Abstract

Deposition parameters required for producing zirconia films for use in optical multilayer systems by electron-beam gun evaporation of zirconia and zirconium starting materials were investigated. The optical constants were determined as a function of distance, partial pressure of oxygen, and angle of incidence. The direct and reactive evaporation processes yielded ZrO2 films with refractive indices of 2.08 and 2.14, respectively, for vapor incident on the substrate at normal incidence.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. A. Dobrowolski, S. H. Lewis, M. Ranger, A. Waldorf, R. L. Wilkinson, “Design of a Prototype Semi-Continuous Roll Coater for Optical Multilayers,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, 40–45 (1982).
  2. W. T. Pawlewicz, D. D. Hays, “Microstructure Control for Sputter-Deposited ZrO2, ZrO2.CaO and Zr02.Y2O3,” Thin Solid Films 94, 31–45 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. M. Gilmore, C. Quinn, E. F. Skelton, C. R. Gossett, S. B. Qadri, “Stabilized Zirconia-Alumina Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 2598–2600 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. S. Fancey, A. Matthews, “Ionization Assisted Physical Vapour Deposition of Zirconia Thermal Barrier Coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 2656–2660 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Croset, P. Schnell, G. Velasco, J. Siejka, “Study of Calcia-Stabilized Zirconia Thin-Film Sensors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 14, 777–781 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Croset, L. M. Mercandalli, J. Siejka, “Calcia-Stabilized Zirconia Thin Films in GaAs Metal/Insulator/Semiconductor Technology: Reduction of GaAs Native Oxide,” Thin Solid Films 103, 221–242 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. L. Barr, L. B. Welsh, F. R. Szofran, J. E. Greene, R. E. Klinger, “Surface Studies of Y2O3-Doped CeO2 and ZrO2 Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 15, 341–342 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Hisaki, G. Negishi, S. Watanabe, H. Kashiwagi, “Excimer Laser Mirror,” J. Vac. Soc. Jpn. 21, 365–371 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. K. Stefaniak, “Use of Zirconium Dioxide Multilayer Dielectric Coatings for the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrum,” Opt. Appl. 10, 445–450 (1980).
  10. K. V. S. R. Apparao, N. K. Sahoo, T. C. Bagchi, “Low Loss ZrO2 Films for Optical Applications in the UV Region,” Thin Solid Films 129, L71–L73 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. V. S. R. Apparao, N. K. Sahoo, T. C. Bagchi, “Optical Constants of ZrO2 Films in the UV Region,” Ind. J. Phys. 60A, 216–223 (1986).
  12. D. L. Wood, K. Nassan, “Refractive Index of Cubic Zirconia Stabilized with Yttria,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2978–2981 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. V. P. Povoshchenko, N. G. Kostyuchenko, T. I. Demidovich, Ya. V. Petlitskaya, Zh. P. Trofimova, V. M. Kholodov, “Application of a Mathematical Statistical Method to the Optimization of Conditions for the Deposition of Vacuum Optical Coatings,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 52, 221–223 (1985).
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    [CrossRef]
  18. H. K. Pulker, “Characterization of Optical Thin Films,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1969–1977 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. Balog, M. Schieber, M. Michman, S. Patai, “The Chemical Vapour Deposition and Characterization of ZrO2 Films from Organometallic Compounds,” Thin Solid Films 47, 109–120 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  20. E. N. Farabaugh, D. M. Sanders, “Microstructure of Dielectric Thin Films Formed by e-Beam Coevaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 1, 356–359 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. Feldman, E. N. Farabaugh, W. K. Haller, D. M. Sanders, R. A. Stempniak, “Modifying Structure and Properties of Optical Films by Coevaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A4, 2969– 2974 (1986).
  22. P. J. Martin, H. A. Macleod, R. P. Netterfield, C. G. Pacey, W. G. Sainty, “Ion-Beam-Assisted Deposition of Thin Films,” Appl. Opt. 22, 178–184 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, W. G. Sainty, G. J. Clark, W. A. Lanford, S. H. Sie, “Ion-Assisted Deposition of Bulklike ZrO2 Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 711–713 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  24. P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, W. G. Sainty, “Modification of the Optical and Structural Properties of Dielectric ZrO2 Films by Ion-Assisted Deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 55, 235–241 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  25. P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, W. G. Sainty, C. G. Pacey, “The Preparation and Characterization of Optical Thin Films Produced by Ion-Assisted Deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A2, 341–345 (1984).
  26. K.-H. Muller, “Model for Ion-Assisted Thin-Film Densification,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 2803–2807 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  27. K.-H. Muller, R. P. Netterfield, P. J. Martin, “Dynamics of Zirconium Oxide Thin-Film Growth and Ion-Beam Etching,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 2934–2941 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. A. Dobrowolski, F. C. Ho, D. Menagh, R. Simpson, A. Waldorf, “Transparent, Conducting Indium Tin Oxide Films Formed on Low or Medium Temperature Substrates by Ion-Assisted Deposition,” Appl. Opt. 26, 5204–5210 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. R. Blickensderfer, R. L. Lincoln, P. A. Romans, “Reactive Sputtering of Zirconium with Oxygen,” Thin Solid Films 37, L73–L75 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  30. H. Sankur, J. DeNatale, W. Gunning, J. G. Nelson, “Dense Crystalline ZrO2 Thin Films Deposited by Pulsed-Laser Evaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 2869–2874 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  31. H. K. Pulker, M. Buhler, R. Hora, K. H. Guenther, “Reactive Ion Plating Deposition of Sui Generis Optical Coatings,” in Technical Digest, Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1987), p. 115.
  32. D. P. Arndt et al., “Multiple Determination of the Optical Constants of Thin-Film Coating Materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. G. A. Muranova, E. I. Fodeeva, A. F. Perveev, “Dependance of the Index of Refraction and Microporosity of Zirconium Dioxide Films on the Deposition Conditions,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 44, 682–683 (1977).
  34. H. Taguchi, Y. Takahashi, C. Matsumoto, “Optical Properties of Thin Films of Zirconium Dioxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 19, 1417–1418 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  35. D. Smith, P. Baumeister, “Refractive Index of Some Oxide and Fluoride Coating Materials,” Appl. Opt. 18, 111–115 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. L. Holland, W. Steckelmacher, “The Distribution of Thin Films Condensed on Surfaces by the Vacuum Evaporation Method,” Vacuum 2, 346–364 (1952).
    [CrossRef]
  37. N. M. Bashara, Y.-K. Eng, “Optical Properties of Zircaloy and Zircaloy Oxide by Ellipsometry,” App. Opt. 19, 3245–3251 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  38. Gmelin's Handbuch der Anorganischen Chemie, Vol. 42, p. 208

