Abstract

Measurements of atmospheric ozone at altitudes from 5 to 50 km using the lidar (DIAL) differential absorption technique are described. A XeCl excimer laser with a repetition rate of up to 50 Hz and a wavelength of 308 nm was used for the measurements. The reference line was produced by the stimulated Raman effect in a hydrogen gas cell, leading to a wavelength of 353 nm. The time-resolved measurement of the backscattered light allows one to evaluate the ozone concentration as a function of the altitude. Exceptionally good agreement between the lidar data and those measured with chemical balloonsondes was obtained. A narrow-band laser and a receiving system, including a set of three Fabry-Perot filters, also allow daytime measurements. Thus investigations in polar regions are possible even in summer periods. Measurements performed in arctic and equatorial regions with the lidar system installed on board the research vessel Polarstern are reported.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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  6. M. R. Schoeberl, A. J. Krueger, P. A. Newman, “The Morphology of Antarctic Total Ozone as Seen by TOMS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 1217–1220 (1986).
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  7. J. Werner, K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, “Monitoring of the Stratospheric Ozone Layer by Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 113–118 (1983).
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  28. P. K. Bhartia, D. Silberstein, B. Monosmith, A. J. Fleig, “Standard Profiles of Ozone from Ground to 60 km Obtained by Combining Satellite and Ground Base Measurements,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Halkidiki, Greece, C. S. Zerefos, A. Ghazi, Eds. (D. Reidel, Dordrecht, 1985), pp. 243–247.
  29. S. Solomon, O. W. Rusch, R. J. Thomas, R. S. Eckman, “Comparison of Mesospheric Ozone Abundances Measured by the Solar Mesophere Explorer and Model Calculations.”Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 249–252 (1983).
    [CrossRef]

1987 (1)

D. J. Wuebbles, A. Benezai, “Author Add Title to galleys,” Nature 330, 711–716 (1987).

1986 (2)

K. P. Bowman, “Interannual Variability of Total Ozone During the Breakdown of the Antarctic Circumpolar Vortex,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 1193–1196 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Schoeberl, A. J. Krueger, P. A. Newman, “The Morphology of Antarctic Total Ozone as Seen by TOMS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 1217–1220 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

J. C. Farman, B. G. Gardiner, J. D. Shanklin, “Author add Title”Nature 315, 207–210 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

J. Werner, K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, “Monitoring of the Stratospheric Ozone Layer by Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 113–118 (1983).
[CrossRef]

S. Solomon, O. W. Rusch, R. J. Thomas, R. S. Eckman, “Comparison of Mesospheric Ozone Abundances Measured by the Solar Mesophere Explorer and Model Calculations.”Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 249–252 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

J. Pelon, G. Megie, “Ozone in the Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere: Evaluation and Operation of a Ground-Based Lidar Station,” 4947–4955 (1982).

R. D. McPeters, A. M. Bass, “Anomalous Atmospheric Spectral Features Between 300 and 310 nm Interpreted in Light of New Ozone Absorption Coefficient Measurement,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 9, 227–230 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, M. Hirono, “Applications of Excimer Lasers to Laser Radar Observations of the Upper Atmosphere,” IEEE Journ. Quant. Electr. QE-15, 1094–1107 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

G. Megie, J. Y. Allain, M. L. Chanin, J. E Blamont, “Vertical Profile of Stratospheric Ozone by Lidar Sounding from the Ground,” Nature 270, 329–331 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

A. J. Gibson, L. Thomas, “Ultraviolet Laser Sounding of the Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere,” Nature 256, 561–563 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

R. M. Schotland, “Errors in the Lidar Measurement of Atmospheric Gases by Differential Absorption,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 13, 71–77 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

W. Attmannspacher, H. U. Dütsch, “International Ozone Sonde Intercomparison at the Observatory Hohenpeissenberg,” Ber. Dt. Wetterd. Nr. 120, (1970) and “Second International Ozone Sonde Intercomparison at the Observatory Hohenpeissenberg,” Ber. Dt. Wetterdienst Nr. 157, (1978).

1960 (1)

A. W. Brewer, J. R. Milford, “The Oxford-Kew Sonde,” Proc. Roy. Soc. London A 256, Nr. 1278, 470–495 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1953 (1)

Allain, J. Y.

