Abstract

The gain of the Λ-doublet terms in the 0—0 UV laser band of N2 is calculated through an excitation model assuming low energy electron impact with ground state molecules. The results are used to explain the observation of the Λ doubling for axial and transverse discharge lasers.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. S. Kunabenchi, M. R. Gorbal, M. I. Savadatti, “Nitrogen Lasers,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 9, 259–329 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. H. Parks, D. Ramachandra Rao, A. Javan, “A High-Resolution Study of the C3πu → B3πg (0—0) Stimulated Transitions in N2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 142–144 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. A. Massone, M. Garavaglia, M. Gallardo, J. A. E. Calatroni, A. A. Tagliaferri, “Investigation of a Pulsed Molecular Nitrogen Laser at Low Temperature,” Appl. Opt. 11, 1317–1328 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. O. Tocho, H. F. Ranea Sandoval, A. A. Tagliaferri, M. Garavaglia, M. Gallardo, C. A. Massone, “Spectroscopic Analysis of the Crossed Field Excited C3πu → B3πg (0—0) UV Laser Band of N2 at Low Temperature,” Nouv. Rev. Opt. 5, 319–322 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. F. Ranea Sandoval, J. O. Tocho, M. Gallardo, M. Garavaglia, “On the Observation of the Λ-Doubling in the 0—0 UV Laser Band,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 295–296 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Scaffardi, D. Schinca, J. O. Tocho, H. F. Ranea Sandoval, Mario Gallardo, “Cascade Population Mechanism in Nitrogen Laser,” Appl. Opt. 24, 22–25 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. Herzberg, Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure. I. Spectra of Diatomic Molecules (van Nostrand, Princeton, NJ, 1950).
  8. I. Kovacs, Rotational Structure of the Spectra of Diatomic Molecules (Adam Hilger, London, 1969).
  9. H. F. Ranea Sandoval, J. O. Tocho, M. Gallardo, M. Garavaglia, “Spectroscopic Analysis of the Transverse Excited C3πu–B3πg (0—0) UV Laser Band of N2 at Room Temperature: Comments,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1705 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Schinca, L. Scaffardi, J. O. Tocho, “Population Mechanisms in Visible Carbon Monoxide Pulsed Lasers,” Appl. Opt. 25, 102–106 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

1985 (1)

1984 (1)

R. S. Kunabenchi, M. R. Gorbal, M. I. Savadatti, “Nitrogen Lasers,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 9, 259–329 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

H. F. Ranea Sandoval, J. O. Tocho, M. Gallardo, M. Garavaglia, “On the Observation of the Λ-Doubling in the 0—0 UV Laser Band,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 295–296 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

1974 (1)

J. O. Tocho, H. F. Ranea Sandoval, A. A. Tagliaferri, M. Garavaglia, M. Gallardo, C. A. Massone, “Spectroscopic Analysis of the Crossed Field Excited C3πu → B3πg (0—0) UV Laser Band of N2 at Low Temperature,” Nouv. Rev. Opt. 5, 319–322 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

1968 (1)

J. H. Parks, D. Ramachandra Rao, A. Javan, “A High-Resolution Study of the C3πu → B3πg (0—0) Stimulated Transitions in N2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 142–144 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Calatroni, J. A. E.

Gallardo, M.

H. F. Ranea Sandoval, J. O. Tocho, M. Gallardo, M. Garavaglia, “On the Observation of the Λ-Doubling in the 0—0 UV Laser Band,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 295–296 (1981).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ranea Sandoval, J. O. Tocho, M. Gallardo, M. Garavaglia, “Spectroscopic Analysis of the Transverse Excited C3πu–B3πg (0—0) UV Laser Band of N2 at Room Temperature: Comments,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1705 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. O. Tocho, H. F. Ranea Sandoval, A. A. Tagliaferri, M. Garavaglia, M. Gallardo, C. A. Massone, “Spectroscopic Analysis of the Crossed Field Excited C3πu → B3πg (0—0) UV Laser Band of N2 at Low Temperature,” Nouv. Rev. Opt. 5, 319–322 (1974).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Massone, M. Garavaglia, M. Gallardo, J. A. E. Calatroni, A. A. Tagliaferri, “Investigation of a Pulsed Molecular Nitrogen Laser at Low Temperature,” Appl. Opt. 11, 1317–1328 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gallardo, Mario

Garavaglia, M.

