Abstract

An automated diode laser spectrometer for recording concentrations of trace gases is described. It has been tested for unattended operation in the laboratory and at an atmospheric surveillance station for several months. The sensitivities reached are, e.g., 50 ppt for NO2 and 300 ppt for NO. In an optical path length of 100 m the lowest extinction measured in unattended operation is ~1.5 × 10−5 for a measuring time of ~60 s. Recordings of trace gases are shown for urban and rural atmospheric conditions.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. I. Schiff, G. W. Harris, G. I. Mackay, “Measurement of Atmospheric Gases by Diode Laser Absorption Spectrometry,” in Monitoring of Gaseous Pollutants by Tunable Diode Lasers, R. Grisar, H. Preier, G. Restelli, G. Schenidtke, Eds. (D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht, 1987), pp. 4–16.
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Reid, J. Schewchun, B. K. Garside, E. A. Ballik, “High Sensitivity Pollution Detection Employing Tunable Diode Lasers,” Appl. Opt. 17, 300–307 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. F. Cappellani, G. Melandrone, G. Restelli, “Diode Laser System for Measurement of Gaseous Ammonia in Ambient Air,” in Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 5 (D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht, 1985), pp. 271–281.
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. S. Connell, R. A. Perry, C. Howard, “Tunable Diode Laser Measurement of Nitrous Oxide in Air,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 1093–1096 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Fried, R. Sams, W. W. Berg, “Application of Tunable Diode Laser Absorption for Trace Stratospheric Measurements of HC1: Laboratory Results,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1867–1880 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. R. Hastie, M. D. Miller, “Balloon-Borne Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectrometer for Multispecies Trace Gas Measurements in the Stratosphere,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3694–3701 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. Koga, M. Kosaka, H. Sano, “Field Methane Tracking with a Portable and Real-Time Open-Gas Monitor Based on a Cw-Driven Pb–Salt Diode Laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 17, 139–144(1985).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. T. Menzies, C. R. Webster, E. D. Hinkley, “Balloon-Borne Diode-Laser Absorption Spectrometer for Measurements of Stratospheric Trace Species,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2655–2664 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. Schmidtke, W. J. Riedel, M. Knothe, H. Wolf, U. Klocke, H. M. Preier, R. Grisar, W. Fischer, “Gas Analysis with IR–Diode Laser Spectrometers,” Fresenius Z. Anal. Chem. 317, 347–349 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. W. J. Riedel, M. Knothe, W. Kohn, R. Grisar, “An Anastigmatic White-Cell for IR Diode Laser Spectroscopy,” Proceedings 4th Int. Conf. IR Physics, Zürich (1988), pp. 504–508.
  13. D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, T. Iguchi, B. A. Ridley, H. I. Schiff, “Tunable Diode Laser Systems for Measuring Trace Gases in Tropospheric Air,” Environ. Sci. and Technol. 17, 352A–364A (1983).
  14. D. T. Cassidy, J. Reid, “Atmospheric Pressure Monitoring of Trace Gases Using Tunable Diode Lasers,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1185–1190 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. D. T. Cassidy, “Influence of the Steady-State Oscillation Spectrum of a Diode Laser for Feedback of Light Interacting Coherently and Incoherently with the Field Established in the Laser Cavity,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2070–2077 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (2)

D. R. Hastie, M. D. Miller, “Balloon-Borne Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectrometer for Multispecies Trace Gas Measurements in the Stratosphere,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3694–3701 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Koga, M. Kosaka, H. Sano, “Field Methane Tracking with a Portable and Real-Time Open-Gas Monitor Based on a Cw-Driven Pb–Salt Diode Laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 17, 139–144(1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (3)

1983 (2)

D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, T. Iguchi, B. A. Ridley, H. I. Schiff, “Tunable Diode Laser Systems for Measuring Trace Gases in Tropospheric Air,” Environ. Sci. and Technol. 17, 352A–364A (1983).

R. T. Menzies, C. R. Webster, E. D. Hinkley, “Balloon-Borne Diode-Laser Absorption Spectrometer for Measurements of Stratospheric Trace Species,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2655–2664 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

1980 (2)

1978 (1)

1942 (1)

Ballik, E. A.

Berg, W. W.

Cappellani, F.

F. Cappellani, G. Melandrone, G. Restelli, “Diode Laser System for Measurement of Gaseous Ammonia in Ambient Air,” in Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 5 (D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht, 1985), pp. 271–281.
[CrossRef]

Cassidy, D. T.

Connell, P. S.

P. S. Connell, R. A. Perry, C. Howard, “Tunable Diode Laser Measurement of Nitrous Oxide in Air,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 1093–1096 (1980).
[CrossRef]

El-Sherbiny, M.

Fischer, W.

G. Schmidtke, W. J. Riedel, M. Knothe, H. Wolf, U. Klocke, H. M. Preier, R. Grisar, W. Fischer, “Gas Analysis with IR–Diode Laser Spectrometers,” Fresenius Z. Anal. Chem. 317, 347–349 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Fried, A.

Garside, B. K.

Grisar, R.