G. Megie, J. Y. Allain, M. L. Chanin, J. E Blamont, “Vertical Profile of Stratospheric Ozone by Lidar Sounding from the Ground,” Nature 270, 329–331 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, D. G.

R. A. Plumb, D. G. Andrews, M. A. Geller, W. L. Grose, A. O’Neill, M. Salby, R. A. Vincent, “Dynamical Processes: Observations of Transport Processes,” in Atmospheric Ozone, World Meteorological Organization, Report No. 16 (WMO, Geneva, 1986), pp. 311–347.

Angell, J. K.

K. Labitzke, J. K. Angell, J. J. Barnett, P. Bowman, M. Corney, G. M. Keuting, A. J. Krueger, A. J. Miller, R. M. Nagatani, “Monthly Mean Distribution of Ozone and Temperature,” in Atmospheric Ozone, World Meteorological Organization, Report No. 16 (WMO, Geneva, 1986), pp. 981–1032.

Attmannspacher, W.

W. Attmannspacher, H. U. Dütsch, “International Ozone Sonde Intercomparison at the Observatory Hohenpeissenberg,” Ber. Dt. Wetterd. Nr. 120, (1970) and “Second International Ozone Sonde Intercomparison at the Observatory Hohenpeissenberg,” Ber. Dt. Wetterdienst Nr. 157, (1978).

W. Attmannspacher, R. Hartmannsgruber, J. Werner, K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, “Intercomparison of Ozone Profiles Obtained by Brewer/Mast Sondes and Differential Absorption Laser Radar,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Halkidiki, Greece, by C. S. Zerefos, A. Ghazi, Eds. (D. Reidel Publishing Comp., 1985) pp. 450–453.

Barnett, J. J.

K. Labitzke, J. K. Angell, J. J. Barnett, P. Bowman, M. Corney, G. M. Keuting, A. J. Krueger, A. J. Miller, R. M. Nagatani, “Monthly Mean Distribution of Ozone and Temperature,” in Atmospheric Ozone, World Meteorological Organization, Report No. 16 (WMO, Geneva, 1986), pp. 981–1032.

Bass, A. M.

R. D. McPeters, A. M. Bass, “Anomalous Atmospheric Spectral Features Between 300 and 310 nm Interpreted in Light of New Ozone Absorption Coefficient Measurement,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 9, 227–230 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Benezai, A.

D. J. Wuebbles, A. Benezai, “Author Add Title to galleys,” Nature 330, 711–716 (1987).

Bhartia, P. K.

P. K. Bhartia, D. Silberstein, B. Monosmith, A. J. Fleig, “Standard Profiles of Ozone from Ground to 60 km Obtained by Combining Satellite and Ground Base Measurements,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Halkidiki, Greece, C. S. Zerefos, A. Ghazi, Eds. (D. Reidel, Dordrecht, 1985), pp. 243–247.

Blamont, J. E

G. Megie, J. Y. Allain, M. L. Chanin, J. E Blamont, “Vertical Profile of Stratospheric Ozone by Lidar Sounding from the Ground,” Nature 270, 329–331 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Bowman, K. P.

K. P. Bowman, “Interannual Variability of Total Ozone During the Breakdown of the Antarctic Circumpolar Vortex,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 1193–1196 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Bowman, “A Global Climatology of Total Ozone from the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Halkidiki, Greece, C. S. Zerefos, A. Ghazi, Eds. (D. Reidel, Dordrecht, 1985), pp. 363–367.

Bowman, P.

K. Labitzke, J. K. Angell, J. J. Barnett, P. Bowman, M. Corney, G. M. Keuting, A. J. Krueger, A. J. Miller, R. M. Nagatani, “Monthly Mean Distribution of Ozone and Temperature,” in Atmospheric Ozone, World Meteorological Organization, Report No. 16 (WMO, Geneva, 1986), pp. 981–1032.

Brewer, A. W.

A. W. Brewer, J. R. Milford, “The Oxford-Kew Sonde,” Proc. Roy. Soc. London A 256, Nr. 1278, 470–495 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Brinkmann, U.

K. W. Rothe, U. Brinkmann, H. Walther, “Applicability of Tunable Dye Lasers to Air Pollution Detection,” Appl. Phys. 3, 115–119, “Remote Measurement of NO2 Emission from a Chemical Factory by the Differential Absorption Technique,” Appl. Phys. 4, 181–182 (1974).

