Abstract

The results of an experimental investigation on the storage life and reprocessibility of methylene blue sensitized dichromated gelatin (MBDCG) holograms are reported. The major conclusions of the investigation are: (i) Storage of MBDCG holograms in normal laboratory conditions for long periods is possible and it diminishes somewhat their diffraction efficiency. (ii) The results on short time storage and long time storage are almost similar, thus indicating that the diffraction efficiency can be stabilized through storage in a relatively short period of time. (iii) The deterioration in the diffraction efficiency on storage is less [D(η) < 20%] for gratings of low/medium initial efficiency (η < 70%) and it is more for gratings of high initial efficiency. (iv) About 65–95% restoration of the diffraction efficiency can be accomplished through reprocessing. (v) The restoration of diffraction efficiency is almost perfect [R(η) > 80%] for gratings of low/medium initial efficiency (η < 75%) whereas it is rather imperfect for gratings having high initial efficiency.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. A. Shankoff. “Phase Holograms in Dichromated Gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 7, 2101 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. M. Smith, Ed., Holographic Recording Materials (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1977), pp. 75–99.
  3. B. J. Chang. “DCG as a Holographic Storage Medium,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 177, 71 (1979).
  4. B. J. Chang, C. D. Leonard, “Dichromated Gelatin for the Fabrication of Holographic Optical Elements,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2407 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. B. J. Chang, “DCG Holograms and Their Applications,” Opt. Eng. 19, 642 (1980).
  6. S. Sjolinder, “DCG and the Mechanism of Hologram Formation,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 25, 112 (1981).
  7. M. Mazakova, M. Pancheva, P. Kandilarov, P. Sharlandjiev, “DCG for Volume Holographic Recording with High Sensitivity—Part I,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 14, 311 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Mazakova, M. Pancheva, P. Kandilarov, P. Sharlandjiev, “DCG for Volume Holographic Recording with High Sensitivity—Part II,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 14, 317 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y.-Z. Liang, D. Zhao, H.-K. Liu, “Multifocus Dichromated Gelatin Hololens,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3451 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Calixto, R. A. Lessard, “Real-Time Holography with Undeveloped Dichromated Gelatin Films,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1989 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. K. Case, “Hologram Mosaics Recorded on Dichromated Gelatin for Laser Beam Deflection or for Forming Complex Images,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3728 (1984); (S. K. Case, patent4,455,061, 19June1984).
  12. S. Sjolinder, “Bandwidth in Dichromated Gelatin Holographic Filters,” Opt. Acta. 31, 1001 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Ishii, K. Murata, “Flat-Field Linearized Scans with Reflection Dichromated Gelatin Holographic Gratings,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1999 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. Calixto, R. A. Lessard, “Diffraction Efficiency Improvement of Undeveloped Dichromated Gelatin Gratings,” Appl. Opt. 24, 317 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. C. Solano, R. A. Lessard, P. C. Roberge, “Red Sensitivity of Dichromated Gelatin Films,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1189 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. D. J. McCartney, D. B. Payne, S. S. Duncan, “Position-Tunable Holographic Filters in Dichromated Gelatin for Use in Single Mode Fiber Demultiplexers,” Opt. Lett. 10, 303 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. Sjolinder, “Dichromated Gelatin and Light Sensitivity,” J. Image Sci. 30, 151 (1986).
  18. T. G. Georgekutty, H.-K. Liu, “Simplified Dichromated Gelatin Recording Process,” Appl. Opt. 26, 372 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. A. Graube, “Holograms Recorded with Red Light in Dye Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin,” Opt. Commun. 8, 251 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  20. T. Kubota, T. Ose, M. Sasaki, K. Honda, “Hologram Formation with Red Light in Methylene Blue Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 15, 556 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. T. Kubota, T. Ose, “Methods of Increasing the Sensitivity of Methylene Blue Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2538 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. Changkakoti, S. V. Pappu, “Study on the pH Dependence of Diffraction Efficiency of Phase Holograms in Dye Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 25, 798 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. R. Changkakoti, S. S. C. Babu, S. V. Pappu, “Role of External Electron Donor in Methylene Blue Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin Holograms: an Experimental Study,” Appl. Opt. 27, 324 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. H. G. Kogelnik, “Coupled Wave Theory for Thick Holograms,” Bell. Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
  25. N. J. Phillips, A. A. Ward, R. Cullen, D. Porter, “Advances in Holographic Bleaches,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 24, 120 (1980).

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

1986 (2)

1985 (3)

1984 (4)

S. Calixto, R. A. Lessard, “Real-Time Holography with Undeveloped Dichromated Gelatin Films,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1989 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Case, “Hologram Mosaics Recorded on Dichromated Gelatin for Laser Beam Deflection or for Forming Complex Images,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3728 (1984); (S. K. Case, patent4,455,061, 19June1984).

