. Eng. 19, 642–648 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

Andrade, A. A.

J. M. Rebordão, A. A. Andrade, “Microwave Drying Effects on Dichromated Gelatin Holograms,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1051, 96–103 (1989).

Chang, B. J.

B. J. Chang, “Dichromated Gelatin Holograms and Their Applications,” Opt. Eng. 19, 642–648 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Curran, R. K.

Djabourov, M.

M. Djabourov, “La Gélification Thermoréversible du Système Eau-Gelatine,” Thèse de Doctorat d'Etat es Sciences Physiques, Paris, U. Pierre et Marie Curie (1986).

Keinonen, T.

O. Salminen, T. Keinonen, “On Absorption and Refractive Index Modulations of Dichromated Gelatin Gratings,” Opt. Acta 29, 531–540 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kosar, J.

J. Kosar, Light Sensitive Systems (Wiley, New York, 1965), Chap. 2.

Rebordão, J. M.

J. M. Rebordão, A. A. Andrade, “Microwave Drying Effects on Dichromated Gelatin Holograms,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1051, 96–103 (1989).

Salminen, O.

O. Salminen, T. Keinonen, “On Absorption and Refractive Index Modulations of Dichromated Gelatin Gratings,” Opt. Acta 29, 531–540 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Shankoff, T. A.

Van Zante, H. J.

H. J. Van Zante, The Microwave Oven (Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1973).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Opt. Acta (1)

O. Salminen, T. Keinonen, “On Absorption and Refractive Index Modulations of Dichromated Gelatin Gratings,” Opt. Acta 29, 531–540 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

B. J. Chang, “Dichromated Gelatin Holograms and Their Applications,” Opt. Eng. 19, 642–648 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

J. M. Rebordão, A. A. Andrade, “Microwave Drying Effects on Dichromated Gelatin Holograms,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1051, 96–103 (1989).

Other (3)

M. Djabourov, “La Gélification Thermoréversible du Système Eau-Gelatine,” Thèse de Doctorat d'Etat es Sciences Physiques, Paris, U. Pierre et Marie Curie (1986).

J. Kosar, Light Sensitive Systems (Wiley, New York, 1965), Chap. 2.

H. J. Van Zante, The Microwave Oven (Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1973).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Index of refraction (top) and absorption coefficient (bottom) of liquid water as a function of frequency. The visible range is indicated by dashed lines. The arrow points to the 2.45-GHz microwaves. The absorption of water at this frequency, although 2 orders of magnitude higher than in the visible, is much weaker than at other resonance frequencies of the water, between 1013 and 1014 Hz. This graphic was taken from J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, New York, 1975).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Microwave and heating effects on wideband holographic mirrors. Four holograms were characterized, noted by the symbols and line types (—□—), (---Δ---), (- -*- -), and (— + —). (a) Diffraction efficiency as a function of wavelength for four holograms without microwave drying. (b) Diffraction efficiency as a function of wavelength after microwave drying (500-W microwave oven): —□—, 5 min; —Δ—, 10 min; – –* – –, 15 min; — + —, 20 min. (c) Diffraction efficiency as a function of wavelength after 10 min of heating at 110°C. (d) Diffraction efficiency as a function of wavelength after an additional 23 min of heating at 110°C.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Microwave and heating effects on narrowband holographic mirrors. Three holograms were characterized, noted by the symbols and line types (— * —), (--- ◊ ---), and (– – ○ – –). (a) Diffraction efficiency as a function of wavelength for the three holograms without microwave drying. (b) Diffraction efficiency as a function of wavelength after microwave drying (1000-W microwave oven): — * —, 2 min; --- ◊ ---, 4 min; – – ○ – –, 6 min. (c) Diffraction efficiency as a function of wavelength after 8 min of heating at 110°C.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Diffraction efficiency as a function of the reconstruction angle for the fourth hologram in Fig. 2, measured with the 488-nm line of an argon laser: (a) before microwave drying; (b) after 20-min exposure to microwaves; (c) after 10-min heating at 110°C; (d) the three curves of (a), (b), and (c) for comparison.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Development Processing of the Holograms

Tables Icon

Table II Experimental Results

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