Chanin, M. L.

G. Megie, J. Y. Allain, M. L. Chanin, J. E Blamont, “Vertical Profile of Stratospheric Ozone by Lidar Sounding from the Ground,” Nature 270, 329–331 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Chubachi, S.

S. Chubachi, “A Special Ozone Observation at Syowa Station, Antarctica from February 1982 to January 1983,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Halkidiki, Greece, C. S. Zerefos, A. Ghazi, Eds. (D. Reidel Publishing Comp., 1985).

Corney, M.

K. Labitzke, J. K. Angell, J. J. Barnett, P. Bowman, M. Corney, G. M. Keuting, A. J. Krueger, A. J. Miller, R. M. Nagatani, “Monthly Mean Distribution of Ozone and Temperature,” in Atmospheric Ozone, World Meteorological Organization, Report No. 16 (WMO, Geneva, 1986), pp. 981–1032.

Dütsch, H. U.

W. Attmannspacher, H. U. Dütsch, “International Ozone Sonde Intercomparison at the Observatory Hohenpeissenberg,” Ber. Dt. Wetterd. Nr. 120, (1970) and “Second International Ozone Sonde Intercomparison at the Observatory Hohenpeissenberg,” Ber. Dt. Wetterdienst Nr. 157, (1978).

Eckman, R. S.

S. Solomon, O. W. Rusch, R. J. Thomas, R. S. Eckman, “Comparison of Mesospheric Ozone Abundances Measured by the Solar Mesophere Explorer and Model Calculations.”Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 249–252 (1983).
[CrossRef]

El Naggar, S.

R. Neuber, S. El Naggar, B. C. Krüger, H. Walther, “Measurements of O3-Profiles by a Lidar Method during the Arctic Winter and Spring 1988,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Göttingen, FRG, Deepak, Hampton (Mass.), to be published 1989.

Farman, J. C.

J. C. Farman, B. G. Gardiner, J. D. Shanklin, “Author add Title”Nature 315, 207–210 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Fleig, A. J.

P. K. Bhartia, D. Silberstein, B. Monosmith, A. J. Fleig, “Standard Profiles of Ozone from Ground to 60 km Obtained by Combining Satellite and Ground Base Measurements,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Halkidiki, Greece, C. S. Zerefos, A. Ghazi, Eds. (D. Reidel, Dordrecht, 1985), pp. 243–247.

Gardiner, B. G.

J. C. Farman, B. G. Gardiner, J. D. Shanklin, “Author add Title”Nature 315, 207–210 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Geh, B.

B. Geh, Diplomarbeit, U. München, Sektion Physik (1987) and K. Wege, H. Claude: World Meteorological Organization, Instruments and Observing Methods Report No. 33, (1988).

Geller, M. A.

R. A. Plumb, D. G. Andrews, M. A. Geller, W. L. Grose, A. O’Neill, M. Salby, R. A. Vincent, “Dynamical Processes: Observations of Transport Processes,” in Atmospheric Ozone, World Meteorological Organization, Report No. 16 (WMO, Geneva, 1986), pp. 311–347.

Gibson, A. J.

A. J. Gibson, L. Thomas, “Ultraviolet Laser Sounding of the Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere,” Nature 256, 561–563 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Grose, W. L.

R. A. Plumb, D. G. Andrews, M. A. Geller, W. L. Grose, A. O’Neill, M. Salby, R. A. Vincent, “Dynamical Processes: Observations of Transport Processes,” in Atmospheric Ozone, World Meteorological Organization, Report No. 16 (WMO, Geneva, 1986), pp. 311–347.

Hartmannsgruber, R.

W. Attmannspacher, R. Hartmannsgruber, J. Werner, K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, “Intercomparison of Ozone Profiles Obtained by Brewer/Mast Sondes and Differential Absorption Laser Radar,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Halkidiki, Greece, by C. S. Zerefos, A. Ghazi, Eds. (D. Reidel Publishing Comp., 1985) pp. 450–453.

Hirono, M.

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, M. Hirono, “Applications of Excimer Lasers to Laser Radar Observations of the Upper Atmosphere,” IEEE Journ. Quant. Electr. QE-15, 1094–1107 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Inn, E. C. Y.

