Abstract

A continuous high pressure arc lamp operating with argon is described in detail. Owing to a special electrode design a very high brightness of 160 W/(nm·sr·cm2) at an electrical input of 5.3 kW is reached near the cathode.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Rehmet, “Xenon Lamps,” IEE Proc. 127, 190–195 (1980).
  2. I. Filinski, T. Skettrup, “Incoherent Light Source with Radiance Comparable with Laser Radiances,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 701, 282–286 (European Conference on Optics, Optical Systems and Applications, Florence, 1986).
  3. P. Schulz, “Edelgasbögen,” Reichsber. Phys. 1, 147–153 (1944).
  4. K. Larche, “Die Strahlung des Xenon-Hochdruckbogens hoher Leistungsaufnahme,” Z. Phys. 136, 74–104 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. E. Thouret, H. S. Strauss, “Xenon High-Pressure Lamps,” Illum. Eng. London 57, 150–158 (1962).
  6. W. E. Thouret, H. S. Strauss, S. F. Cortorillo, H. Kee, “High Brightness Xenon Lamps with Liquid-Cooled Electrodes,” Illum. Eng. London 60, 339–347 (1965).
  7. O. E. Lienhard, “Xenon Compact-Arc Lamps with Liquid-Cooled Electrodes,” Illum. Eng. London 60, 348–352 (1966).
  8. W. E. Thouret, J. Leyden, H. S. Strauss, G. Shaffer, H. Kee, “20 to 30 kW Xenon Compact-Arc Lamps for Search Lights and Solar Simulators,” Illum. Eng. London 2, 8–18 (1972).
  9. H. P. Popp, G. Weninger, “Eine Demontierbare Xenon-Kurzbogenlanmpe von 15 kW Leistung mit Wassergekühlten Elektroden,” Tech. Wiss. Abh. Osram-Ges., 11, 140–147 (1973).
  10. N. P. Barnes, D. K. Remelius, “Argon Arc Lamps,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1947–1949 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. F. P. Schäfer, “Principles of Dye Laser Operation,” in: Dye Laser, F. P. Schäfer, Ed. (Springer, New York, 1973), pp. 3–85.
  12. E. Thiel, “Entwicklung eines Inkohärent Gepumpten Kontinuierlichen Farbstofflasers,” Ph. D. Thesis, University of Siegen (1987).
  13. E. Thiel, C. Zander, K. H. Drexhage, “Continuous-Wave Dye Laser Pumped by a High-Pressure Argon-Arc,” Opt. Lett. 13, 973–974 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. V. F. Puchkaryov, D. I. Proskurovsky, “A Study of the Cathode-Spot Operation on Tungsten Point Cathodes in the Range of Threshold Arc Currents,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. PS-13, 257–260 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. Finkelnburg, H. Maecker, “Elektrische Bögen und Thermisches Plasma,” in: Encyclopedia of Physics, Vol. 22, S. Flugge, Ed. (Springer, New York, 1956), p. 270.

1988

1985

N. P. Barnes, D. K. Remelius, “Argon Arc Lamps,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1947–1949 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. F. Puchkaryov, D. I. Proskurovsky, “A Study of the Cathode-Spot Operation on Tungsten Point Cathodes in the Range of Threshold Arc Currents,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. PS-13, 257–260 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1980

M. Rehmet, “Xenon Lamps,” IEE Proc. 127, 190–195 (1980).

1973

H. P. Popp, G. Weninger, “Eine Demontierbare Xenon-Kurzbogenlanmpe von 15 kW Leistung mit Wassergekühlten Elektroden,” Tech. Wiss. Abh. Osram-Ges., 11, 140–147 (1973).

1972

W. E. Thouret, J. Leyden, H. S. Strauss, G. Shaffer, H. Kee, “20 to 30 kW Xenon Compact-Arc Lamps for Search Lights and Solar Simulators,” Illum. Eng. London 2, 8–18 (1972).

1966

O. E. Lienhard, “Xenon Compact-Arc Lamps with Liquid-Cooled Electrodes,” Illum. Eng. London 60, 348–352 (1966).

1965

W. E. Thouret, H. S. Strauss, S. F. Cortorillo, H. Kee, “High Brightness Xenon Lamps with Liquid-Cooled Electrodes,” Illum. Eng. London 60, 339–347 (1965).

1962

W. E. Thouret, H. S. Strauss, “Xenon High-Pressure Lamps,” Illum. Eng. London 57, 150–158 (1962).

1953

K. Larche, “Die Strahlung des Xenon-Hochdruckbogens hoher Leistungsaufnahme,” Z. Phys. 136, 74–104 (1953).
[CrossRef]

1944

P. Schulz, “Edelgasbögen,” Reichsber. Phys. 1, 147–153 (1944).

Barnes, N. P.

Cortorillo, S. F.

W. E. Thouret, H. S. Strauss, S. F. Cortorillo, H. Kee, “High Brightness Xenon Lamps with Liquid-Cooled Electrodes,” Illum. Eng. London 60, 339–347 (1965).