1988

T. Hisaki, G. Negishi, S. Watanabe, H. Kashiwagi, “Excimer Laser Mirror,” J. Vac. Soc. Jpn. 21, 365–371 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

K.-H. Muller, R. P. Netterfield, P. J. Martin, “Dynamics of Zirconium Oxide Thin-Film Growth and Ion-Beam Etching,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 2934–2941 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Dobrowolski, F. C. Ho, D. Menagh, R. Simpson, A. Waldorf, “Transparent, Conducting Indium Tin Oxide Films Formed on Low or Medium Temperature Substrates by Ion-Assisted Deposition,” Appl. Opt. 26, 5204–5210 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Sankur, J. DeNatale, W. Gunning, J. G. Nelson, “Dense Crystalline ZrO2 Thin Films Deposited by Pulsed-Laser Evaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 2869–2874 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

K.-H. Muller, “Model for Ion-Assisted Thin-Film Densification,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 2803–2807 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. Feldman, E. N. Farabaugh, W. K. Haller, D. M. Sanders, R. A. Stempniak, “Modifying Structure and Properties of Optical Films by Coevaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A4, 2969– 2974 (1986).

C. M. Gilmore, C. Quinn, E. F. Skelton, C. R. Gossett, S. B. Qadri, “Stabilized Zirconia-Alumina Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 2598–2600 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Fancey, A. Matthews, “Ionization Assisted Physical Vapour Deposition of Zirconia Thermal Barrier Coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 2656–2660 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. V. S. R. Apparao, N. K. Sahoo, T. C. Bagchi, “Optical Constants of ZrO2 Films in the UV Region,” Ind. J. Phys. 60A, 216–223 (1986).

1985

V. P. Povoshchenko, N. G. Kostyuchenko, T. I. Demidovich, Ya. V. Petlitskaya, Zh. P. Trofimova, V. M. Kholodov, “Application of a Mathematical Statistical Method to the Optimization of Conditions for the Deposition of Vacuum Optical Coatings,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 52, 221–223 (1985).

R. E. Klinger, C. K. Carniglia, “Optical and Crystalline Inhomogeneity in Evaporated Zirconia Films,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3184–3187 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. V. S. R. Apparao, N. K. Sahoo, T. C. Bagchi, “Low Loss ZrO2 Films for Optical Applications in the UV Region,” Thin Solid Films 129, L71–L73 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984

P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, W. G. Sainty, “Modification of the Optical and Structural Properties of Dielectric ZrO2 Films by Ion-Assisted Deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 55, 235–241 (1984).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, W. G. Sainty, C. G. Pacey, “The Preparation and Characterization of Optical Thin Films Produced by Ion-Assisted Deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A2, 341–345 (1984).

D. P. Arndt et al., “Multiple Determination of the Optical Constants of Thin-Film Coating Materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983

E. N. Farabaugh, D. M. Sanders, “Microstructure of Dielectric Thin Films Formed by e-Beam Coevaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 1, 356–359 (1983).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Martin, H. A. Macleod, R. P. Netterfield, C. G. Pacey, W. G. Sainty, “Ion-Beam-Assisted Deposition of Thin Films,” Appl. Opt. 22, 178–184 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, W. G. Sainty, G. J. Clark, W. A. Lanford, S. H. Sie, “Ion-Assisted Deposition of Bulklike ZrO2 Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 711–713 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. Croset, L. M. Mercandalli, J. Siejka, “Calcia-Stabilized Zirconia Thin Films in GaAs Metal/Insulator/Semiconductor Technology: Reduction of GaAs Native Oxide,” Thin Solid Films 103, 221–242 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

J. A. Dobrowolski, S. H. Lewis, M. Ranger, A. Waldorf, R. L. Wilkinson, “Design of a Prototype Semi-Continuous Roll Coater for Optical Multilayers,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, 40–45 (1982).

