Abstract

Holographic microinterferometer with the noise suppression is presented. The noise suppression method proposed consists of synchronous deflection of both beams. The method is applied on every step of the holographic process as well as during holographic interferometric investigations. A significant increase in image quality was achieved in conjunction with a parallel increase in resolution. It has been experimentally demonstrated, that the applied method can suppress the coherent noise by at least one order of magnitude, depending on the initial noise level. For the case of a high initial noise level the improvement is greater than 2 orders of magnitude.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. F. van Lighten, E. Snitzer, “Speckle Removal and Improvement in Optical Slicing in Holography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 1545 (1969).
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  8. R. F. van Ligten, “Speckle Reduction by Simulation of Partially Coherent Object Illumination in Holography,” Appl. Opt. 12, 255–565 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. C. Dainty, W. T. Welford, “Reduction of Speckle in Image-Plane Hologram Reconstruction by Moving Pupil,” Opt. Commun. 3, 289 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. T. Welford, “Time-Averaging Images Produced by Optical Systems with Time-Varying Pupils,” Opt. Commun. 4, 275 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. Mroz, R. Pawluczyk, “An Improvement of the Holographic Imaging Quality by the Method of Noncoherent Superposition of Images,” Opt. Appl. 10, 205 (1980).
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    [CrossRef]
  13. E. Handler, D. Haine, W. Waidelich, “Bildverbesserung in der holographishen Mikroskopie,” Laser + Elektrooptik 6, 46 (1974).
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  15. R. Pawluczyk, “Holographic Microinterferometry” (in Russian), Fifth All-Union School on Holography, Novosibirsk, USSR, (1973) p. 314.
  16. M. E. Cox, “Holographic Microscopy—A Reassessment,” Microscope 22, 361 (1974).
  17. M. Pluta, “Holographic Microscopy and Microinterferometry,” in Optical Holography (in Polish), M. Pluta, Ed. (PWN, Warsaw, 1980), p. 441.
  18. M. Pluta, Optical Microscopy (in Polish) (PWN, Warsaw, 1982).
  19. R. Pawluczyk, “Suppression of Coherent Noise in Holographic Microinterferometry,” (in Polish), Ph.D. Thesis, Poznan U, Poland (1984), available from Central Laboratory of Optics, 18 Kamionkowska St., 03-805 Warsaw, Poland.
  20. M. Pluta, “Holographic Microscopy,” in Optical and Electron Microscopy, R. Barber, V. E. Cosslett, Eds. (Academic Press, New York1987).
  21. R. Pawluczyk, “Holographic Microscope with Suppression of Coherent Noise,” U.S.A. Patent3,867,009, 18Feb.1975.
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  25. M. J. Bowman, “Two New Methods of Improving Optical Image Quality,” Appl. Opt. 7, 2280–2284 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. E. Mroz, R. Pawluczyk, M. Pluta, “A Method for Coherent Optical Noise Elimination in Optical Systems with Laser Illumination,” Opt. Appl., 1, 9 (1971).
  27. J. C. Dainty, Ed., Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1975).
  28. R. Pawluczyk, E. Mroz, “Unidirectional Optical Coherent Noise Elimination in Optical Systems with Laser Illumination,” Opt. Acta 20, 379 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  29. R. Pawluczyk, “Coherent Noise Elimination in Holographic Microscope,” Opt. Commun. 7, 379–000 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  30. R. Pawluczyk, “Holographic Microscope with Coherent Noise Elimination,” (in Polish), Conference on Microscope in Science and Technology—Polmic 76, Warsaw, Poland (1976), p. 108.
  31. M. Pluta, R. Pawluczyk, “Evaluation of Imagery Quality of Holographic Microinterference System,” 76Tagung DGaO, Bad-Ischl, Austria (1976).
  32. Z. Baranowski, “Three-Dimensional Analysis of Movement of Physarum Polycephalum Plasmodia,” Cytobiologie 13, 118 (1976).
  33. M. Opas, “Course of Glycerination of Amoeba proteus and Contraction of Glycerinated Models,” Acta Protozool. 15, 485 (1976).
  34. M. Opas, “Holographic Microscopy of Glycerination of Amoeba proteus,” J. Micros. 112, 301 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  35. R. Pawluczyk, W. Kibalczyc, T. Sokolowski, “Application of Holographic Interference Microscope in the Investigation of Crystal Dissolution,” Opt. Appl. 16, 25 (1986).