S. Sjolinder, “Bandwidth in Dichromated Gelatin Holographic Filters,” Opt. Acta. 31, 1001 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ishii, K. Murata, “Flat-Field Linearized Scans with Reflection Dichromated Gelatin Holographic Gratings,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1999 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

1982 (2)

M. Mazakova, M. Pancheva, P. Kandilarov, P. Sharlandjiev, “DCG for Volume Holographic Recording with High Sensitivity—Part I,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 14, 311 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. Mazakova, M. Pancheva, P. Kandilarov, P. Sharlandjiev, “DCG for Volume Holographic Recording with High Sensitivity—Part II,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 14, 317 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

S. Sjolinder, “DCG and the Mechanism of Hologram Formation,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 25, 112 (1981).

1980 (2)

B. J. Chang, “DCG Holograms and Their Applications,” Opt. Eng. 19, 642 (1980).

N. J. Phillips, A. A. Ward, R. Cullen, D. Porter, “Advances in Holographic Bleaches,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 24, 120 (1980).

1979 (3)

T. Kubota, T. Ose, “Methods of Increasing the Sensitivity of Methylene Blue Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2538 (1979).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Chang. “DCG as a Holographic Storage Medium,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 177, 71 (1979).

B. J. Chang, C. D. Leonard, “Dichromated Gelatin for the Fabrication of Holographic Optical Elements,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2407 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976 (1)

1973 (1)

A. Graube, “Holograms Recorded with Red Light in Dye Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin,” Opt. Commun. 8, 251 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

H. G. Kogelnik, “Coupled Wave Theory for Thick Holograms,” Bell. Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).

1968 (1)

Babu, S. S. C.

Calixto, S.

S. Calixto, R. A. Lessard, “Diffraction Efficiency Improvement of Undeveloped Dichromated Gelatin Gratings,” Appl. Opt. 24, 317 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Calixto, R. A. Lessard, “Real-Time Holography with Undeveloped Dichromated Gelatin Films,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1989 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Case, S. K.

S. K. Case, “Hologram Mosaics Recorded on Dichromated Gelatin for Laser Beam Deflection or for Forming Complex Images,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3728 (1984); (S. K. Case, patent4,455,061, 19June1984).

Chang, B. J.

B. J. Chang, “DCG Holograms and Their Applications,” Opt. Eng. 19, 642 (1980).

B. J. Chang. “DCG as a Holographic Storage Medium,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 177, 71 (1979).

B. J. Chang, C. D. Leonard, “Dichromated Gelatin for the Fabrication of Holographic Optical Elements,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2407 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Changkakoti, R.

Cullen, R.

N. J. Phillips, A. A. Ward, R. Cullen, D. Porter, “Advances in Holographic Bleaches,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 24, 120 (1980).

Duncan, S. S.

Georgekutty, T. G.

Graube, A.

A. Graube, “Holograms Recorded with Red Light in Dye Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin,” Opt. Commun. 8, 251 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Honda, K.

Ishii, Y.

Kandilarov, P.

M. Mazakova, M. Pancheva, P. Kandilarov, P. Sharlandjiev, “DCG for Volume Holographic Recording with High Sensitivity—Part I,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 14, 311 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. Mazakova, M. Pancheva, P. Kandilarov, P. Sharlandjiev, “DCG for Volume Holographic Recording with High Sensitivity—Part II,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 14, 317 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H. G.

H. G. Kogelnik, “Coupled Wave Theory for Thick Holograms,” Bell. Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).

Kubota, T.

Leonard, C. D.

B. J. Chang, C. D. Leonard, “Dichromated Gelatin for the Fabrication of Holographic Optical Elements,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2407 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lessard, R. A.

Liang, Y.-Z.

Liu, H.-K.

Mazakova, M.

M. Mazakova, M. Pancheva, P. Kandilarov, P. Sharlandjiev, “DCG for Volume Holographic Recording with High Sensitivity—Part II,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 14, 317 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. Mazakova, M. Pancheva, P. Kandilarov, P. Sharlandjiev, “DCG for Volume Holographic Recording with High Sensitivity—Part I,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 14, 311 (1982).
[CrossRef]

McCartney, D. J.

Murata, K.

Ose, T.

Pancheva, M.

M. Mazakova, M. Pancheva, P. Kandilarov, P. Sharlandjiev, “DCG for Volume Holographic Recording with High Sensitivity—Part I,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 14, 311 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. Mazakova, M. Pancheva, P. Kandilarov, P. Sharlandjiev, “DCG for Volume Holographic Recording with High Sensitivity—Part II,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 14, 317 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Pappu, S. V.

Payne, D. B.

Phillips, N. J.

N. J. Phillips, A. A. Ward, R. Cullen, D. Porter, “Advances in Holographic Bleaches,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 24, 120 (1980).

Porter, D.

N. J. Phillips, A. A. Ward, R. Cullen, D. Porter, “Advances in Holographic Bleaches,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 24, 120 (1980).

Roberge, P. C.

Sasaki, M.

Shankoff, T. A.

Sharlandjiev, P.

M. Mazakova, M. Pancheva, P. Kandilarov, P. Sharlandjiev, “DCG for Volume Holographic Recording with High Sensitivity—Part II,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 14, 317 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. Mazakova, M. Pancheva, P. Kandilarov, P. Sharlandjiev, “DCG for Volume Holographic Recording with High Sensitivity—Part I,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 14, 311 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sjolinder, S.