W. T. Pawlewicz, D. D. Hays, “Microstructure Control for Sputter-Deposited ZrO2, ZrO2.CaO and Zr02.Y2O3,” Thin Solid Films 94, 31–45 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Wood, K. Nassan, “Refractive Index of Cubic Zirconia Stabilized with Yttria,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2978–2981 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980

T. K. Stefaniak, “Use of Zirconium Dioxide Multilayer Dielectric Coatings for the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrum,” Opt. Appl. 10, 445–450 (1980).

H. Taguchi, Y. Takahashi, C. Matsumoto, “Optical Properties of Thin Films of Zirconium Dioxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 19, 1417–1418 (1980).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Bashara, Y.-K. Eng, “Optical Properties of Zircaloy and Zircaloy Oxide by Ellipsometry,” App. Opt. 19, 3245–3251 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979

1978

T. L. Barr, L. B. Welsh, F. R. Szofran, J. E. Greene, R. E. Klinger, “Surface Studies of Y2O3-Doped CeO2 and ZrO2 Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 15, 341–342 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977

M. Croset, P. Schnell, G. Velasco, J. Siejka, “Study of Calcia-Stabilized Zirconia Thin-Film Sensors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 14, 777–781 (1977).
[CrossRef]

M. Balog, M. Schieber, M. Michman, S. Patai, “The Chemical Vapour Deposition and Characterization of ZrO2 Films from Organometallic Compounds,” Thin Solid Films 47, 109–120 (1977).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Muranova, E. I. Fodeeva, A. F. Perveev, “Dependance of the Index of Refraction and Microporosity of Zirconium Dioxide Films on the Deposition Conditions,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 44, 682–683 (1977).

1976

1975

E. E. Khawaja, S. G. Tomlin, “The Optical Properties of Thin Films of Tantalum Pentoxide and Zirconium Dioxide,” Thin Solid Films 30, 361–369 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1952

L. Holland, W. Steckelmacher, “The Distribution of Thin Films Condensed on Surfaces by the Vacuum Evaporation Method,” Vacuum 2, 346–364 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Apparao, K. V. S. R.

K. V. S. R. Apparao, N. K. Sahoo, T. C. Bagchi, “Optical Constants of ZrO2 Films in the UV Region,” Ind. J. Phys. 60A, 216–223 (1986).

K. V. S. R. Apparao, N. K. Sahoo, T. C. Bagchi, “Low Loss ZrO2 Films for Optical Applications in the UV Region,” Thin Solid Films 129, L71–L73 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Arndt, D. P.

Bagchi, T. C.

K. V. S. R. Apparao, N. K. Sahoo, T. C. Bagchi, “Optical Constants of ZrO2 Films in the UV Region,” Ind. J. Phys. 60A, 216–223 (1986).

K. V. S. R. Apparao, N. K. Sahoo, T. C. Bagchi, “Low Loss ZrO2 Films for Optical Applications in the UV Region,” Thin Solid Films 129, L71–L73 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Balog, M.

M. Balog, M. Schieber, M. Michman, S. Patai, “The Chemical Vapour Deposition and Characterization of ZrO2 Films from Organometallic Compounds,” Thin Solid Films 47, 109–120 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Barr, T. L.

T. L. Barr, L. B. Welsh, F. R. Szofran, J. E. Greene, R. E. Klinger, “Surface Studies of Y2O3-Doped CeO2 and ZrO2 Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 15, 341–342 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Bashara, N. M.

N. M. Bashara, Y.-K. Eng, “Optical Properties of Zircaloy and Zircaloy Oxide by Ellipsometry,” App. Opt. 19, 3245–3251 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Baumeister, P.

Blickensderfer, R.

R. Blickensderfer, R. L. Lincoln, P. A. Romans, “Reactive Sputtering of Zirconium with Oxygen,” Thin Solid Films 37, L73–L75 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Buhler, M.

H. K. Pulker, M. Buhler, R. Hora, K. H. Guenther, “Reactive Ion Plating Deposition of Sui Generis Optical Coatings,” in Technical Digest, Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1987), p. 115.

Carniglia, C. K.

Clark, G. J.

P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, W. G. Sainty, G. J. Clark, W. A. Lanford, S. H. Sie, “Ion-Assisted Deposition of Bulklike ZrO2 Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 711–713 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Croset, M.

M. Croset, L. M. Mercandalli, J. Siejka, “Calcia-Stabilized Zirconia Thin Films in GaAs Metal/Insulator/Semiconductor Technology: Reduction of GaAs Native Oxide,” Thin Solid Films 103, 221–242 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. Croset, P. Schnell, G. Velasco, J. Siejka, “Study of Calcia-Stabilized Zirconia Thin-Film Sensors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 14, 777–781 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Demidovich, T. I.

V. P. Povoshchenko, N. G. Kostyuchenko, T. I. Demidovich, Ya. V. Petlitskaya, Zh. P. Trofimova, V. M. Kholodov, “Application of a Mathematical Statistical Method to the Optimization of Conditions for the Deposition of Vacuum Optical Coatings,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 52, 221–223 (1985).

DeNatale, J.

H. Sankur, J. DeNatale, W. Gunning, J. G. Nelson, “Dense Crystalline ZrO2 Thin Films Deposited by Pulsed-Laser Evaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 2869–2874 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Dobrowolski, J. A.