1986 (1)

R. Pawluczyk, W. Kibalczyc, T. Sokolowski, “Application of Holographic Interference Microscope in the Investigation of Crystal Dissolution,” Opt. Appl. 16, 25 (1986).

1980 (1)

E. Mroz, R. Pawluczyk, “An Improvement of the Holographic Imaging Quality by the Method of Noncoherent Superposition of Images,” Opt. Appl. 10, 205 (1980).

1978 (1)

M. Opas, “Holographic Microscopy of Glycerination of Amoeba proteus,” J. Micros. 112, 301 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976 (2)

Z. Baranowski, “Three-Dimensional Analysis of Movement of Physarum Polycephalum Plasmodia,” Cytobiologie 13, 118 (1976).

M. Opas, “Course of Glycerination of Amoeba proteus and Contraction of Glycerinated Models,” Acta Protozool. 15, 485 (1976).

1974 (2)

E. Handler, D. Haine, W. Waidelich, “Bildverbesserung in der holographishen Mikroskopie,” Laser + Elektrooptik 6, 46 (1974).

M. E. Cox, “Holographic Microscopy—A Reassessment,” Microscope 22, 361 (1974).

1973 (4)

H. Golbach, “Granulatiosverminderung in der holographishen Auflichtmikroskopie,” Optik 37, 45 (1973).

R. F. van Ligten, “Speckle Reduction by Simulation of Partially Coherent Object Illumination in Holography,” Appl. Opt. 12, 255–565 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Pawluczyk, E. Mroz, “Unidirectional Optical Coherent Noise Elimination in Optical Systems with Laser Illumination,” Opt. Acta 20, 379 (1973).
[CrossRef]

R. Pawluczyk, “Coherent Noise Elimination in Holographic Microscope,” Opt. Commun. 7, 379–000 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (2)

1971 (4)

R. Pawluczyk, “Holographic Microscopy” (in Polish), Postepy Fiz. 22, 105 (1971).

J. C. Dainty, W. T. Welford, “Reduction of Speckle in Image-Plane Hologram Reconstruction by Moving Pupil,” Opt. Commun. 3, 289 (1971).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Welford, “Time-Averaging Images Produced by Optical Systems with Time-Varying Pupils,” Opt. Commun. 4, 275 (1971).
[CrossRef]

E. Mroz, R. Pawluczyk, M. Pluta, “A Method for Coherent Optical Noise Elimination in Optical Systems with Laser Illumination,” Opt. Appl., 1, 9 (1971).

1969 (1)

R. F. van Lighten, E. Snitzer, “Speckle Removal and Improvement in Optical Slicing in Holography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 1545 (1969).

1968 (4)

1967 (1)

1966 (1)

1964 (1)

1956 (1)

Baranowski, Z.

Z. Baranowski, “Three-Dimensional Analysis of Movement of Physarum Polycephalum Plasmodia,” Cytobiologie 13, 118 (1976).

Bowman, M. J.

Close, D. H.

Considine, P. S.

Cox, M. E.

M. E. Cox, “Holographic Microscopy—A Reassessment,” Microscope 22, 361 (1974).

Dainty, J. C.

J. C. Dainty, W. T. Welford, “Reduction of Speckle in Image-Plane Hologram Reconstruction by Moving Pupil,” Opt. Commun. 3, 289 (1971).
[CrossRef]

El-Sum, H. M. A.

George, N.

N. George, A. Jain, “Speckle in Microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 6, 253 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Gerritsen, H. J.

Golbach, H.

H. Golbach, “Granulatiosverminderung in der holographishen Auflichtmikroskopie,” Optik 37, 45 (1973).

Haine, D.

E. Handler, D. Haine, W. Waidelich, “Bildverbesserung in der holographishen Mikroskopie,” Laser + Elektrooptik 6, 46 (1974).