S. Sjolinder, “Dichromated Gelatin and Light Sensitivity,” J. Image Sci. 30, 151 (1986).

S. Sjolinder, “Bandwidth in Dichromated Gelatin Holographic Filters,” Opt. Acta. 31, 1001 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. Sjolinder, “DCG and the Mechanism of Hologram Formation,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 25, 112 (1981).

Solano, C.

Ward, A. A.

N. J. Phillips, A. A. Ward, R. Cullen, D. Porter, “Advances in Holographic Bleaches,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 24, 120 (1980).

Zhao, D.

Appl. Opt. (2)

B. J. Chang, C. D. Leonard, “Dichromated Gelatin for the Fabrication of Holographic Optical Elements,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2407 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Calixto, R. A. Lessard, “Real-Time Holography with Undeveloped Dichromated Gelatin Films,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1989 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (11)

S. K. Case, “Hologram Mosaics Recorded on Dichromated Gelatin for Laser Beam Deflection or for Forming Complex Images,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3728 (1984); (S. K. Case, patent4,455,061, 19June1984).

T. A. Shankoff. “Phase Holograms in Dichromated Gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 7, 2101 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kubota, T. Ose, M. Sasaki, K. Honda, “Hologram Formation with Red Light in Methylene Blue Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 15, 556 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-Z. Liang, D. Zhao, H.-K. Liu, “Multifocus Dichromated Gelatin Hololens,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3451 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ishii, K. Murata, “Flat-Field Linearized Scans with Reflection Dichromated Gelatin Holographic Gratings,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1999 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Solano, R. A. Lessard, P. C. Roberge, “Red Sensitivity of Dichromated Gelatin Films,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1189 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Changkakoti, S. V. Pappu, “Study on the pH Dependence of Diffraction Efficiency of Phase Holograms in Dye Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 25, 798 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. G. Georgekutty, H.-K. Liu, “Simplified Dichromated Gelatin Recording Process,” Appl. Opt. 26, 372 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Changkakoti, S. S. C. Babu, S. V. Pappu, “Role of External Electron Donor in Methylene Blue Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin Holograms: an Experimental Study,” Appl. Opt. 27, 324 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kubota, T. Ose, “Methods of Increasing the Sensitivity of Methylene Blue Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2538 (1979).
[CrossRef]

S. Calixto, R. A. Lessard, “Diffraction Efficiency Improvement of Undeveloped Dichromated Gelatin Gratings,” Appl. Opt. 24, 317 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bell. Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. G. Kogelnik, “Coupled Wave Theory for Thick Holograms,” Bell. Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).

J. Image Sci. (1)

S. Sjolinder, “Dichromated Gelatin and Light Sensitivity,” J. Image Sci. 30, 151 (1986).

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Graube, “Holograms Recorded with Red Light in Dye Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin,” Opt. Commun. 8, 251 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. Mazakova, M. Pancheva, P. Kandilarov, P. Sharlandjiev, “DCG for Volume Holographic Recording with High Sensitivity—Part I,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 14, 311 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. Mazakova, M. Pancheva, P. Kandilarov, P. Sharlandjiev, “DCG for Volume Holographic Recording with High Sensitivity—Part II,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 14, 317 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta. (1)

S. Sjolinder, “Bandwidth in Dichromated Gelatin Holographic Filters,” Opt. Acta. 31, 1001 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

B. J. Chang, “DCG Holograms and Their Applications,” Opt. Eng. 19, 642 (1980).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photogr. Sci. Eng. (2)

N. J. Phillips, A. A. Ward, R. Cullen, D. Porter, “Advances in Holographic Bleaches,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 24, 120 (1980).

S. Sjolinder, “DCG and the Mechanism of Hologram Formation,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 25, 112 (1981).

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

B. J. Chang. “DCG as a Holographic Storage Medium,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 177, 71 (1979).

Other (1)

H. M. Smith, Ed., Holographic Recording Materials (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1977), pp. 75–99.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Reconstruction from atypical MBDCG volume holographic grating showing the zero order (i.e., darker spot) and the lone first order (i.e., brighter spot), thus illustrating its performance in the Bragg diffraction regime.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Plot of decreased diffraction efficiency D(η) vs the initial diffraction efficiency η1 of MBDCG volume holographic gratings illustrating the influence of storage on their diffraction efficiency: (a) after 4 days storage and (b) after over 2 years storage.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plot of restored diffraction efficiency R(η) vs initial diffraction efficiency η1 of MBDCG volume holographic gratings illustrating the influence of reprocessing on their diffraction efficiency.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Procedures for Making MBDCG Holograms

Tables Icon

Table II Decreased Diffraction Efficiency of MBDCG Holograms Due to Storage

Tables Icon

Table III Restored Diffraction Efficiency of MBDCG Holograms After Reprocessing

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Q = 2 π λ d n 0 Λ 2
η = I 1 I T .
D ( η ) = η 1 - η 2 η 1 × 100 ,
R ( η ) = ( 1 - η 1 - η 3 η 1 ) × 100 ,

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