H. F. Ranea Sandoval, J. O. Tocho, M. Gallardo, M. Garavaglia, “On the Observation of the Λ-Doubling in the 0—0 UV Laser Band,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 295–296 (1981).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ranea Sandoval, J. O. Tocho, M. Gallardo, M. Garavaglia, “Spectroscopic Analysis of the Transverse Excited C3πu–B3πg (0—0) UV Laser Band of N2 at Room Temperature: Comments,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1705 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. O. Tocho, H. F. Ranea Sandoval, A. A. Tagliaferri, M. Garavaglia, M. Gallardo, C. A. Massone, “Spectroscopic Analysis of the Crossed Field Excited C3πu → B3πg (0—0) UV Laser Band of N2 at Low Temperature,” Nouv. Rev. Opt. 5, 319–322 (1974).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Massone, M. Garavaglia, M. Gallardo, J. A. E. Calatroni, A. A. Tagliaferri, “Investigation of a Pulsed Molecular Nitrogen Laser at Low Temperature,” Appl. Opt. 11, 1317–1328 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gorbal, M. R.

R. S. Kunabenchi, M. R. Gorbal, M. I. Savadatti, “Nitrogen Lasers,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 9, 259–329 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Herzberg, G.

G. Herzberg, Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure. I. Spectra of Diatomic Molecules (van Nostrand, Princeton, NJ, 1950).

Javan, A.

J. H. Parks, D. Ramachandra Rao, A. Javan, “A High-Resolution Study of the C3πu → B3πg (0—0) Stimulated Transitions in N2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 142–144 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Kovacs, I.

I. Kovacs, Rotational Structure of the Spectra of Diatomic Molecules (Adam Hilger, London, 1969).

Kunabenchi, R. S.

R. S. Kunabenchi, M. R. Gorbal, M. I. Savadatti, “Nitrogen Lasers,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 9, 259–329 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Massone, C. A.

J. O. Tocho, H. F. Ranea Sandoval, A. A. Tagliaferri, M. Garavaglia, M. Gallardo, C. A. Massone, “Spectroscopic Analysis of the Crossed Field Excited C3πu → B3πg (0—0) UV Laser Band of N2 at Low Temperature,” Nouv. Rev. Opt. 5, 319–322 (1974).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Massone, M. Garavaglia, M. Gallardo, J. A. E. Calatroni, A. A. Tagliaferri, “Investigation of a Pulsed Molecular Nitrogen Laser at Low Temperature,” Appl. Opt. 11, 1317–1328 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parks, J. H.

J. H. Parks, D. Ramachandra Rao, A. Javan, “A High-Resolution Study of the C3πu → B3πg (0—0) Stimulated Transitions in N2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 142–144 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Ramachandra Rao, D.

J. H. Parks, D. Ramachandra Rao, A. Javan, “A High-Resolution Study of the C3πu → B3πg (0—0) Stimulated Transitions in N2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 142–144 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Ranea Sandoval, H. F.

L. Scaffardi, D. Schinca, J. O. Tocho, H. F. Ranea Sandoval, Mario Gallardo, “Cascade Population Mechanism in Nitrogen Laser,” Appl. Opt. 24, 22–25 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Ranea Sandoval, J. O. Tocho, M. Gallardo, M. Garavaglia, “On the Observation of the Λ-Doubling in the 0—0 UV Laser Band,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 295–296 (1981).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ranea Sandoval, J. O. Tocho, M. Gallardo, M. Garavaglia, “Spectroscopic Analysis of the Transverse Excited C3πu–B3πg (0—0) UV Laser Band of N2 at Room Temperature: Comments,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1705 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. O. Tocho, H. F. Ranea Sandoval, A. A. Tagliaferri, M. Garavaglia, M. Gallardo, C. A. Massone, “Spectroscopic Analysis of the Crossed Field Excited C3πu → B3πg (0—0) UV Laser Band of N2 at Low Temperature,” Nouv. Rev. Opt. 5, 319–322 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Savadatti, M. I.

R. S. Kunabenchi, M. R. Gorbal, M. I. Savadatti, “Nitrogen Lasers,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 9, 259–329 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Scaffardi, L.