Handler, E.

E. Handler, D. Haine, W. Waidelich, “Bildverbesserung in der holographishen Mikroskopie,” Laser + Elektrooptik 6, 46 (1974).

Hannan, W. J.

Jain, A.

N. George, A. Jain, “Speckle in Microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 6, 253 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kibalczyc, W.

R. Pawluczyk, W. Kibalczyc, T. Sokolowski, “Application of Holographic Interference Microscope in the Investigation of Crystal Dissolution,” Opt. Appl. 16, 25 (1986).

Kirpatrick, P.

Leith, E. N.

Mroz, E.

E. Mroz, R. Pawluczyk, “An Improvement of the Holographic Imaging Quality by the Method of Noncoherent Superposition of Images,” Opt. Appl. 10, 205 (1980).

R. Pawluczyk, E. Mroz, “Unidirectional Optical Coherent Noise Elimination in Optical Systems with Laser Illumination,” Opt. Acta 20, 379 (1973).
[CrossRef]

E. Mroz, R. Pawluczyk, M. Pluta, “A Method for Coherent Optical Noise Elimination in Optical Systems with Laser Illumination,” Opt. Appl., 1, 9 (1971).

Opas, M.

M. Opas, “Holographic Microscopy of Glycerination of Amoeba proteus,” J. Micros. 112, 301 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. Opas, “Course of Glycerination of Amoeba proteus and Contraction of Glycerinated Models,” Acta Protozool. 15, 485 (1976).

Pawluczyk, R.

R. Pawluczyk, W. Kibalczyc, T. Sokolowski, “Application of Holographic Interference Microscope in the Investigation of Crystal Dissolution,” Opt. Appl. 16, 25 (1986).

E. Mroz, R. Pawluczyk, “An Improvement of the Holographic Imaging Quality by the Method of Noncoherent Superposition of Images,” Opt. Appl. 10, 205 (1980).

R. Pawluczyk, “Coherent Noise Elimination in Holographic Microscope,” Opt. Commun. 7, 379–000 (1973).
[CrossRef]

R. Pawluczyk, E. Mroz, “Unidirectional Optical Coherent Noise Elimination in Optical Systems with Laser Illumination,” Opt. Acta 20, 379 (1973).
[CrossRef]

E. Mroz, R. Pawluczyk, M. Pluta, “A Method for Coherent Optical Noise Elimination in Optical Systems with Laser Illumination,” Opt. Appl., 1, 9 (1971).

R. Pawluczyk, “Holographic Microscopy” (in Polish), Postepy Fiz. 22, 105 (1971).

R. Pawluczyk, “Holographic Microinterferometry” (in Russian), Fifth All-Union School on Holography, Novosibirsk, USSR, (1973) p. 314.

R. Pawluczyk, “Holographic Microscope with Suppression of Coherent Noise,” U.S.A. Patent3,867,009, 18Feb.1975.

R. Pawluczyk, “Suppression of Coherent Noise in Holographic Microinterferometry,” (in Polish), Ph.D. Thesis, Poznan U, Poland (1984), available from Central Laboratory of Optics, 18 Kamionkowska St., 03-805 Warsaw, Poland.

R. Pawluczyk, “Holographic Microscope with Coherent Noise Elimination,” (in Polish), Conference on Microscope in Science and Technology—Polmic 76, Warsaw, Poland (1976), p. 108.

M. Pluta, R. Pawluczyk, “Evaluation of Imagery Quality of Holographic Microinterference System,” 76Tagung DGaO, Bad-Ischl, Austria (1976).

Pluta, M.

E. Mroz, R. Pawluczyk, M. Pluta, “A Method for Coherent Optical Noise Elimination in Optical Systems with Laser Illumination,” Opt. Appl., 1, 9 (1971).

M. Pluta, “Holographic Microscopy,” in Optical and Electron Microscopy, R. Barber, V. E. Cosslett, Eds. (Academic Press, New York1987).

M. Pluta, “Holographic Microscopy and Microinterferometry,” in Optical Holography (in Polish), M. Pluta, Ed. (PWN, Warsaw, 1980), p. 441.