Drexhage, K. H.

Filinski, I.

I. Filinski, T. Skettrup, “Incoherent Light Source with Radiance Comparable with Laser Radiances,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 701, 282–286 (European Conference on Optics, Optical Systems and Applications, Florence, 1986).

Finkelnburg, W.

W. Finkelnburg, H. Maecker, “Elektrische Bögen und Thermisches Plasma,” in: Encyclopedia of Physics, Vol. 22, S. Flugge, Ed. (Springer, New York, 1956), p. 270.

Kee, H.

W. E. Thouret, J. Leyden, H. S. Strauss, G. Shaffer, H. Kee, “20 to 30 kW Xenon Compact-Arc Lamps for Search Lights and Solar Simulators,” Illum. Eng. London 2, 8–18 (1972).

W. E. Thouret, H. S. Strauss, S. F. Cortorillo, H. Kee, “High Brightness Xenon Lamps with Liquid-Cooled Electrodes,” Illum. Eng. London 60, 339–347 (1965).

Larche, K.

K. Larche, “Die Strahlung des Xenon-Hochdruckbogens hoher Leistungsaufnahme,” Z. Phys. 136, 74–104 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Leyden, J.

W. E. Thouret, J. Leyden, H. S. Strauss, G. Shaffer, H. Kee, “20 to 30 kW Xenon Compact-Arc Lamps for Search Lights and Solar Simulators,” Illum. Eng. London 2, 8–18 (1972).

Lienhard, O. E.

O. E. Lienhard, “Xenon Compact-Arc Lamps with Liquid-Cooled Electrodes,” Illum. Eng. London 60, 348–352 (1966).

Maecker, H.

W. Finkelnburg, H. Maecker, “Elektrische Bögen und Thermisches Plasma,” in: Encyclopedia of Physics, Vol. 22, S. Flugge, Ed. (Springer, New York, 1956), p. 270.

Popp, H. P.

H. P. Popp, G. Weninger, “Eine Demontierbare Xenon-Kurzbogenlanmpe von 15 kW Leistung mit Wassergekühlten Elektroden,” Tech. Wiss. Abh. Osram-Ges., 11, 140–147 (1973).

Proskurovsky, D. I.

V. F. Puchkaryov, D. I. Proskurovsky, “A Study of the Cathode-Spot Operation on Tungsten Point Cathodes in the Range of Threshold Arc Currents,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. PS-13, 257–260 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Puchkaryov, V. F.

V. F. Puchkaryov, D. I. Proskurovsky, “A Study of the Cathode-Spot Operation on Tungsten Point Cathodes in the Range of Threshold Arc Currents,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. PS-13, 257–260 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Rehmet, M.

M. Rehmet, “Xenon Lamps,” IEE Proc. 127, 190–195 (1980).

Remelius, D. K.

Schäfer, F. P.

F. P. Schäfer, “Principles of Dye Laser Operation,” in: Dye Laser, F. P. Schäfer, Ed. (Springer, New York, 1973), pp. 3–85.

Schulz, P.

P. Schulz, “Edelgasbögen,” Reichsber. Phys. 1, 147–153 (1944).

Shaffer, G.

W. E. Thouret, J. Leyden, H. S. Strauss, G. Shaffer, H. Kee, “20 to 30 kW Xenon Compact-Arc Lamps for Search Lights and Solar Simulators,” Illum. Eng. London 2, 8–18 (1972).

Skettrup, T.

I. Filinski, T. Skettrup, “Incoherent Light Source with Radiance Comparable with Laser Radiances,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 701, 282–286 (European Conference on Optics, Optical Systems and Applications, Florence, 1986).

Strauss, H. S.

W. E. Thouret, J. Leyden, H. S. Strauss, G. Shaffer, H. Kee, “20 to 30 kW Xenon Compact-Arc Lamps for Search Lights and Solar Simulators,” Illum. Eng. London 2, 8–18 (1972).

W. E. Thouret, H. S. Strauss, S. F. Cortorillo, H. Kee, “High Brightness Xenon Lamps with Liquid-Cooled Electrodes,” Illum. Eng. London 60, 339–347 (1965).

W. E. Thouret, H. S. Strauss, “Xenon High-Pressure Lamps,” Illum. Eng. London 57, 150–158 (1962).

Thiel, E.

E. Thiel, C. Zander, K. H. Drexhage, “Continuous-Wave Dye Laser Pumped by a High-Pressure Argon-Arc,” Opt. Lett. 13, 973–974 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Thiel, “Entwicklung eines Inkohärent Gepumpten Kontinuierlichen Farbstofflasers,” Ph. D. Thesis, University of Siegen (1987).

Thouret, W. E.

W. E. Thouret, J. Leyden, H. S. Strauss, G. Shaffer, H. Kee, “20 to 30 kW Xenon Compact-Arc Lamps for Search Lights and Solar Simulators,” Illum. Eng. London 2, 8–18 (1972).