G. Schmidtke, W. J. Riedel, M. Knothe, H. Wolf, U. Klocke, H. M. Preier, R. Grisar, W. Fischer, “Gas Analysis with IR–Diode Laser Spectrometers,” Fresenius Z. Anal. Chem. 317, 347–349 (1984).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Riedel, M. Knothe, W. Kohn, R. Grisar, “An Anastigmatic White-Cell for IR Diode Laser Spectroscopy,” Proceedings 4th Int. Conf. IR Physics, Zürich (1988), pp. 504–508.

Harris, G. W.

H. I. Schiff, G. W. Harris, G. I. Mackay, “Measurement of Atmospheric Gases by Diode Laser Absorption Spectrometry,” in Monitoring of Gaseous Pollutants by Tunable Diode Lasers, R. Grisar, H. Preier, G. Restelli, G. Schenidtke, Eds. (D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht, 1987), pp. 4–16.
[CrossRef]

Hastie, D. R.

D. R. Hastie, M. D. Miller, “Balloon-Borne Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectrometer for Multispecies Trace Gas Measurements in the Stratosphere,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3694–3701 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, T. Iguchi, B. A. Ridley, H. I. Schiff, “Tunable Diode Laser Systems for Measuring Trace Gases in Tropospheric Air,” Environ. Sci. and Technol. 17, 352A–364A (1983).

Hinkley, E. D.

Howard, C.

P. S. Connell, R. A. Perry, C. Howard, “Tunable Diode Laser Measurement of Nitrous Oxide in Air,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 1093–1096 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Iguchi, T.

D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, T. Iguchi, B. A. Ridley, H. I. Schiff, “Tunable Diode Laser Systems for Measuring Trace Gases in Tropospheric Air,” Environ. Sci. and Technol. 17, 352A–364A (1983).

Klocke, U.

G. Schmidtke, W. J. Riedel, M. Knothe, H. Wolf, U. Klocke, H. M. Preier, R. Grisar, W. Fischer, “Gas Analysis with IR–Diode Laser Spectrometers,” Fresenius Z. Anal. Chem. 317, 347–349 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Knothe, M.

G. Schmidtke, W. J. Riedel, M. Knothe, H. Wolf, U. Klocke, H. M. Preier, R. Grisar, W. Fischer, “Gas Analysis with IR–Diode Laser Spectrometers,” Fresenius Z. Anal. Chem. 317, 347–349 (1984).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Riedel, M. Knothe, W. Kohn, R. Grisar, “An Anastigmatic White-Cell for IR Diode Laser Spectroscopy,” Proceedings 4th Int. Conf. IR Physics, Zürich (1988), pp. 504–508.

Koga, R.

R. Koga, M. Kosaka, H. Sano, “Field Methane Tracking with a Portable and Real-Time Open-Gas Monitor Based on a Cw-Driven Pb–Salt Diode Laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 17, 139–144(1985).
[CrossRef]

Kohn, W.

W. J. Riedel, M. Knothe, W. Kohn, R. Grisar, “An Anastigmatic White-Cell for IR Diode Laser Spectroscopy,” Proceedings 4th Int. Conf. IR Physics, Zürich (1988), pp. 504–508.

Kosaka, M.

R. Koga, M. Kosaka, H. Sano, “Field Methane Tracking with a Portable and Real-Time Open-Gas Monitor Based on a Cw-Driven Pb–Salt Diode Laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 17, 139–144(1985).
[CrossRef]

Mackay, G. I.

D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, T. Iguchi, B. A. Ridley, H. I. Schiff, “Tunable Diode Laser Systems for Measuring Trace Gases in Tropospheric Air,” Environ. Sci. and Technol. 17, 352A–364A (1983).

H. I. Schiff, G. W. Harris, G. I. Mackay, “Measurement of Atmospheric Gases by Diode Laser Absorption Spectrometry,” in Monitoring of Gaseous Pollutants by Tunable Diode Lasers, R. Grisar, H. Preier, G. Restelli, G. Schenidtke, Eds. (D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht, 1987), pp. 4–16.
[CrossRef]

Melandrone, G.

F. Cappellani, G. Melandrone, G. Restelli, “Diode Laser System for Measurement of Gaseous Ammonia in Ambient Air,” in Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 5 (D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht, 1985), pp. 271–281.
[CrossRef]

Menzies, R. T.

Miller, M. D.

Perry, R. A.

P. S. Connell, R. A. Perry, C. Howard, “Tunable Diode Laser Measurement of Nitrous Oxide in Air,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 1093–1096 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Preier, H. M.

G. Schmidtke, W. J. Riedel, M. Knothe, H. Wolf, U. Klocke, H. M. Preier, R. Grisar, W. Fischer, “Gas Analysis with IR–Diode Laser Spectrometers,” Fresenius Z. Anal. Chem. 317, 347–349 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Reid, J.

Restelli, G.

F. Cappellani, G. Melandrone, G. Restelli, “Diode Laser System for Measurement of Gaseous Ammonia in Ambient Air,” in Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 5 (D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht, 1985), pp. 271–281.
[CrossRef]

Ridley, B. A.