M. Pluta, Optical Microscopy (in Polish) (PWN, Warsaw, 1982).

M. Pluta, R. Pawluczyk, “Evaluation of Imagery Quality of Holographic Microinterference System,” 76Tagung DGaO, Bad-Ischl, Austria (1976).

Ramberg, E. G.

Snitzer, E.

R. F. van Lighten, E. Snitzer, “Speckle Removal and Improvement in Optical Slicing in Holography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 1545 (1969).

Sokolowski, T.

R. Pawluczyk, W. Kibalczyc, T. Sokolowski, “Application of Holographic Interference Microscope in the Investigation of Crystal Dissolution,” Opt. Appl. 16, 25 (1986).

Thomas, C. E.

Upatnieks, J.

van Lighten, R. F.

R. F. van Lighten, E. Snitzer, “Speckle Removal and Improvement in Optical Slicing in Holography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 1545 (1969).

van Ligten, R. F.

Waidelich, W.

E. Handler, D. Haine, W. Waidelich, “Bildverbesserung in der holographishen Mikroskopie,” Laser + Elektrooptik 6, 46 (1974).

Welford, W. T.

J. C. Dainty, W. T. Welford, “Reduction of Speckle in Image-Plane Hologram Reconstruction by Moving Pupil,” Opt. Commun. 3, 289 (1971).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Welford, “Time-Averaging Images Produced by Optical Systems with Time-Varying Pupils,” Opt. Commun. 4, 275 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Acta Protozool. (1)

M. Opas, “Course of Glycerination of Amoeba proteus and Contraction of Glycerinated Models,” Acta Protozool. 15, 485 (1976).

Appl. Opt. (7)

Cytobiologie (1)

Z. Baranowski, “Three-Dimensional Analysis of Movement of Physarum Polycephalum Plasmodia,” Cytobiologie 13, 118 (1976).

J. Micros. (1)

M. Opas, “Holographic Microscopy of Glycerination of Amoeba proteus,” J. Micros. 112, 301 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (4)

Laser + Elektrooptik (1)

E. Handler, D. Haine, W. Waidelich, “Bildverbesserung in der holographishen Mikroskopie,” Laser + Elektrooptik 6, 46 (1974).

Microscope (1)

M. E. Cox, “Holographic Microscopy—A Reassessment,” Microscope 22, 361 (1974).

Opt. Acta (1)

R. Pawluczyk, E. Mroz, “Unidirectional Optical Coherent Noise Elimination in Optical Systems with Laser Illumination,” Opt. Acta 20, 379 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Appl. (3)

E. Mroz, R. Pawluczyk, M. Pluta, “A Method for Coherent Optical Noise Elimination in Optical Systems with Laser Illumination,” Opt. Appl., 1, 9 (1971).

R. Pawluczyk, W. Kibalczyc, T. Sokolowski, “Application of Holographic Interference Microscope in the Investigation of Crystal Dissolution,” Opt. Appl. 16, 25 (1986).

E. Mroz, R. Pawluczyk, “An Improvement of the Holographic Imaging Quality by the Method of Noncoherent Superposition of Images,” Opt. Appl. 10, 205 (1980).

Opt. Commun. (4)

N. George, A. Jain, “Speckle in Microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 6, 253 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Dainty, W. T. Welford, “Reduction of Speckle in Image-Plane Hologram Reconstruction by Moving Pupil,” Opt. Commun. 3, 289 (1971).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Welford, “Time-Averaging Images Produced by Optical Systems with Time-Varying Pupils,” Opt. Commun. 4, 275 (1971).
[CrossRef]

R. Pawluczyk, “Coherent Noise Elimination in Holographic Microscope,” Opt. Commun. 7, 379–000 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Optik (1)

H. Golbach, “Granulatiosverminderung in der holographishen Auflichtmikroskopie,” Optik 37, 45 (1973).

Postepy Fiz. (1)

R. Pawluczyk, “Holographic Microscopy” (in Polish), Postepy Fiz. 22, 105 (1971).

Other (9)

R. Pawluczyk, “Holographic Microinterferometry” (in Russian), Fifth All-Union School on Holography, Novosibirsk, USSR, (1973) p. 314.