Keuting, G. M.

K. Labitzke, J. K. Angell, J. J. Barnett, P. Bowman, M. Corney, G. M. Keuting, A. J. Krueger, A. J. Miller, R. M. Nagatani, “Monthly Mean Distribution of Ozone and Temperature,” in Atmospheric Ozone, World Meteorological Organization, Report No. 16 (WMO, Geneva, 1986), pp. 981–1032.

Krueger, A. J.

M. R. Schoeberl, A. J. Krueger, P. A. Newman, “The Morphology of Antarctic Total Ozone as Seen by TOMS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 1217–1220 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. Labitzke, J. K. Angell, J. J. Barnett, P. Bowman, M. Corney, G. M. Keuting, A. J. Krueger, A. J. Miller, R. M. Nagatani, “Monthly Mean Distribution of Ozone and Temperature,” in Atmospheric Ozone, World Meteorological Organization, Report No. 16 (WMO, Geneva, 1986), pp. 981–1032.

Krüger, B. C.

R. Neuber, S. El Naggar, B. C. Krüger, H. Walther, “Measurements of O3-Profiles by a Lidar Method during the Arctic Winter and Spring 1988,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Göttingen, FRG, Deepak, Hampton (Mass.), to be published 1989.

Labitzke, K.

K. Labitzke, J. K. Angell, J. J. Barnett, P. Bowman, M. Corney, G. M. Keuting, A. J. Krueger, A. J. Miller, R. M. Nagatani, “Monthly Mean Distribution of Ozone and Temperature,” in Atmospheric Ozone, World Meteorological Organization, Report No. 16 (WMO, Geneva, 1986), pp. 981–1032.

Maeda, M.

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, M. Hirono, “Applications of Excimer Lasers to Laser Radar Observations of the Upper Atmosphere,” IEEE Journ. Quant. Electr. QE-15, 1094–1107 (1979).
[CrossRef]

McPeters, R. D.

R. D. McPeters, A. M. Bass, “Anomalous Atmospheric Spectral Features Between 300 and 310 nm Interpreted in Light of New Ozone Absorption Coefficient Measurement,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 9, 227–230 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Megie, G.

J. Pelon, G. Megie, “Ozone in the Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere: Evaluation and Operation of a Ground-Based Lidar Station,” 4947–4955 (1982).

G. Megie, J. Y. Allain, M. L. Chanin, J. E Blamont, “Vertical Profile of Stratospheric Ozone by Lidar Sounding from the Ground,” Nature 270, 329–331 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Milford, J. R.

A. W. Brewer, J. R. Milford, “The Oxford-Kew Sonde,” Proc. Roy. Soc. London A 256, Nr. 1278, 470–495 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Miller, A. J.

K. Labitzke, J. K. Angell, J. J. Barnett, P. Bowman, M. Corney, G. M. Keuting, A. J. Krueger, A. J. Miller, R. M. Nagatani, “Monthly Mean Distribution of Ozone and Temperature,” in Atmospheric Ozone, World Meteorological Organization, Report No. 16 (WMO, Geneva, 1986), pp. 981–1032.

Monosmith, B.

P. K. Bhartia, D. Silberstein, B. Monosmith, A. J. Fleig, “Standard Profiles of Ozone from Ground to 60 km Obtained by Combining Satellite and Ground Base Measurements,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Halkidiki, Greece, C. S. Zerefos, A. Ghazi, Eds. (D. Reidel, Dordrecht, 1985), pp. 243–247.

Nagatani, R. M.

K. Labitzke, J. K. Angell, J. J. Barnett, P. Bowman, M. Corney, G. M. Keuting, A. J. Krueger, A. J. Miller, R. M. Nagatani, “Monthly Mean Distribution of Ozone and Temperature,” in Atmospheric Ozone, World Meteorological Organization, Report No. 16 (WMO, Geneva, 1986), pp. 981–1032.

Neuber, R.

R. Neuber, S. El Naggar, B. C. Krüger, H. Walther, “Measurements of O3-Profiles by a Lidar Method during the Arctic Winter and Spring 1988,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Göttingen, FRG, Deepak, Hampton (Mass.), to be published 1989.

