Abstract

An instrument for the study of the dynamics of the upper terrestrial atmosphere by optical method has been built. It is an automatic high sensitivity imaging system able to record the spatial variation of the nightglow intensity in the near IR. The low intensity and contrast of the structures led to a system combining a TV imager and a photo camera. This instrument will be routinely operated at Dumont d'Urville (Antarctica). We present below the pictures of spatial structures of the OH radical emission observed at zenith. The emission originates from a region 85 km above the surface. These pictures were obtained at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (France) for the verification of the instrument performances.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. O. Hines, “Internal Atmospheric Gravity Waves,” Can. J. Phys. 38, 1441–1480 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  2. V. I. Krassovsky, “Infrasonic Variations of OH Emission in the Upper Atmosphere,” Ann. Geophys. 28, 739–746 (1972).
  3. E. B. Armstrong, “The Influence of a Gravity Wave on the Airglow Hydroxyl Rotational Temperature at Night,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 37, 1585–1591 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. B. Armstrong, “The Association of Visible Airglow Features with a Gravity Wave,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 44, 325–336 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  5. V. I. Krassovsky, M. V. Shagaev, “Optical Method of Recording Acoustic or Gravity Waves in the Upper Atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 36, 373–375 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. F. Noxon, “Effect of Internal Gravity Waves Upon Night Airglow Temperatures,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 5, 25–27 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. T. Freund, F. Jacka, “Structure in the 557.7 nm (OI) Airglow,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 41, 25–31 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Teitelbaum, M. Massebeuf, J. L. Fellous, M. Petitdidier, J. Christophe, F. Blanco, “Simultaneous Measurements of Meteor Winds and Green Line Inensity Variations: Gravity Waves and Planetary Waves,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 7767–7770 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. M. Gavrilov, G. M. Shved, “Study of Internal Gravity Waves in the Lower Thermosphere from Observations of the Nocturnal Sky Airglow [OI] 5577 Å in Ashkabad,” Ann. Geophys. 38, 789–803 (1982).
  10. A. W. Peterson, L. M. Kieffaber, “Infrared Photography of OH Airglow Structures,” Nature (London) 242, 321–322 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Moreels, M. Herse, “Photographic Evidence of Waves Around the 85 km Level,” Planet. Space Sci. 25, 265–273 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Crawford, P. Rothwell, N. Wells, “Airborne TV Observations of Airglow Clouds in the Near Infrared,” Nature (London) 257, 650–651 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. J. Taylor, M. A. Hapgood, P. Rothwell, “Observations of Gravity Wave Propagation in the OI (557.7 nm), Na (589.2 nm) and the Near Infrared OH Nightglow Emissions,” Planet. Space Sci. 35, 413–427 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Herse, “Waves in the OH Emissive Layer,” Science 225, 172–174 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. W. Peterson, G. W. Adams, “OH Airglow Phenomena During the 5-6 July 1982 Total Lunar Eclipse,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2682–2685 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. Clairemidi, M. Herse, G. Moreels, “Bi-Dimensional Observation of Waves Near the Mesopause at Auroral Latitudes,” Planet. Space Sci. 33, 1013–1022 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Herse, G. Moreels, J. Clairemidi, “Waves in the OH Emissive Layer: Photogrammetry and Topography,” Appl. Opt. 19, 355–362 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. G. Witt, “Height, Structure and Displacements of Noctilucent Clouds,” Tellus 14, 1–18 (1962).
    [CrossRef]

1987 (1)

M. J. Taylor, M. A. Hapgood, P. Rothwell, “Observations of Gravity Wave Propagation in the OI (557.7 nm), Na (589.2 nm) and the Near Infrared OH Nightglow Emissions,” Planet. Space Sci. 35, 413–427 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

J. Clairemidi, M. Herse, G. Moreels, “Bi-Dimensional Observation of Waves Near the Mesopause at Auroral Latitudes,” Planet. Space Sci. 33, 1013–1022 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

M. Herse, “Waves in the OH Emissive Layer,” Science 225, 172–174 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

1982 (2)

N. M. Gavrilov, G. M. Shved, “Study of Internal Gravity Waves in the Lower Thermosphere from Observations of the Nocturnal Sky Airglow [OI] 5577 Å in Ashkabad,” Ann. Geophys. 38, 789–803 (1982).