J. A. Dobrowolski, F. C. Ho, D. Menagh, R. Simpson, A. Waldorf, “Transparent, Conducting Indium Tin Oxide Films Formed on Low or Medium Temperature Substrates by Ion-Assisted Deposition,” Appl. Opt. 26, 5204–5210 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dobrowolski, S. H. Lewis, M. Ranger, A. Waldorf, R. L. Wilkinson, “Design of a Prototype Semi-Continuous Roll Coater for Optical Multilayers,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, 40–45 (1982).

Eng, Y.-K.

N. M. Bashara, Y.-K. Eng, “Optical Properties of Zircaloy and Zircaloy Oxide by Ellipsometry,” App. Opt. 19, 3245–3251 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Esselborn, R.

Fancey, K. S.

K. S. Fancey, A. Matthews, “Ionization Assisted Physical Vapour Deposition of Zirconia Thermal Barrier Coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 2656–2660 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Farabaugh, E. N.

A. Feldman, E. N. Farabaugh, W. K. Haller, D. M. Sanders, R. A. Stempniak, “Modifying Structure and Properties of Optical Films by Coevaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A4, 2969– 2974 (1986).

E. N. Farabaugh, D. M. Sanders, “Microstructure of Dielectric Thin Films Formed by e-Beam Coevaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 1, 356–359 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, A.

A. Feldman, E. N. Farabaugh, W. K. Haller, D. M. Sanders, R. A. Stempniak, “Modifying Structure and Properties of Optical Films by Coevaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A4, 2969– 2974 (1986).

Fodeeva, E. I.

G. A. Muranova, E. I. Fodeeva, A. F. Perveev, “Dependance of the Index of Refraction and Microporosity of Zirconium Dioxide Films on the Deposition Conditions,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 44, 682–683 (1977).

Friz, M.

Gilmore, C. M.

C. M. Gilmore, C. Quinn, E. F. Skelton, C. R. Gossett, S. B. Qadri, “Stabilized Zirconia-Alumina Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 2598–2600 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Gossett, C. R.

C. M. Gilmore, C. Quinn, E. F. Skelton, C. R. Gossett, S. B. Qadri, “Stabilized Zirconia-Alumina Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 2598–2600 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Greene, J. E.

T. L. Barr, L. B. Welsh, F. R. Szofran, J. E. Greene, R. E. Klinger, “Surface Studies of Y2O3-Doped CeO2 and ZrO2 Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 15, 341–342 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, K. H.

H. K. Pulker, M. Buhler, R. Hora, K. H. Guenther, “Reactive Ion Plating Deposition of Sui Generis Optical Coatings,” in Technical Digest, Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1987), p. 115.

Gunning, W.

H. Sankur, J. DeNatale, W. Gunning, J. G. Nelson, “Dense Crystalline ZrO2 Thin Films Deposited by Pulsed-Laser Evaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 2869–2874 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Haller, W. K.

A. Feldman, E. N. Farabaugh, W. K. Haller, D. M. Sanders, R. A. Stempniak, “Modifying Structure and Properties of Optical Films by Coevaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A4, 2969– 2974 (1986).

Harder, N.

Hays, D. D.

W. T. Pawlewicz, D. D. Hays, “Microstructure Control for Sputter-Deposited ZrO2, ZrO2.CaO and Zr02.Y2O3,” Thin Solid Films 94, 31–45 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hisaki, T.

T. Hisaki, G. Negishi, S. Watanabe, H. Kashiwagi, “Excimer Laser Mirror,” J. Vac. Soc. Jpn. 21, 365–371 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ho, F. C.

Holland, L.

L. Holland, W. Steckelmacher, “The Distribution of Thin Films Condensed on Surfaces by the Vacuum Evaporation Method,” Vacuum 2, 346–364 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Hora, R.

H. K. Pulker, M. Buhler, R. Hora, K. H. Guenther, “Reactive Ion Plating Deposition of Sui Generis Optical Coatings,” in Technical Digest, Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1987), p. 115.

Kashiwagi, H.

T. Hisaki, G. Negishi, S. Watanabe, H. Kashiwagi, “Excimer Laser Mirror,” J. Vac. Soc. Jpn. 21, 365–371 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Khawaja, E. E.

E. E. Khawaja, S. G. Tomlin, “The Optical Properties of Thin Films of Tantalum Pentoxide and Zirconium Dioxide,” Thin Solid Films 30, 361–369 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Kholodov, V. M.

V. P. Povoshchenko, N. G. Kostyuchenko, T. I. Demidovich, Ya. V. Petlitskaya, Zh. P. Trofimova, V. M. Kholodov, “Application of a Mathematical Statistical Method to the Optimization of Conditions for the Deposition of Vacuum Optical Coatings,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 52, 221–223 (1985).

Klinger, R. E.

R. E. Klinger, C. K. Carniglia, “Optical and Crystalline Inhomogeneity in Evaporated Zirconia Films,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3184–3187 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. L. Barr, L. B. Welsh, F. R. Szofran, J. E. Greene, R. E. Klinger, “Surface Studies of Y2O3-Doped CeO2 and ZrO2 Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 15, 341–342 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kostyuchenko, N. G.