Newman, P. A.

M. R. Schoeberl, A. J. Krueger, P. A. Newman, “The Morphology of Antarctic Total Ozone as Seen by TOMS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 1217–1220 (1986).
[CrossRef]

O’Neill, A.

R. A. Plumb, D. G. Andrews, M. A. Geller, W. L. Grose, A. O’Neill, M. Salby, R. A. Vincent, “Dynamical Processes: Observations of Transport Processes,” in Atmospheric Ozone, World Meteorological Organization, Report No. 16 (WMO, Geneva, 1986), pp. 311–347.

Pelon, J.

J. Pelon, G. Megie, “Ozone in the Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere: Evaluation and Operation of a Ground-Based Lidar Station,” 4947–4955 (1982).

Plumb, R. A.

R. A. Plumb, D. G. Andrews, M. A. Geller, W. L. Grose, A. O’Neill, M. Salby, R. A. Vincent, “Dynamical Processes: Observations of Transport Processes,” in Atmospheric Ozone, World Meteorological Organization, Report No. 16 (WMO, Geneva, 1986), pp. 311–347.

Rothe, K. W.

J. Werner, K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, “Monitoring of the Stratospheric Ozone Layer by Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 113–118 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Werner, K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, “Measurements of the Ozone Profile up to 50 km Altitude by Differential Absorption Laser Radar,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Halkidiki, Greece, Eds. C. S. Zerefos, A. Ghazi (D. Reidel Publishing Comp., 1985) pp 446–449. See also Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers 83 (STS Press, McLean, VA., 1983), pp. 108–114.

K. W. Rothe, U. Brinkmann, H. Walther, “Applicability of Tunable Dye Lasers to Air Pollution Detection,” Appl. Phys. 3, 115–119, “Remote Measurement of NO2 Emission from a Chemical Factory by the Differential Absorption Technique,” Appl. Phys. 4, 181–182 (1974).

W. Attmannspacher, R. Hartmannsgruber, J. Werner, K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, “Intercomparison of Ozone Profiles Obtained by Brewer/Mast Sondes and Differential Absorption Laser Radar,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Halkidiki, Greece, by C. S. Zerefos, A. Ghazi, Eds. (D. Reidel Publishing Comp., 1985) pp. 450–453.

J. Werner, K. W. Rothe, H. Walther: in Proceedings of the Nato/CCMS Workshop on Experiences with the Application of Advanced Air Pollution Assessment Methods and Monitoring Techniques, Lindau, October 2–4, (1985).

Rusch, O. W.

S. Solomon, O. W. Rusch, R. J. Thomas, R. S. Eckman, “Comparison of Mesospheric Ozone Abundances Measured by the Solar Mesophere Explorer and Model Calculations.”Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 249–252 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Salby, M.

R. A. Plumb, D. G. Andrews, M. A. Geller, W. L. Grose, A. O’Neill, M. Salby, R. A. Vincent, “Dynamical Processes: Observations of Transport Processes,” in Atmospheric Ozone, World Meteorological Organization, Report No. 16 (WMO, Geneva, 1986), pp. 311–347.

Schoeberl, M. R.

M. R. Schoeberl, A. J. Krueger, P. A. Newman, “The Morphology of Antarctic Total Ozone as Seen by TOMS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 1217–1220 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Schotland, R. M.

R. M. Schotland, “Errors in the Lidar Measurement of Atmospheric Gases by Differential Absorption,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 13, 71–77 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Shanklin, J. D.

J. C. Farman, B. G. Gardiner, J. D. Shanklin, “Author add Title”Nature 315, 207–210 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Silberstein, D.

P. K. Bhartia, D. Silberstein, B. Monosmith, A. J. Fleig, “Standard Profiles of Ozone from Ground to 60 km Obtained by Combining Satellite and Ground Base Measurements,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Halkidiki, Greece, C. S. Zerefos, A. Ghazi, Eds. (D. Reidel, Dordrecht, 1985), pp. 243–247.

Solomon, S.

S. Solomon, O. W. Rusch, R. J. Thomas, R. S. Eckman, “Comparison of Mesospheric Ozone Abundances Measured by the Solar Mesophere Explorer and Model Calculations.”Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 249–252 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, Y.

Thomas, L.