E. B. Armstrong, “The Association of Visible Airglow Features with a Gravity Wave,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 44, 325–336 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

H. Teitelbaum, M. Massebeuf, J. L. Fellous, M. Petitdidier, J. Christophe, F. Blanco, “Simultaneous Measurements of Meteor Winds and Green Line Inensity Variations: Gravity Waves and Planetary Waves,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 7767–7770 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

1979 (1)

J. T. Freund, F. Jacka, “Structure in the 557.7 nm (OI) Airglow,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 41, 25–31 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

J. F. Noxon, “Effect of Internal Gravity Waves Upon Night Airglow Temperatures,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 5, 25–27 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

G. Moreels, M. Herse, “Photographic Evidence of Waves Around the 85 km Level,” Planet. Space Sci. 25, 265–273 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (2)

J. Crawford, P. Rothwell, N. Wells, “Airborne TV Observations of Airglow Clouds in the Near Infrared,” Nature (London) 257, 650–651 (1975).
[CrossRef]

E. B. Armstrong, “The Influence of a Gravity Wave on the Airglow Hydroxyl Rotational Temperature at Night,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 37, 1585–1591 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

V. I. Krassovsky, M. V. Shagaev, “Optical Method of Recording Acoustic or Gravity Waves in the Upper Atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 36, 373–375 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

A. W. Peterson, L. M. Kieffaber, “Infrared Photography of OH Airglow Structures,” Nature (London) 242, 321–322 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

V. I. Krassovsky, “Infrasonic Variations of OH Emission in the Upper Atmosphere,” Ann. Geophys. 28, 739–746 (1972).

1962 (1)

G. Witt, “Height, Structure and Displacements of Noctilucent Clouds,” Tellus 14, 1–18 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1960 (1)

C. O. Hines, “Internal Atmospheric Gravity Waves,” Can. J. Phys. 38, 1441–1480 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Adams, G. W.

Armstrong, E. B.

E. B. Armstrong, “The Association of Visible Airglow Features with a Gravity Wave,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 44, 325–336 (1982).
[CrossRef]

E. B. Armstrong, “The Influence of a Gravity Wave on the Airglow Hydroxyl Rotational Temperature at Night,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 37, 1585–1591 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Blanco, F.

H. Teitelbaum, M. Massebeuf, J. L. Fellous, M. Petitdidier, J. Christophe, F. Blanco, “Simultaneous Measurements of Meteor Winds and Green Line Inensity Variations: Gravity Waves and Planetary Waves,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 7767–7770 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Christophe, J.

H. Teitelbaum, M. Massebeuf, J. L. Fellous, M. Petitdidier, J. Christophe, F. Blanco, “Simultaneous Measurements of Meteor Winds and Green Line Inensity Variations: Gravity Waves and Planetary Waves,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 7767–7770 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Clairemidi, J.

J. Clairemidi, M. Herse, G. Moreels, “Bi-Dimensional Observation of Waves Near the Mesopause at Auroral Latitudes,” Planet. Space Sci. 33, 1013–1022 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. Herse, G. Moreels, J. Clairemidi, “Waves in the OH Emissive Layer: Photogrammetry and Topography,” Appl. Opt. 19, 355–362 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crawford, J.

J. Crawford, P. Rothwell, N. Wells, “Airborne TV Observations of Airglow Clouds in the Near Infrared,” Nature (London) 257, 650–651 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Fellous, J. L.

H. Teitelbaum, M. Massebeuf, J. L. Fellous, M. Petitdidier, J. Christophe, F. Blanco, “Simultaneous Measurements of Meteor Winds and Green Line Inensity Variations: Gravity Waves and Planetary Waves,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 7767–7770 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Freund, J. T.

J. T. Freund, F. Jacka, “Structure in the 557.7 nm (OI) Airglow,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 41, 25–31 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Gavrilov, N. M.

N. M. Gavrilov, G. M. Shved, “Study of Internal Gravity Waves in the Lower Thermosphere from Observations of the Nocturnal Sky Airglow [OI] 5577 Å in Ashkabad,” Ann. Geophys. 38, 789–803 (1982).

Hapgood, M. A.