W. E. Thouret, H. S. Strauss, S. F. Cortorillo, H. Kee, “High Brightness Xenon Lamps with Liquid-Cooled Electrodes,” Illum. Eng. London 60, 339–347 (1965).

W. E. Thouret, H. S. Strauss, “Xenon High-Pressure Lamps,” Illum. Eng. London 57, 150–158 (1962).

Weninger, G.

H. P. Popp, G. Weninger, “Eine Demontierbare Xenon-Kurzbogenlanmpe von 15 kW Leistung mit Wassergekühlten Elektroden,” Tech. Wiss. Abh. Osram-Ges., 11, 140–147 (1973).

Zander, C.

Appl. Opt.

IEE Proc.

M. Rehmet, “Xenon Lamps,” IEE Proc. 127, 190–195 (1980).

IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci.

V. F. Puchkaryov, D. I. Proskurovsky, “A Study of the Cathode-Spot Operation on Tungsten Point Cathodes in the Range of Threshold Arc Currents,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. PS-13, 257–260 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Illum. Eng. London

W. E. Thouret, H. S. Strauss, “Xenon High-Pressure Lamps,” Illum. Eng. London 57, 150–158 (1962).

W. E. Thouret, H. S. Strauss, S. F. Cortorillo, H. Kee, “High Brightness Xenon Lamps with Liquid-Cooled Electrodes,” Illum. Eng. London 60, 339–347 (1965).

O. E. Lienhard, “Xenon Compact-Arc Lamps with Liquid-Cooled Electrodes,” Illum. Eng. London 60, 348–352 (1966).

W. E. Thouret, J. Leyden, H. S. Strauss, G. Shaffer, H. Kee, “20 to 30 kW Xenon Compact-Arc Lamps for Search Lights and Solar Simulators,” Illum. Eng. London 2, 8–18 (1972).

Opt. Lett.

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.

I. Filinski, T. Skettrup, “Incoherent Light Source with Radiance Comparable with Laser Radiances,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 701, 282–286 (European Conference on Optics, Optical Systems and Applications, Florence, 1986).

Reichsber. Phys.

P. Schulz, “Edelgasbögen,” Reichsber. Phys. 1, 147–153 (1944).

Tech. Wiss. Abh. Osram-Ges.

H. P. Popp, G. Weninger, “Eine Demontierbare Xenon-Kurzbogenlanmpe von 15 kW Leistung mit Wassergekühlten Elektroden,” Tech. Wiss. Abh. Osram-Ges., 11, 140–147 (1973).

Z. Phys.

K. Larche, “Die Strahlung des Xenon-Hochdruckbogens hoher Leistungsaufnahme,” Z. Phys. 136, 74–104 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Other

F. P. Schäfer, “Principles of Dye Laser Operation,” in: Dye Laser, F. P. Schäfer, Ed. (Springer, New York, 1973), pp. 3–85.

E. Thiel, “Entwicklung eines Inkohärent Gepumpten Kontinuierlichen Farbstofflasers,” Ph. D. Thesis, University of Siegen (1987).

W. Finkelnburg, H. Maecker, “Elektrische Bögen und Thermisches Plasma,” in: Encyclopedia of Physics, Vol. 22, S. Flugge, Ed. (Springer, New York, 1956), p. 270.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Compact arc lamp, side view: (A) water-cooled copper anode; (C) water-cooled tungsten cathode; (H) brass housing; (CC) copper carrier for the cathode; (BC) brass cone; (I) teflon tube for electrical insulation; (W) fused silica window; (TR) teflon ring; (AR) asbestos ring; (WM) window mounting.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cut-away view of the electrode tips: (A) water-cooled copper anode; (C) water-cooled tungsten cathode; (TA) brass tube; (TC) brass tube; (CF) cooling finger; (G) electrode gap; (AP) anode plateau. Arrows indicate flow direction of cooling water.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Electrical and gas supplies for the compact arc lamp AL: (AC) 200-bar argon cylinder; (RV) reduction valve; (WT) welding transformer; (RF) rf generator; (CM) current meter; (VM) voltage meter; (WA) and (WC) water supply for anode and cathode; (V) valve.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Luminance, spatially averaged spectral distribution: Current 175 A, pressure 100 bar, electrode gap 0.33 mm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Luminance, spatial distribution in W/(sr·nm0183·cm2) at 550 nm for an electrode gap a) 0.33 mm, and b) 1.1 mm: (C) cathode; (AP) anode plateau. Current 175 A, pressure 100 bar.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Cathode-spot luminance L550 (electrode gap 0.33 mm): a) as function of current I (pressure 100 bar); (◊) measured values; (—) fitted according to L550 = const·I0.53; b) as function of pressure p (current 175 A); (◊) measured values; (—) fitted according to L550 = const·p0.83.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Required voltage U (electrode gap of 0.33 mm): a) as function of current I (pressure 100 bar); b) as function of pressure p (current 80 A); (◊) measured values; (—) fitted according to U = const·p0.34.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Required voltage U as function of electrode gap G (pressure 100 bar, current 175 A): (◊) measured values; (—) best linear fit.

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