A. J. Gibson, L. Thomas, “Ultraviolet Laser Sounding of the Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere,” Nature 256, 561–563 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, R. J.

S. Solomon, O. W. Rusch, R. J. Thomas, R. S. Eckman, “Comparison of Mesospheric Ozone Abundances Measured by the Solar Mesophere Explorer and Model Calculations.”Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 249–252 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Uchino, O.

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, M. Hirono, “Applications of Excimer Lasers to Laser Radar Observations of the Upper Atmosphere,” IEEE Journ. Quant. Electr. QE-15, 1094–1107 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Vincent, R. A.

R. A. Plumb, D. G. Andrews, M. A. Geller, W. L. Grose, A. O’Neill, M. Salby, R. A. Vincent, “Dynamical Processes: Observations of Transport Processes,” in Atmospheric Ozone, World Meteorological Organization, Report No. 16 (WMO, Geneva, 1986), pp. 311–347.

Walther, H.

J. Werner, K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, “Monitoring of the Stratospheric Ozone Layer by Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 113–118 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Werner, K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, “Measurements of the Ozone Profile up to 50 km Altitude by Differential Absorption Laser Radar,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Halkidiki, Greece, Eds. C. S. Zerefos, A. Ghazi (D. Reidel Publishing Comp., 1985) pp 446–449. See also Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers 83 (STS Press, McLean, VA., 1983), pp. 108–114.

K. W. Rothe, U. Brinkmann, H. Walther, “Applicability of Tunable Dye Lasers to Air Pollution Detection,” Appl. Phys. 3, 115–119, “Remote Measurement of NO2 Emission from a Chemical Factory by the Differential Absorption Technique,” Appl. Phys. 4, 181–182 (1974).

R. Neuber, S. El Naggar, B. C. Krüger, H. Walther, “Measurements of O3-Profiles by a Lidar Method during the Arctic Winter and Spring 1988,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Göttingen, FRG, Deepak, Hampton (Mass.), to be published 1989.

J. Werner, K. W. Rothe, H. Walther: in Proceedings of the Nato/CCMS Workshop on Experiences with the Application of Advanced Air Pollution Assessment Methods and Monitoring Techniques, Lindau, October 2–4, (1985).

W. Attmannspacher, R. Hartmannsgruber, J. Werner, K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, “Intercomparison of Ozone Profiles Obtained by Brewer/Mast Sondes and Differential Absorption Laser Radar,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Halkidiki, Greece, by C. S. Zerefos, A. Ghazi, Eds. (D. Reidel Publishing Comp., 1985) pp. 450–453.

Werner, J.

J. Werner, K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, “Monitoring of the Stratospheric Ozone Layer by Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 113–118 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Werner, K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, “Measurements of the Ozone Profile up to 50 km Altitude by Differential Absorption Laser Radar,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Halkidiki, Greece, Eds. C. S. Zerefos, A. Ghazi (D. Reidel Publishing Comp., 1985) pp 446–449. See also Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers 83 (STS Press, McLean, VA., 1983), pp. 108–114.

J. Werner, Dissertation, U. Müinchen, Fakultät für Physik (1984).

W. Attmannspacher, R. Hartmannsgruber, J. Werner, K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, “Intercomparison of Ozone Profiles Obtained by Brewer/Mast Sondes and Differential Absorption Laser Radar,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Halkidiki, Greece, by C. S. Zerefos, A. Ghazi, Eds. (D. Reidel Publishing Comp., 1985) pp. 450–453.

J. Werner, K. W. Rothe, H. Walther: in Proceedings of the Nato/CCMS Workshop on Experiences with the Application of Advanced Air Pollution Assessment Methods and Monitoring Techniques, Lindau, October 2–4, (1985).

Wuebbles, D. J.

D. J. Wuebbles, A. Benezai, “Author Add Title to galleys,” Nature 330, 711–716 (1987).

Appl. Phys. (1)

K. W. Rothe, U. Brinkmann, H. Walther, “Applicability of Tunable Dye Lasers to Air Pollution Detection,” Appl. Phys. 3, 115–119, “Remote Measurement of NO2 Emission from a Chemical Factory by the Differential Absorption Technique,” Appl. Phys. 4, 181–182 (1974).