M. J. Taylor, M. A. Hapgood, P. Rothwell, “Observations of Gravity Wave Propagation in the OI (557.7 nm), Na (589.2 nm) and the Near Infrared OH Nightglow Emissions,” Planet. Space Sci. 35, 413–427 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Herse, M.

J. Clairemidi, M. Herse, G. Moreels, “Bi-Dimensional Observation of Waves Near the Mesopause at Auroral Latitudes,” Planet. Space Sci. 33, 1013–1022 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. Herse, “Waves in the OH Emissive Layer,” Science 225, 172–174 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Herse, G. Moreels, J. Clairemidi, “Waves in the OH Emissive Layer: Photogrammetry and Topography,” Appl. Opt. 19, 355–362 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Moreels, M. Herse, “Photographic Evidence of Waves Around the 85 km Level,” Planet. Space Sci. 25, 265–273 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hines, C. O.

C. O. Hines, “Internal Atmospheric Gravity Waves,” Can. J. Phys. 38, 1441–1480 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Jacka, F.

J. T. Freund, F. Jacka, “Structure in the 557.7 nm (OI) Airglow,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 41, 25–31 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kieffaber, L. M.

A. W. Peterson, L. M. Kieffaber, “Infrared Photography of OH Airglow Structures,” Nature (London) 242, 321–322 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Krassovsky, V. I.

V. I. Krassovsky, M. V. Shagaev, “Optical Method of Recording Acoustic or Gravity Waves in the Upper Atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 36, 373–375 (1974).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Krassovsky, “Infrasonic Variations of OH Emission in the Upper Atmosphere,” Ann. Geophys. 28, 739–746 (1972).

Massebeuf, M.

H. Teitelbaum, M. Massebeuf, J. L. Fellous, M. Petitdidier, J. Christophe, F. Blanco, “Simultaneous Measurements of Meteor Winds and Green Line Inensity Variations: Gravity Waves and Planetary Waves,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 7767–7770 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Moreels, G.

J. Clairemidi, M. Herse, G. Moreels, “Bi-Dimensional Observation of Waves Near the Mesopause at Auroral Latitudes,” Planet. Space Sci. 33, 1013–1022 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. Herse, G. Moreels, J. Clairemidi, “Waves in the OH Emissive Layer: Photogrammetry and Topography,” Appl. Opt. 19, 355–362 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Moreels, M. Herse, “Photographic Evidence of Waves Around the 85 km Level,” Planet. Space Sci. 25, 265–273 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Noxon, J. F.

J. F. Noxon, “Effect of Internal Gravity Waves Upon Night Airglow Temperatures,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 5, 25–27 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, A. W.

A. W. Peterson, G. W. Adams, “OH Airglow Phenomena During the 5-6 July 1982 Total Lunar Eclipse,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2682–2685 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. Peterson, L. M. Kieffaber, “Infrared Photography of OH Airglow Structures,” Nature (London) 242, 321–322 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Petitdidier, M.

H. Teitelbaum, M. Massebeuf, J. L. Fellous, M. Petitdidier, J. Christophe, F. Blanco, “Simultaneous Measurements of Meteor Winds and Green Line Inensity Variations: Gravity Waves and Planetary Waves,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 7767–7770 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Rothwell, P.

M. J. Taylor, M. A. Hapgood, P. Rothwell, “Observations of Gravity Wave Propagation in the OI (557.7 nm), Na (589.2 nm) and the Near Infrared OH Nightglow Emissions,” Planet. Space Sci. 35, 413–427 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Crawford, P. Rothwell, N. Wells, “Airborne TV Observations of Airglow Clouds in the Near Infrared,” Nature (London) 257, 650–651 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Shagaev, M. V.

V. I. Krassovsky, M. V. Shagaev, “Optical Method of Recording Acoustic or Gravity Waves in the Upper Atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 36, 373–375 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Shved, G. M.

N. M. Gavrilov, G. M. Shved, “Study of Internal Gravity Waves in the Lower Thermosphere from Observations of the Nocturnal Sky Airglow [OI] 5577 Å in Ashkabad,” Ann. Geophys. 38, 789–803 (1982).

Taylor, M. J.