D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, T. Iguchi, B. A. Ridley, H. I. Schiff, “Tunable Diode Laser Systems for Measuring Trace Gases in Tropospheric Air,” Environ. Sci. and Technol. 17, 352A–364A (1983).

Riedel, W. J.

G. Schmidtke, W. J. Riedel, M. Knothe, H. Wolf, U. Klocke, H. M. Preier, R. Grisar, W. Fischer, “Gas Analysis with IR–Diode Laser Spectrometers,” Fresenius Z. Anal. Chem. 317, 347–349 (1984).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Riedel, M. Knothe, W. Kohn, R. Grisar, “An Anastigmatic White-Cell for IR Diode Laser Spectroscopy,” Proceedings 4th Int. Conf. IR Physics, Zürich (1988), pp. 504–508.

Sams, R.

Sano, H.

R. Koga, M. Kosaka, H. Sano, “Field Methane Tracking with a Portable and Real-Time Open-Gas Monitor Based on a Cw-Driven Pb–Salt Diode Laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 17, 139–144(1985).
[CrossRef]

Schewchun, J.

Schiff, H. I.

D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, T. Iguchi, B. A. Ridley, H. I. Schiff, “Tunable Diode Laser Systems for Measuring Trace Gases in Tropospheric Air,” Environ. Sci. and Technol. 17, 352A–364A (1983).

H. I. Schiff, G. W. Harris, G. I. Mackay, “Measurement of Atmospheric Gases by Diode Laser Absorption Spectrometry,” in Monitoring of Gaseous Pollutants by Tunable Diode Lasers, R. Grisar, H. Preier, G. Restelli, G. Schenidtke, Eds. (D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht, 1987), pp. 4–16.
[CrossRef]

Schmidtke, G.

G. Schmidtke, W. J. Riedel, M. Knothe, H. Wolf, U. Klocke, H. M. Preier, R. Grisar, W. Fischer, “Gas Analysis with IR–Diode Laser Spectrometers,” Fresenius Z. Anal. Chem. 317, 347–349 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Webster, C. R.

White, J. U.

Wolf, H.

G. Schmidtke, W. J. Riedel, M. Knothe, H. Wolf, U. Klocke, H. M. Preier, R. Grisar, W. Fischer, “Gas Analysis with IR–Diode Laser Spectrometers,” Fresenius Z. Anal. Chem. 317, 347–349 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (7)

Environ. Sci. and Technol. (1)

D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, T. Iguchi, B. A. Ridley, H. I. Schiff, “Tunable Diode Laser Systems for Measuring Trace Gases in Tropospheric Air,” Environ. Sci. and Technol. 17, 352A–364A (1983).

Fresenius Z. Anal. Chem. (1)

G. Schmidtke, W. J. Riedel, M. Knothe, H. Wolf, U. Klocke, H. M. Preier, R. Grisar, W. Fischer, “Gas Analysis with IR–Diode Laser Spectrometers,” Fresenius Z. Anal. Chem. 317, 347–349 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

P. S. Connell, R. A. Perry, C. Howard, “Tunable Diode Laser Measurement of Nitrous Oxide in Air,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 1093–1096 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

R. Koga, M. Kosaka, H. Sano, “Field Methane Tracking with a Portable and Real-Time Open-Gas Monitor Based on a Cw-Driven Pb–Salt Diode Laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 17, 139–144(1985).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

W. J. Riedel, M. Knothe, W. Kohn, R. Grisar, “An Anastigmatic White-Cell for IR Diode Laser Spectroscopy,” Proceedings 4th Int. Conf. IR Physics, Zürich (1988), pp. 504–508.

H. I. Schiff, G. W. Harris, G. I. Mackay, “Measurement of Atmospheric Gases by Diode Laser Absorption Spectrometry,” in Monitoring of Gaseous Pollutants by Tunable Diode Lasers, R. Grisar, H. Preier, G. Restelli, G. Schenidtke, Eds. (D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht, 1987), pp. 4–16.
[CrossRef]

F. Cappellani, G. Melandrone, G. Restelli, “Diode Laser System for Measurement of Gaseous Ammonia in Ambient Air,” in Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 5 (D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht, 1985), pp. 271–281.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Arrangement of the DLS modules (from left to right): laser source, mode filter, White cell, detector, and reference modules.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Data reduction and evaluation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Far-field pattern of diode lasers, a) spotlike emission, b) emission of small divergence, c) radiation pattern observed in most cases, d) best far-field pattern for trace gas analysis.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

NO2 in urban air (9–11 Nov. 1987).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

NO in urban air (9–11 Nov. 1987).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

SO2 in urban air (11–13 Nov. 1987).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Recording of instrumental parameter changes (4–5 Feb. 1988). The ppb-scale is equivalent to NO2 concentration.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Concentration of NO2 in rural air (13–17 Feb. 1988).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Same as Fig. 8 with extended y-axis to include the increased concentration in the inversion layer on 17 February 1988.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Concentration of NO in rural air (22–25 Jan. 1988).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Concentration of SO2 in rural air (31 Dec. 1987–2 Jan. 1988).

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