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J. Werner, K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, “Monitoring of the Stratospheric Ozone Layer by Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 113–118 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ber. Dt. Wetterd. Nr. (1)

W. Attmannspacher, H. U. Dütsch, “International Ozone Sonde Intercomparison at the Observatory Hohenpeissenberg,” Ber. Dt. Wetterd. Nr. 120, (1970) and “Second International Ozone Sonde Intercomparison at the Observatory Hohenpeissenberg,” Ber. Dt. Wetterdienst Nr. 157, (1978).

Geophys. Res. Lett. (4)

S. Solomon, O. W. Rusch, R. J. Thomas, R. S. Eckman, “Comparison of Mesospheric Ozone Abundances Measured by the Solar Mesophere Explorer and Model Calculations.”Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 249–252 (1983).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Bowman, “Interannual Variability of Total Ozone During the Breakdown of the Antarctic Circumpolar Vortex,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 1193–1196 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Schoeberl, A. J. Krueger, P. A. Newman, “The Morphology of Antarctic Total Ozone as Seen by TOMS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 1217–1220 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. D. McPeters, A. M. Bass, “Anomalous Atmospheric Spectral Features Between 300 and 310 nm Interpreted in Light of New Ozone Absorption Coefficient Measurement,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 9, 227–230 (1982).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Journ. Quant. Electr. (1)

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, M. Hirono, “Applications of Excimer Lasers to Laser Radar Observations of the Upper Atmosphere,” IEEE Journ. Quant. Electr. QE-15, 1094–1107 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol. (1)

R. M. Schotland, “Errors in the Lidar Measurement of Atmospheric Gases by Differential Absorption,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 13, 71–77 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Nature (4)

A. J. Gibson, L. Thomas, “Ultraviolet Laser Sounding of the Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere,” Nature 256, 561–563 (1975).
[CrossRef]

G. Megie, J. Y. Allain, M. L. Chanin, J. E Blamont, “Vertical Profile of Stratospheric Ozone by Lidar Sounding from the Ground,” Nature 270, 329–331 (1977).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Wuebbles, A. Benezai, “Author Add Title to galleys,” Nature 330, 711–716 (1987).

J. C. Farman, B. G. Gardiner, J. D. Shanklin, “Author add Title”Nature 315, 207–210 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ozone in the Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere: Evaluation and Operation of a Ground-Based Lidar Station (1)

J. Pelon, G. Megie, “Ozone in the Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere: Evaluation and Operation of a Ground-Based Lidar Station,” 4947–4955 (1982).

Proc. Roy. Soc. London A (1)

A. W. Brewer, J. R. Milford, “The Oxford-Kew Sonde,” Proc. Roy. Soc. London A 256, Nr. 1278, 470–495 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Other (13)

K. Labitzke, J. K. Angell, J. J. Barnett, P. Bowman, M. Corney, G. M. Keuting, A. J. Krueger, A. J. Miller, R. M. Nagatani, “Monthly Mean Distribution of Ozone and Temperature,” in Atmospheric Ozone, World Meteorological Organization, Report No. 16 (WMO, Geneva, 1986), pp. 981–1032.

R. A. Plumb, D. G. Andrews, M. A. Geller, W. L. Grose, A. O’Neill, M. Salby, R. A. Vincent, “Dynamical Processes: Observations of Transport Processes,” in Atmospheric Ozone, World Meteorological Organization, Report No. 16 (WMO, Geneva, 1986), pp. 311–347.

R. Neuber, S. El Naggar, B. C. Krüger, H. Walther, “Measurements of O3-Profiles by a Lidar Method during the Arctic Winter and Spring 1988,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Göttingen, FRG, Deepak, Hampton (Mass.), to be published 1989.

K. P. Bowman, “A Global Climatology of Total Ozone from the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Halkidiki, Greece, C. S. Zerefos, A. Ghazi, Eds. (D. Reidel, Dordrecht, 1985), pp. 363–367.

P. K. Bhartia, D. Silberstein, B. Monosmith, A. J. Fleig, “Standard Profiles of Ozone from Ground to 60 km Obtained by Combining Satellite and Ground Base Measurements,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Halkidiki, Greece, C. S. Zerefos, A. Ghazi, Eds. (D. Reidel, Dordrecht, 1985), pp. 243–247.