V. P. Povoshchenko, N. G. Kostyuchenko, T. I. Demidovich, Ya. V. Petlitskaya, Zh. P. Trofimova, V. M. Kholodov, “Application of a Mathematical Statistical Method to the Optimization of Conditions for the Deposition of Vacuum Optical Coatings,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 52, 221–223 (1985).

Lanford, W. A.

P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, W. G. Sainty, G. J. Clark, W. A. Lanford, S. H. Sie, “Ion-Assisted Deposition of Bulklike ZrO2 Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 711–713 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, S. H.

J. A. Dobrowolski, S. H. Lewis, M. Ranger, A. Waldorf, R. L. Wilkinson, “Design of a Prototype Semi-Continuous Roll Coater for Optical Multilayers,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, 40–45 (1982).

Lincoln, R. L.

R. Blickensderfer, R. L. Lincoln, P. A. Romans, “Reactive Sputtering of Zirconium with Oxygen,” Thin Solid Films 37, L73–L75 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Macleod, H. A.

Martin, P. J.

K.-H. Muller, R. P. Netterfield, P. J. Martin, “Dynamics of Zirconium Oxide Thin-Film Growth and Ion-Beam Etching,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 2934–2941 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, W. G. Sainty, “Modification of the Optical and Structural Properties of Dielectric ZrO2 Films by Ion-Assisted Deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 55, 235–241 (1984).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, W. G. Sainty, C. G. Pacey, “The Preparation and Characterization of Optical Thin Films Produced by Ion-Assisted Deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A2, 341–345 (1984).

P. J. Martin, H. A. Macleod, R. P. Netterfield, C. G. Pacey, W. G. Sainty, “Ion-Beam-Assisted Deposition of Thin Films,” Appl. Opt. 22, 178–184 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, W. G. Sainty, G. J. Clark, W. A. Lanford, S. H. Sie, “Ion-Assisted Deposition of Bulklike ZrO2 Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 711–713 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, C.

H. Taguchi, Y. Takahashi, C. Matsumoto, “Optical Properties of Thin Films of Zirconium Dioxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 19, 1417–1418 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Matthews, A.

K. S. Fancey, A. Matthews, “Ionization Assisted Physical Vapour Deposition of Zirconia Thermal Barrier Coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 2656–2660 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Menagh, D.

Mercandalli, L. M.

M. Croset, L. M. Mercandalli, J. Siejka, “Calcia-Stabilized Zirconia Thin Films in GaAs Metal/Insulator/Semiconductor Technology: Reduction of GaAs Native Oxide,” Thin Solid Films 103, 221–242 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Michman, M.

M. Balog, M. Schieber, M. Michman, S. Patai, “The Chemical Vapour Deposition and Characterization of ZrO2 Films from Organometallic Compounds,” Thin Solid Films 47, 109–120 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Muller, K.-H.

K.-H. Muller, R. P. Netterfield, P. J. Martin, “Dynamics of Zirconium Oxide Thin-Film Growth and Ion-Beam Etching,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 2934–2941 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K.-H. Muller, “Model for Ion-Assisted Thin-Film Densification,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 2803–2807 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Muranova, G. A.

G. A. Muranova, E. I. Fodeeva, A. F. Perveev, “Dependance of the Index of Refraction and Microporosity of Zirconium Dioxide Films on the Deposition Conditions,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 44, 682–683 (1977).

Nassan, K.

Negishi, G.

T. Hisaki, G. Negishi, S. Watanabe, H. Kashiwagi, “Excimer Laser Mirror,” J. Vac. Soc. Jpn. 21, 365–371 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, J. G.

H. Sankur, J. DeNatale, W. Gunning, J. G. Nelson, “Dense Crystalline ZrO2 Thin Films Deposited by Pulsed-Laser Evaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 2869–2874 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Netterfield, R. P.

K.-H. Muller, R. P. Netterfield, P. J. Martin, “Dynamics of Zirconium Oxide Thin-Film Growth and Ion-Beam Etching,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 2934–2941 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, W. G. Sainty, C. G. Pacey, “The Preparation and Characterization of Optical Thin Films Produced by Ion-Assisted Deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A2, 341–345 (1984).

P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, W. G. Sainty, “Modification of the Optical and Structural Properties of Dielectric ZrO2 Films by Ion-Assisted Deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 55, 235–241 (1984).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, W. G. Sainty, G. J. Clark, W. A. Lanford, S. H. Sie, “Ion-Assisted Deposition of Bulklike ZrO2 Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 711–713 (1983).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Martin, H. A. Macleod, R. P. Netterfield, C. G. Pacey, W. G. Sainty, “Ion-Beam-Assisted Deposition of Thin Films,” Appl. Opt. 22, 178–184 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pacey, C. G.

P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, W. G. Sainty, C. G. Pacey, “The Preparation and Characterization of Optical Thin Films Produced by Ion-Assisted Deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A2, 341–345 (1984).

P. J. Martin, H. A. Macleod, R. P. Netterfield, C. G. Pacey, W. G. Sainty, “Ion-Beam-Assisted Deposition of Thin Films,” Appl. Opt. 22, 178–184 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patai, S.

M. Balog, M. Schieber, M. Michman, S. Patai, “The Chemical Vapour Deposition and Characterization of ZrO2 Films from Organometallic Compounds,” Thin Solid Films 47, 109–120 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Pawlewicz, W. T.