Schinca, D.

Tagliaferri, A. A.

J. O. Tocho, H. F. Ranea Sandoval, A. A. Tagliaferri, M. Garavaglia, M. Gallardo, C. A. Massone, “Spectroscopic Analysis of the Crossed Field Excited C3πu → B3πg (0—0) UV Laser Band of N2 at Low Temperature,” Nouv. Rev. Opt. 5, 319–322 (1974).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Massone, M. Garavaglia, M. Gallardo, J. A. E. Calatroni, A. A. Tagliaferri, “Investigation of a Pulsed Molecular Nitrogen Laser at Low Temperature,” Appl. Opt. 11, 1317–1328 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tocho, J. O.

D. Schinca, L. Scaffardi, J. O. Tocho, “Population Mechanisms in Visible Carbon Monoxide Pulsed Lasers,” Appl. Opt. 25, 102–106 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Scaffardi, D. Schinca, J. O. Tocho, H. F. Ranea Sandoval, Mario Gallardo, “Cascade Population Mechanism in Nitrogen Laser,” Appl. Opt. 24, 22–25 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Ranea Sandoval, J. O. Tocho, M. Gallardo, M. Garavaglia, “On the Observation of the Λ-Doubling in the 0—0 UV Laser Band,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 295–296 (1981).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ranea Sandoval, J. O. Tocho, M. Gallardo, M. Garavaglia, “Spectroscopic Analysis of the Transverse Excited C3πu–B3πg (0—0) UV Laser Band of N2 at Room Temperature: Comments,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1705 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. O. Tocho, H. F. Ranea Sandoval, A. A. Tagliaferri, M. Garavaglia, M. Gallardo, C. A. Massone, “Spectroscopic Analysis of the Crossed Field Excited C3πu → B3πg (0—0) UV Laser Band of N2 at Low Temperature,” Nouv. Rev. Opt. 5, 319–322 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. H. Parks, D. Ramachandra Rao, A. Javan, “A High-Resolution Study of the C3πu → B3πg (0—0) Stimulated Transitions in N2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 142–144 (1968).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. F. Ranea Sandoval, J. O. Tocho, M. Gallardo, M. Garavaglia, “On the Observation of the Λ-Doubling in the 0—0 UV Laser Band,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 295–296 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Nouv. Rev. Opt. (1)

J. O. Tocho, H. F. Ranea Sandoval, A. A. Tagliaferri, M. Garavaglia, M. Gallardo, C. A. Massone, “Spectroscopic Analysis of the Crossed Field Excited C3πu → B3πg (0—0) UV Laser Band of N2 at Low Temperature,” Nouv. Rev. Opt. 5, 319–322 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. S. Kunabenchi, M. R. Gorbal, M. I. Savadatti, “Nitrogen Lasers,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 9, 259–329 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

G. Herzberg, Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure. I. Spectra of Diatomic Molecules (van Nostrand, Princeton, NJ, 1950).

I. Kovacs, Rotational Structure of the Spectra of Diatomic Molecules (Adam Hilger, London, 1969).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Part of a typical spectrum of the 0—0 UV laser band showing all P1 branch lines. Some lines of the other branches are also shown. Lines marked G are Rowland ghosts of high intensity lines.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Gain calculation for the P1 and P 1 branch lines of the 0—0 UV band assuming low energy electron impact: (a) best fit; a = 1.4; (b) a = 3.3.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Microdensitometric traces of part of the 0—0 UV band spectrum in an axial discharge N2 laser showing the appearance of the (a) P1—7 and (b) P1—8 Λ doublets for decreasing values of the gas pressure.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Gain calculation for the P1 and P 1 branch lines of the 0—0 UV band assuming high energy electron impact excitation for the C3πu state.

Equations (3)

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N J C = N υ C ( 2 J C + 1 ) 2 n exp [ B X J C ( J C + 1 ) ( h c / k T ) ] ,
N J B = N υ B ( 2 J B + 1 ) 2 n exp [ B X J B ( J B + 1 ) ( h c / k T ) ] ,
G J J = [ N J C ( 1 / a ) ( g C / g B ) N J B ] ( i J C J B / g C ) ,

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