E. D. Hinkley (Ed.): Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere, (Springer Verlag, Berlin1976); D. K. Killinger, A. Mooradian (Eds.): Optical and Laser Remote Sensing, (Springer Verlag, 1983).
[CrossRef]

S. Chubachi, “A Special Ozone Observation at Syowa Station, Antarctica from February 1982 to January 1983,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Halkidiki, Greece, C. S. Zerefos, A. Ghazi, Eds. (D. Reidel Publishing Comp., 1985).

J. Werner, K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, “Measurements of the Ozone Profile up to 50 km Altitude by Differential Absorption Laser Radar,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Halkidiki, Greece, Eds. C. S. Zerefos, A. Ghazi (D. Reidel Publishing Comp., 1985) pp 446–449. See also Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers 83 (STS Press, McLean, VA., 1983), pp. 108–114.

A. C. Strickland, Ed., COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere 1972 (Akademie Verlag, Berlin, 1972).

J. Werner, Dissertation, U. Müinchen, Fakultät für Physik (1984).

B. Geh, Diplomarbeit, U. München, Sektion Physik (1987) and K. Wege, H. Claude: World Meteorological Organization, Instruments and Observing Methods Report No. 33, (1988).

J. Werner, K. W. Rothe, H. Walther: in Proceedings of the Nato/CCMS Workshop on Experiences with the Application of Advanced Air Pollution Assessment Methods and Monitoring Techniques, Lindau, October 2–4, (1985).

W. Attmannspacher, R. Hartmannsgruber, J. Werner, K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, “Intercomparison of Ozone Profiles Obtained by Brewer/Mast Sondes and Differential Absorption Laser Radar,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Halkidiki, Greece, by C. S. Zerefos, A. Ghazi, Eds. (D. Reidel Publishing Comp., 1985) pp. 450–453.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scheme of the experimental setup. The transmitter is shown on the right and the receiver on the left.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Courses of the ozone lidar on board the icebreaker and research vessel Polarstern.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

3-D representation of the temporal evolution of the ozone concentration during Sept. 1983 (1 μg/m3 corresponds to 1.25 × 1010 molecules/cm3).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ozone concentration measured at an altitude of 40 km with the lidar system on the Zugspitze in the period Oct. 1982–July 1984. The monthly averages are plotted.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Seasonal variation of the ozone concentration. The data measured in the same month of subsequent years are averaged for an almost biennial period (Oct. 1982–July 1984). The seasonal variations can clearly be seen; they show opposite behavior at low (21 km) and high altitudes (30 km and above). The daily variability of the measurements is much larger at altitudes below 30 km than above.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Ozone concentration at different altitudes as a function of geographic latitude, measured during the polar voyage. The ozone decrease with increasing latitude can clearly be seen. The errors follow from the variance of the backscattering data. The change of the error as a function of altitude can also be seen. Where no bars are given the errors are negligible. (Two measurements were performed at ~79° N.)

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Dependence of the ozone concentration (5-h mean values) at different altitudes on the time of day between June 21 and 22, 1987 at 75.3° N 10.6° W.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Ozone profiles measured on the Atlantic voyage. The profiles are averaged over all measurements taken in a 10° interval around the given latitudes. The total error of the measurements at an altitude of 30 km (for example) that follows from the variance of the backscattering data is ~20 μg/m3.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Mean daytime and mean nighttime profile on the Atlantic voyage.

Equations (4)

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M ( R , λ ) = F M 0 ( λ ) Δ R β ( R , λ ) τ ( r , λ ) 1 / R 2 ,
τ ( R , λ ) = exp { 2 0 R [ α g ( r , λ ) + α s ( r , λ ) ] d r } ,
N = { 2 Δ R [ σ ( λ 2 ) σ ( λ 1 ) ] } 1 { ln [ M ( R 1 , λ 1 ) / M ( R 1 , λ 2 ) ] ln [ M ( R 2 , λ 1 ) / M ( R 2 , λ 2 ) ] } + B + A .
B = ln [ β ( R 2 , λ 1 ) / β ( R 2 , λ 2 ) ] ln [ β ( R 1 , λ 1 ) / β ( R 1 , λ 2 ) ] , A = 2 Δ R [ α s ( R * , λ 1 ) α s ( R * , λ 2 ) ] ,

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