Abstract

Diffractive–reflective optical interconnects (DROIs) for optical chip-to-chip interconnection were introduced in a 1988 paper. In this paper we demonstrate the use of total internal reflection for guiding the light inside the glass plate. The required holographic grating couplers were produced by expoiting the wavelength change from blue light recording to red light reconstruction. Several types of fan-out DROI have been made in dichromated gelatin.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. K.-H. Brenner, F. Sauer, “Diffractive–Reflective Optical Interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4251 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S. Y. Kung, R. Athale, “Optical Interconnections for VLSI Systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. K. Kostuk, J. W. Goodman, L. Hesselink, “Optical Imaging Applied to Microelectronic Chip-to-Chip Interconnections,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2851 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. L. A. Bergman, W. H. Wu, A. R. Johnston, R. Nixon, “Holographic Optical Interconnects for VLSI,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1109 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. R. Feldman, C. C. Guest, “Computer Generated Holographic Optical Elements for Optical Interconnection of Very Large Scale Integrated Circuits,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4377 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. B. J. Chang, S. K. Case, “Nonlinear Holographic Waveguide Coupler,” Appl. Opt. 15, 1800 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. R. Latta, R. V. Pole, “Design Techniques for Forming 488-nm Holographic Lenses with Reconstruction at 633 nm,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2418 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. A. Winick, “Designing Efficient Aberration-Free Holographic Lenses in the Presence of a Construction–Reconstruction Wavelength Shift,” J. Opt. Soc. AM. 72, 143 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. P. Herzig, “Holographic Optical Elements (HOE) for Semiconductor Lasers,” Opt. Commun. 58, 144 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Chen, R. R. Hershey, E. N. Leith, “Design of a Holographic Lens for the Infrared,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1983 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

1987

1986

H. P. Herzig, “Holographic Optical Elements (HOE) for Semiconductor Lasers,” Opt. Commun. 58, 144 (1986).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Bergman, W. H. Wu, A. R. Johnston, R. Nixon, “Holographic Optical Interconnects for VLSI,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1109 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

1984

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S. Y. Kung, R. Athale, “Optical Interconnections for VLSI Systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982

1979

1976

Athale, R.

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S. Y. Kung, R. Athale, “Optical Interconnections for VLSI Systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, L. A.

L. A. Bergman, W. H. Wu, A. R. Johnston, R. Nixon, “Holographic Optical Interconnects for VLSI,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1109 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Brenner, K.-H.

Case, S. K.

Chang, B. J.

Chen, H.

Feldman, M. R.

Goodman, J. W.

R. K. Kostuk, J. W. Goodman, L. Hesselink, “Optical Imaging Applied to Microelectronic Chip-to-Chip Interconnections,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2851 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S. Y. Kung, R. Athale, “Optical Interconnections for VLSI Systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Guest, C. C.

Hershey, R. R.

Herzig, H. P.

H. P. Herzig, “Holographic Optical Elements (HOE) for Semiconductor Lasers,” Opt. Commun. 58, 144 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hesselink, L.

Johnston, A. R.

L. A. Bergman, W. H. Wu, A. R. Johnston, R. Nixon, “Holographic Optical Interconnects for VLSI,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1109 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kostuk, R. K.

Kung, S. Y.

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S. Y. Kung, R. Athale, “Optical Interconnections for VLSI Systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Latta, M. R.

Leith, E. N.

Leonberger, F. J.

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S. Y. Kung, R. Athale, “Optical Interconnections for VLSI Systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Nixon, R.

L. A. Bergman, W. H. Wu, A. R. Johnston, R. Nixon, “Holographic Optical Interconnects for VLSI,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1109 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Pole, R. V.

Sauer, F.

Winick, K. A.

Wu, W. H.

L. A. Bergman, W. H. Wu, A. R. Johnston, R. Nixon, “Holographic Optical Interconnects for VLSI,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1109 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. Opt. Soc. AM.

Opt. Commun.

H. P. Herzig, “Holographic Optical Elements (HOE) for Semiconductor Lasers,” Opt. Commun. 58, 144 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

L. A. Bergman, W. H. Wu, A. R. Johnston, R. Nixon, “Holographic Optical Interconnects for VLSI,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1109 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S. Y. Kung, R. Athale, “Optical Interconnections for VLSI Systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diffractive–reflective optical interconnect (DROI). A first hololens couples the light emerging from a surface emitting source into a lightguiding plate, collimating the light at the same time. A second hololens couples the light out again and focuses it onto a photodetector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Grating with grating vector K can be produced by interfering two coherent beams with wave vectors kb1,kb2 or with wave vectors kr1,kr2. The longer the wavelength λ of the pair of waves, the larger the enclosed angle θ: λr > λbkr < kbθr > θb. If the grating is recorded as a volume hologram, this hologram will exhibit a coupled wavelength and angular selectivity governed by the Bragg equation |k * k| = ½K2, i.e., only beams which are among the possible recording beams will be efficiently diffracted.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Hologram recording with blue waves k b 1 and k b 2 ; GP is the glass plate and HE represents the holographic emulsion. The angles marked in the drawing are referred to in Figs. 5 and 6.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reconstruction of the hologram with original blue recording wave k b 1 (left) and corresponding red wave k r 1 (right), i.e., the refracted wave kr1 fulfills the Bragg equation inside the holographic grating. The geometry was chosen such that the difffracted red wave kr2 is trapped in the plate by total internal reflection. GP is the glass plate and HG represents the holographic grating.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Design of hologratings for reconstruction with a normally incident wave, i.e., i r 1 = 0 °. The computation is based on the Bragg equation and on Snell’s law of diffraction. The refractive indices of the holographic emulsion and the glass plate have both taken as n = 1.5. (a) Relationship between the recording angles i b 1 , i b 2 (in air) and the angle of the diffracted wave ir2 (inside the plate). Assumed is a wavelength shift from λ b = 488 nm to λ r = 780 nm. The total internal reflection will occur for ir2 ≥ 42°. (b) The recording angles i b 1 , i b 2 required for a total internal reflection grating with ir2= 42° depending on the reconstruction-to-recording wavelength ratio μ = μ = λ r / λ b . The wavelength ratio of μ =1.6 corresponds to the (a) where λ r = 780 nm and λ b = 488 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Examples of DROIs fabricated in dichromated gelatin. Recording was made with the 488-nm line of an argon laser, reconstruction with a laser diode of 780-nm wavelength. The laser diode was collimated with a 20× microscope objective to a beam with an elliptical cross section, ~2 × 5 mm2 in size. The size of the glass was 10 × 10 cm2 with a thickness of 6.5 mm in (a) and 5 mm in (b)–(d). To visualize the beams the scattered light has been enhanced by scanning a white sheet of paper along the beams during a long time exposure. With this technique the intensity of the light that is scattered during total internal reflection is highly exaggerated. (a) Ordinary DROI. The diffraction efficiency of the single gratings is ~90%; the output intensity, however, reached only 12% of the input intensity because of volume absorption in the float glass used. (b) Fan-out of 2 by a beam splitting detector grating. The first detector grating has a reduced diffraction efficiency; so the light which is not coupled out by this grating is totally reflected again and is coupled out by the second detector grating. (c) Fan-out of 2 by a beam splitting dectector grating. In this case the two beams exit the glass plate in opposite directions allowing the detectors to be placed on both sides of the glass plate. (d) Fan-out of 2 by a beam splitting source grating.

Metrics