W. T. Pawlewicz, D. D. Hays, “Microstructure Control for Sputter-Deposited ZrO2, ZrO2.CaO and Zr02.Y2O3,” Thin Solid Films 94, 31–45 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Perveev, A. F.

G. A. Muranova, E. I. Fodeeva, A. F. Perveev, “Dependance of the Index of Refraction and Microporosity of Zirconium Dioxide Films on the Deposition Conditions,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 44, 682–683 (1977).

Petlitskaya, Ya. V.

V. P. Povoshchenko, N. G. Kostyuchenko, T. I. Demidovich, Ya. V. Petlitskaya, Zh. P. Trofimova, V. M. Kholodov, “Application of a Mathematical Statistical Method to the Optimization of Conditions for the Deposition of Vacuum Optical Coatings,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 52, 221–223 (1985).

Povoshchenko, V. P.

V. P. Povoshchenko, N. G. Kostyuchenko, T. I. Demidovich, Ya. V. Petlitskaya, Zh. P. Trofimova, V. M. Kholodov, “Application of a Mathematical Statistical Method to the Optimization of Conditions for the Deposition of Vacuum Optical Coatings,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 52, 221–223 (1985).

Pulker, H. K.

H. K. Pulker, “Characterization of Optical Thin Films,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1969–1977 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Pulker, M. Buhler, R. Hora, K. H. Guenther, “Reactive Ion Plating Deposition of Sui Generis Optical Coatings,” in Technical Digest, Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1987), p. 115.

Qadri, S. B.

C. M. Gilmore, C. Quinn, E. F. Skelton, C. R. Gossett, S. B. Qadri, “Stabilized Zirconia-Alumina Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 2598–2600 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Quinn, C.

C. M. Gilmore, C. Quinn, E. F. Skelton, C. R. Gossett, S. B. Qadri, “Stabilized Zirconia-Alumina Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 2598–2600 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ranger, M.

J. A. Dobrowolski, S. H. Lewis, M. Ranger, A. Waldorf, R. L. Wilkinson, “Design of a Prototype Semi-Continuous Roll Coater for Optical Multilayers,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, 40–45 (1982).

Ritter, E.

Romans, P. A.

R. Blickensderfer, R. L. Lincoln, P. A. Romans, “Reactive Sputtering of Zirconium with Oxygen,” Thin Solid Films 37, L73–L75 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Sahoo, N. K.

K. V. S. R. Apparao, N. K. Sahoo, T. C. Bagchi, “Optical Constants of ZrO2 Films in the UV Region,” Ind. J. Phys. 60A, 216–223 (1986).

K. V. S. R. Apparao, N. K. Sahoo, T. C. Bagchi, “Low Loss ZrO2 Films for Optical Applications in the UV Region,” Thin Solid Films 129, L71–L73 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sainty, W. G.

P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, W. G. Sainty, C. G. Pacey, “The Preparation and Characterization of Optical Thin Films Produced by Ion-Assisted Deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A2, 341–345 (1984).

P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, W. G. Sainty, “Modification of the Optical and Structural Properties of Dielectric ZrO2 Films by Ion-Assisted Deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 55, 235–241 (1984).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, W. G. Sainty, G. J. Clark, W. A. Lanford, S. H. Sie, “Ion-Assisted Deposition of Bulklike ZrO2 Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 711–713 (1983).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Martin, H. A. Macleod, R. P. Netterfield, C. G. Pacey, W. G. Sainty, “Ion-Beam-Assisted Deposition of Thin Films,” Appl. Opt. 22, 178–184 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanders, D. M.

A. Feldman, E. N. Farabaugh, W. K. Haller, D. M. Sanders, R. A. Stempniak, “Modifying Structure and Properties of Optical Films by Coevaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A4, 2969– 2974 (1986).

E. N. Farabaugh, D. M. Sanders, “Microstructure of Dielectric Thin Films Formed by e-Beam Coevaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 1, 356–359 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sankur, H.

H. Sankur, J. DeNatale, W. Gunning, J. G. Nelson, “Dense Crystalline ZrO2 Thin Films Deposited by Pulsed-Laser Evaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 2869–2874 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Schieber, M.

M. Balog, M. Schieber, M. Michman, S. Patai, “The Chemical Vapour Deposition and Characterization of ZrO2 Films from Organometallic Compounds,” Thin Solid Films 47, 109–120 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Schnell, P.

M. Croset, P. Schnell, G. Velasco, J. Siejka, “Study of Calcia-Stabilized Zirconia Thin-Film Sensors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 14, 777–781 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Sie, S. H.

P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, W. G. Sainty, G. J. Clark, W. A. Lanford, S. H. Sie, “Ion-Assisted Deposition of Bulklike ZrO2 Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 711–713 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Siejka, J.

M. Croset, L. M. Mercandalli, J. Siejka, “Calcia-Stabilized Zirconia Thin Films in GaAs Metal/Insulator/Semiconductor Technology: Reduction of GaAs Native Oxide,” Thin Solid Films 103, 221–242 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. Croset, P. Schnell, G. Velasco, J. Siejka, “Study of Calcia-Stabilized Zirconia Thin-Film Sensors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 14, 777–781 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, R.

Skelton, E. F.

C. M. Gilmore, C. Quinn, E. F. Skelton, C. R. Gossett, S. B. Qadri, “Stabilized Zirconia-Alumina Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 2598–2600 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D.