M. J. Taylor, M. A. Hapgood, P. Rothwell, “Observations of Gravity Wave Propagation in the OI (557.7 nm), Na (589.2 nm) and the Near Infrared OH Nightglow Emissions,” Planet. Space Sci. 35, 413–427 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Teitelbaum, H.

H. Teitelbaum, M. Massebeuf, J. L. Fellous, M. Petitdidier, J. Christophe, F. Blanco, “Simultaneous Measurements of Meteor Winds and Green Line Inensity Variations: Gravity Waves and Planetary Waves,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 7767–7770 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Wells, N.

J. Crawford, P. Rothwell, N. Wells, “Airborne TV Observations of Airglow Clouds in the Near Infrared,” Nature (London) 257, 650–651 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Witt, G.

G. Witt, “Height, Structure and Displacements of Noctilucent Clouds,” Tellus 14, 1–18 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Geophys. (2)

V. I. Krassovsky, “Infrasonic Variations of OH Emission in the Upper Atmosphere,” Ann. Geophys. 28, 739–746 (1972).

N. M. Gavrilov, G. M. Shved, “Study of Internal Gravity Waves in the Lower Thermosphere from Observations of the Nocturnal Sky Airglow [OI] 5577 Å in Ashkabad,” Ann. Geophys. 38, 789–803 (1982).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Can. J. Phys. (1)

C. O. Hines, “Internal Atmospheric Gravity Waves,” Can. J. Phys. 38, 1441–1480 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

J. F. Noxon, “Effect of Internal Gravity Waves Upon Night Airglow Temperatures,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 5, 25–27 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. (4)

J. T. Freund, F. Jacka, “Structure in the 557.7 nm (OI) Airglow,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 41, 25–31 (1979).
[CrossRef]

E. B. Armstrong, “The Influence of a Gravity Wave on the Airglow Hydroxyl Rotational Temperature at Night,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 37, 1585–1591 (1975).
[CrossRef]

E. B. Armstrong, “The Association of Visible Airglow Features with a Gravity Wave,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 44, 325–336 (1982).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Krassovsky, M. V. Shagaev, “Optical Method of Recording Acoustic or Gravity Waves in the Upper Atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 36, 373–375 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

H. Teitelbaum, M. Massebeuf, J. L. Fellous, M. Petitdidier, J. Christophe, F. Blanco, “Simultaneous Measurements of Meteor Winds and Green Line Inensity Variations: Gravity Waves and Planetary Waves,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 7767–7770 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (2)

A. W. Peterson, L. M. Kieffaber, “Infrared Photography of OH Airglow Structures,” Nature (London) 242, 321–322 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Crawford, P. Rothwell, N. Wells, “Airborne TV Observations of Airglow Clouds in the Near Infrared,” Nature (London) 257, 650–651 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Planet. Space Sci. (3)

M. J. Taylor, M. A. Hapgood, P. Rothwell, “Observations of Gravity Wave Propagation in the OI (557.7 nm), Na (589.2 nm) and the Near Infrared OH Nightglow Emissions,” Planet. Space Sci. 35, 413–427 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Clairemidi, M. Herse, G. Moreels, “Bi-Dimensional Observation of Waves Near the Mesopause at Auroral Latitudes,” Planet. Space Sci. 33, 1013–1022 (1985).
[CrossRef]

G. Moreels, M. Herse, “Photographic Evidence of Waves Around the 85 km Level,” Planet. Space Sci. 25, 265–273 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

M. Herse, “Waves in the OH Emissive Layer,” Science 225, 172–174 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tellus (1)

G. Witt, “Height, Structure and Displacements of Noctilucent Clouds,” Tellus 14, 1–18 (1962).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

OH structure observed at horizon. 24 × 36-mm frame 55-mm focal length. Picture taken on 18 July 1975, at 0200 UT at la Cime de la Bonette (44° 19′N, 6°48′E, France).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the instrument.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

This picture shows the fish-eye, the image intensifier and the TV camera.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

This picture shows TV monitor 1 and the 35-mm camera in operation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Picture taken at the Observatoire de Haute Provence during the night of 27 July 1987. OH emission structures are visible at zenith.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Azimuth and elevation corresponding to Fig. 5.

Equations (1)

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V = ( 1 ( r r + h ) 2 sin 2 z ) 1 / 2 ,

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