M. Pluta, “Holographic Microscopy and Microinterferometry,” in Optical Holography (in Polish), M. Pluta, Ed. (PWN, Warsaw, 1980), p. 441.

M. Pluta, Optical Microscopy (in Polish) (PWN, Warsaw, 1982).

R. Pawluczyk, “Suppression of Coherent Noise in Holographic Microinterferometry,” (in Polish), Ph.D. Thesis, Poznan U, Poland (1984), available from Central Laboratory of Optics, 18 Kamionkowska St., 03-805 Warsaw, Poland.

M. Pluta, “Holographic Microscopy,” in Optical and Electron Microscopy, R. Barber, V. E. Cosslett, Eds. (Academic Press, New York1987).

R. Pawluczyk, “Holographic Microscope with Suppression of Coherent Noise,” U.S.A. Patent3,867,009, 18Feb.1975.

R. Pawluczyk, “Holographic Microscope with Coherent Noise Elimination,” (in Polish), Conference on Microscope in Science and Technology—Polmic 76, Warsaw, Poland (1976), p. 108.

M. Pluta, R. Pawluczyk, “Evaluation of Imagery Quality of Holographic Microinterference System,” 76Tagung DGaO, Bad-Ischl, Austria (1976).

J. C. Dainty, Ed., Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1975).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical schematic of holographic microinterferometer with noise suppression: λ/2, halfwave plates; PB1PB4, polarizing beam splitters; L1L8, lenses; RG1RG2, rotating glass parallelepipeds; RS1RS2, adjustble slits; T1T3, telescopes; DP1DP2, Dove prisms; λ/4, quarterwave plates; M1M6, mirrors; St, microscopic stages; Ob, microscopic objectives; IO, investigated object; GS, glass slide; CL, condensors; WC, wedge phase compensator; PC, optical path compensator; P, polarizer; H, hologram.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

General view of prototype of holographic microinterferometer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Equivalent schematic of the normal microscope with moving point source of light.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spatial bandpass υ transferred through the optical system with a numerical aperture Aob as a function of the distance z1 from the object to the noise source: point line, without noise suppression; broken line, the point source uniformly covers an area creating illumination with an equivalent aperture Ail; solid line, the equivalent illumination aperture is equal to Aob. zp is the distance of the imaging lens from the object; R is the radius of this lens.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Microscopic images (objective 20×, N.A. = 0.40) of a high resolution test target reconstructed from hologram. Top row images reconstructed from hologram registered without noise suppression; bottom row, with noise suppression; in the right column the noise was also suppressed durring reconstruction.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Microscopic images (objective 20×, N.A. = 0.40) of diatoms reconstructed from hologram. Sequence of the first four images was obtained under the same conditions as in Fig. 5. The last two images show the same specimen as it is directly seen in above microscope without and with noise suppression.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Microinterferograms of diatoms obtained with presented microscope under condition as in Fig. 6. In first four microinterferograms the specimen images were reconstructed from hologram; in the last two, the real-time interferometry is realized (the reference wavefront for interferometric investigations is reconstructed from the hologram).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Reflected light microinterferograms of razor blade without and with noise suppression on every step of holographic interferogram creation process.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Holographic microinterferograms of the black painted metallic surface.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

The Wiener spectra: of the reconstructing, transmitted, and diffracted beams of the holograms obtained with and without noise suppression in transmitted and reflected light micriscopes (objective 20×, N.A. = 0.40).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Normalized spatial spectral density of the wavefronts (transmitted light system: objective 20×, N.A. = 0.40): (a) reconstructed from and (b) transmitted through the hologram registered without and with noise suppression.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Normalized spatial spectral density of the wavefronts as in Fig. 11 in a reflected light system.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Spatial Frequencies In the Test Target (Ealing Test 22-8635)

Tables Icon

Table II Achieved Resolution (Objective 10×, N.A. = 0.24) for Two Different Averaging Apertures

Tables Icon

Table III Achieved Resolution (Objective 20×, N.A. = 0.40) for Two Different Averaging Apertures

Metrics