Steckelmacher, W.

L. Holland, W. Steckelmacher, “The Distribution of Thin Films Condensed on Surfaces by the Vacuum Evaporation Method,” Vacuum 2, 346–364 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Stefaniak, T. K.

T. K. Stefaniak, “Use of Zirconium Dioxide Multilayer Dielectric Coatings for the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrum,” Opt. Appl. 10, 445–450 (1980).

Stempniak, R. A.

A. Feldman, E. N. Farabaugh, W. K. Haller, D. M. Sanders, R. A. Stempniak, “Modifying Structure and Properties of Optical Films by Coevaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A4, 2969– 2974 (1986).

Stetter, F.

Szofran, F. R.

T. L. Barr, L. B. Welsh, F. R. Szofran, J. E. Greene, R. E. Klinger, “Surface Studies of Y2O3-Doped CeO2 and ZrO2 Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 15, 341–342 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Taguchi, H.

H. Taguchi, Y. Takahashi, C. Matsumoto, “Optical Properties of Thin Films of Zirconium Dioxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 19, 1417–1418 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, Y.

H. Taguchi, Y. Takahashi, C. Matsumoto, “Optical Properties of Thin Films of Zirconium Dioxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 19, 1417–1418 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Tolles, P.

Tomlin, S. G.

E. E. Khawaja, S. G. Tomlin, “The Optical Properties of Thin Films of Tantalum Pentoxide and Zirconium Dioxide,” Thin Solid Films 30, 361–369 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Trofimova, Zh. P.

V. P. Povoshchenko, N. G. Kostyuchenko, T. I. Demidovich, Ya. V. Petlitskaya, Zh. P. Trofimova, V. M. Kholodov, “Application of a Mathematical Statistical Method to the Optimization of Conditions for the Deposition of Vacuum Optical Coatings,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 52, 221–223 (1985).

Velasco, G.

M. Croset, P. Schnell, G. Velasco, J. Siejka, “Study of Calcia-Stabilized Zirconia Thin-Film Sensors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 14, 777–781 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Waldorf, A.

J. A. Dobrowolski, F. C. Ho, D. Menagh, R. Simpson, A. Waldorf, “Transparent, Conducting Indium Tin Oxide Films Formed on Low or Medium Temperature Substrates by Ion-Assisted Deposition,” Appl. Opt. 26, 5204–5210 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dobrowolski, S. H. Lewis, M. Ranger, A. Waldorf, R. L. Wilkinson, “Design of a Prototype Semi-Continuous Roll Coater for Optical Multilayers,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, 40–45 (1982).

Watanabe, S.

T. Hisaki, G. Negishi, S. Watanabe, H. Kashiwagi, “Excimer Laser Mirror,” J. Vac. Soc. Jpn. 21, 365–371 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Welsh, L. B.

T. L. Barr, L. B. Welsh, F. R. Szofran, J. E. Greene, R. E. Klinger, “Surface Studies of Y2O3-Doped CeO2 and ZrO2 Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 15, 341–342 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, R. L.

J. A. Dobrowolski, S. H. Lewis, M. Ranger, A. Waldorf, R. L. Wilkinson, “Design of a Prototype Semi-Continuous Roll Coater for Optical Multilayers,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, 40–45 (1982).

Wood, D. L.

App. Opt.

N. M. Bashara, Y.-K. Eng, “Optical Properties of Zircaloy and Zircaloy Oxide by Ellipsometry,” App. Opt. 19, 3245–3251 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, W. G. Sainty, G. J. Clark, W. A. Lanford, S. H. Sie, “Ion-Assisted Deposition of Bulklike ZrO2 Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 711–713 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gmelin's Handbuch der Anorganischen Chemie

Gmelin's Handbuch der Anorganischen Chemie, Vol. 42, p. 208

Ind. J. Phys.

K. V. S. R. Apparao, N. K. Sahoo, T. C. Bagchi, “Optical Constants of ZrO2 Films in the UV Region,” Ind. J. Phys. 60A, 216–223 (1986).

J. Appl. Phys.

P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, W. G. Sainty, “Modification of the Optical and Structural Properties of Dielectric ZrO2 Films by Ion-Assisted Deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 55, 235–241 (1984).
[CrossRef]

K.-H. Muller, “Model for Ion-Assisted Thin-Film Densification,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 2803–2807 (1986).
[CrossRef]

H. Taguchi, Y. Takahashi, C. Matsumoto, “Optical Properties of Thin Films of Zirconium Dioxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 19, 1417–1418 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol.

A. Feldman, E. N. Farabaugh, W. K. Haller, D. M. Sanders, R. A. Stempniak, “Modifying Structure and Properties of Optical Films by Coevaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A4, 2969– 2974 (1986).

P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, W. G. Sainty, C. G. Pacey, “The Preparation and Characterization of Optical Thin Films Produced by Ion-Assisted Deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A2, 341–345 (1984).

M. Croset, P. Schnell, G. Velasco, J. Siejka, “Study of Calcia-Stabilized Zirconia Thin-Film Sensors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 14, 777–781 (1977).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Barr, L. B. Welsh, F. R. Szofran, J. E. Greene, R. E. Klinger, “Surface Studies of Y2O3-Doped CeO2 and ZrO2 Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 15, 341–342 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A

C. M. Gilmore, C. Quinn, E. F. Skelton, C. R. Gossett, S. B. Qadri, “Stabilized Zirconia-Alumina Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 2598–2600 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Fancey, A. Matthews, “Ionization Assisted Physical Vapour Deposition of Zirconia Thermal Barrier Coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 2656–2660 (1986).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Farabaugh, D. M. Sanders, “Microstructure of Dielectric Thin Films Formed by e-Beam Coevaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 1, 356–359 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. Sankur, J. DeNatale, W. Gunning, J. G. Nelson, “Dense Crystalline ZrO2 Thin Films Deposited by Pulsed-Laser Evaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 2869–2874 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Soc. Jpn.

T. Hisaki, G. Negishi, S. Watanabe, H. Kashiwagi, “Excimer Laser Mirror,” J. Vac. Soc. Jpn. 21, 365–371 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Appl.

T. K. Stefaniak, “Use of Zirconium Dioxide Multilayer Dielectric Coatings for the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrum,” Opt. Appl. 10, 445–450 (1980).

Phys. Rev. B

K.-H. Muller, R. P. Netterfield, P. J. Martin, “Dynamics of Zirconium Oxide Thin-Film Growth and Ion-Beam Etching,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 2934–2941 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.

J. A. Dobrowolski, S. H. Lewis, M. Ranger, A. Waldorf, R. L. Wilkinson, “Design of a Prototype Semi-Continuous Roll Coater for Optical Multilayers,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, 40–45 (1982).

Sov. J. Opt. Technol.

V. P. Povoshchenko, N. G. Kostyuchenko, T. I. Demidovich, Ya. V. Petlitskaya, Zh. P. Trofimova, V. M. Kholodov, “Application of a Mathematical Statistical Method to the Optimization of Conditions for the Deposition of Vacuum Optical Coatings,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 52, 221–223 (1985).

G. A. Muranova, E. I. Fodeeva, A. F. Perveev, “Dependance of the Index of Refraction and Microporosity of Zirconium Dioxide Films on the Deposition Conditions,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 44, 682–683 (1977).

Thin Solid Films

R. Blickensderfer, R. L. Lincoln, P. A. Romans, “Reactive Sputtering of Zirconium with Oxygen,” Thin Solid Films 37, L73–L75 (1976).
[CrossRef]

M. Balog, M. Schieber, M. Michman, S. Patai, “The Chemical Vapour Deposition and Characterization of ZrO2 Films from Organometallic Compounds,” Thin Solid Films 47, 109–120 (1977).
[CrossRef]

M. Croset, L. M. Mercandalli, J. Siejka, “Calcia-Stabilized Zirconia Thin Films in GaAs Metal/Insulator/Semiconductor Technology: Reduction of GaAs Native Oxide,” Thin Solid Films 103, 221–242 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Khawaja, S. G. Tomlin, “The Optical Properties of Thin Films of Tantalum Pentoxide and Zirconium Dioxide,” Thin Solid Films 30, 361–369 (1975).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Pawlewicz, D. D. Hays, “Microstructure Control for Sputter-Deposited ZrO2, ZrO2.CaO and Zr02.Y2O3,” Thin Solid Films 94, 31–45 (1982).
[CrossRef]

K. V. S. R. Apparao, N. K. Sahoo, T. C. Bagchi, “Low Loss ZrO2 Films for Optical Applications in the UV Region,” Thin Solid Films 129, L71–L73 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Vacuum

L. Holland, W. Steckelmacher, “The Distribution of Thin Films Condensed on Surfaces by the Vacuum Evaporation Method,” Vacuum 2, 346–364 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Other

H. K. Pulker, M. Buhler, R. Hora, K. H. Guenther, “Reactive Ion Plating Deposition of Sui Generis Optical Coatings,” in Technical Digest, Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1987), p. 115.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the deposition equipment.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Deposition geometry.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral transmittance of films deposited at 2 × 10−5-mbar pressure, using ZrO2 starting material with automatic and manual pressure control.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Variation of the optical constants with angle of vapor incidence of films deposited at different oxygen partial pressures from ZrO2 starting material.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Variation with angles of vapor incidence of the thicknesses of films deposited from ZrO2 starting material at two different pressures. The broken curve represents the thickness variation expected on the basis of the inverse square and cosine laws and on the assumption of a point source.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Substrate arrangement for the investigation of the effect of substrate distance and angle of vapor incidence on the optical constants of the thin films.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Effect of residual gas on the optical constants of films produced from ZrO2.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Arrangement for the preconditioning of the Zircaloy evaporant.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Variation of total pressure and partial pressures of hydrogen, oxygen, and water vapor during the preparation of ZrO2 films from Zircaloy under total pressure control.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Variation of the deposition rate with electron-beam gun current for Zircaloy starting material with total pressure control.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Oxygen flow rate as a function of the deposition rate for Zircaloy starting material with total pressure control.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Variation of total pressure and partial pressures of hydrogen, oxygen, and water vapor during the preparation of ZrO2 films from Zircaloy under oxygen mass flow control.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Optimum deposition conditions for the preparation of ZrO2 films from Zircaloy (see text).

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Comparison of the optical constants of ZrO2 films prepared from ZrO2 (⋅) and Zircaloy (×) starting materials.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Results of Experiments on Effects of d and θ on n and k

Metrics