Abstract

Carrier-induced refractive index changes in forward-biased InGaAs–InAlAs quantum well waveguides are calculated using a Kramers-Kronig transformation of Bar-Joseph’s experimental absorption spectra [ Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1357 ( 1987)]. At the 1.65-μm wavelength where the material is nominally transparent, an index change of −0.06 is found for an injection of 6 × 1017 electrons/cm3. A quantum well waveguide 2 × 2 reversed-Δβ directional coupler switch with an active length of 480 μm is proposed.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. S. Chemla, I. Bar-Joseph, C. Klingshirn, D. A. B. Miller, J. M. Kuo, T. Y. Chang, “Optical Reading of Field-Effect Transistors by Phase-Space Absorption Quenching in a Single InGaAs Quantum Well Conducting Channel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 585–588 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  2. I. Bar-Joseph et al., “Absorption Spectroscopy of the Continuous Transition from Low to High Electron Density in a Single Modulation-Doped InGaAs Quantum Well,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1357–1360 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. H. Abeles, W. K. Chan, A. Kastalsky, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, R. Bhat, “Guided-Wave GaAs/AlGaAs FET Optical Modulator Based on Free-Carrier-Induced Bleaching,” Electron. Lett. 23, 1303–1305 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, “Bandfilling Electro-Optic Effect in InP, GaAs, GaSb, InAs, and InSb,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 994, 168–186 (1988).
  5. U. Koren, T. L. Koch, B. I. Miller, A. Shahar, “An InGaAs/ InGaAsP Distributed Feedback Laser with an Intracavity Phase Modulator,” in Technical Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), paper PD9.
  6. R. A. Soref, K. Y. Lau, “A Proposed Carrier-Induced Electrooptical Switch in III–V Quantum-Well Waveguides,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 993, 126–136 (1988).

1988 (2)

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, “Bandfilling Electro-Optic Effect in InP, GaAs, GaSb, InAs, and InSb,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 994, 168–186 (1988).

R. A. Soref, K. Y. Lau, “A Proposed Carrier-Induced Electrooptical Switch in III–V Quantum-Well Waveguides,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 993, 126–136 (1988).

1987 (3)

D. S. Chemla, I. Bar-Joseph, C. Klingshirn, D. A. B. Miller, J. M. Kuo, T. Y. Chang, “Optical Reading of Field-Effect Transistors by Phase-Space Absorption Quenching in a Single InGaAs Quantum Well Conducting Channel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 585–588 (1987).
[CrossRef]

I. Bar-Joseph et al., “Absorption Spectroscopy of the Continuous Transition from Low to High Electron Density in a Single Modulation-Doped InGaAs Quantum Well,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1357–1360 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Abeles, W. K. Chan, A. Kastalsky, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, R. Bhat, “Guided-Wave GaAs/AlGaAs FET Optical Modulator Based on Free-Carrier-Induced Bleaching,” Electron. Lett. 23, 1303–1305 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Abeles, J. H.

J. H. Abeles, W. K. Chan, A. Kastalsky, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, R. Bhat, “Guided-Wave GaAs/AlGaAs FET Optical Modulator Based on Free-Carrier-Induced Bleaching,” Electron. Lett. 23, 1303–1305 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bar-Joseph, I.

I. Bar-Joseph et al., “Absorption Spectroscopy of the Continuous Transition from Low to High Electron Density in a Single Modulation-Doped InGaAs Quantum Well,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1357–1360 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Chemla, I. Bar-Joseph, C. Klingshirn, D. A. B. Miller, J. M. Kuo, T. Y. Chang, “Optical Reading of Field-Effect Transistors by Phase-Space Absorption Quenching in a Single InGaAs Quantum Well Conducting Channel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 585–588 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, B. R.

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, “Bandfilling Electro-Optic Effect in InP, GaAs, GaSb, InAs, and InSb,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 994, 168–186 (1988).

Bhat, R.

J. H. Abeles, W. K. Chan, A. Kastalsky, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, R. Bhat, “Guided-Wave GaAs/AlGaAs FET Optical Modulator Based on Free-Carrier-Induced Bleaching,” Electron. Lett. 23, 1303–1305 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Chan, W. K.

J. H. Abeles, W. K. Chan, A. Kastalsky, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, R. Bhat, “Guided-Wave GaAs/AlGaAs FET Optical Modulator Based on Free-Carrier-Induced Bleaching,” Electron. Lett. 23, 1303–1305 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Chang, T. Y.

D. S. Chemla, I. Bar-Joseph, C. Klingshirn, D. A. B. Miller, J. M. Kuo, T. Y. Chang, “Optical Reading of Field-Effect Transistors by Phase-Space Absorption Quenching in a Single InGaAs Quantum Well Conducting Channel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 585–588 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Chemla, D. S.

D. S. Chemla, I. Bar-Joseph, C. Klingshirn, D. A. B. Miller, J. M. Kuo, T. Y. Chang, “Optical Reading of Field-Effect Transistors by Phase-Space Absorption Quenching in a Single InGaAs Quantum Well Conducting Channel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 585–588 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Florez, L. T.

J. H. Abeles, W. K. Chan, A. Kastalsky, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, R. Bhat, “Guided-Wave GaAs/AlGaAs FET Optical Modulator Based on Free-Carrier-Induced Bleaching,” Electron. Lett. 23, 1303–1305 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Harbison, J. P.

J. H. Abeles, W. K. Chan, A. Kastalsky, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, R. Bhat, “Guided-Wave GaAs/AlGaAs FET Optical Modulator Based on Free-Carrier-Induced Bleaching,” Electron. Lett. 23, 1303–1305 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kastalsky, A.

J. H. Abeles, W. K. Chan, A. Kastalsky, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, R. Bhat, “Guided-Wave GaAs/AlGaAs FET Optical Modulator Based on Free-Carrier-Induced Bleaching,” Electron. Lett. 23, 1303–1305 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Klingshirn, C.

D. S. Chemla, I. Bar-Joseph, C. Klingshirn, D. A. B. Miller, J. M. Kuo, T. Y. Chang, “Optical Reading of Field-Effect Transistors by Phase-Space Absorption Quenching in a Single InGaAs Quantum Well Conducting Channel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 585–588 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Koch, T. L.

U. Koren, T. L. Koch, B. I. Miller, A. Shahar, “An InGaAs/ InGaAsP Distributed Feedback Laser with an Intracavity Phase Modulator,” in Technical Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), paper PD9.

Koren, U.

U. Koren, T. L. Koch, B. I. Miller, A. Shahar, “An InGaAs/ InGaAsP Distributed Feedback Laser with an Intracavity Phase Modulator,” in Technical Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), paper PD9.

Kuo, J. M.

D. S. Chemla, I. Bar-Joseph, C. Klingshirn, D. A. B. Miller, J. M. Kuo, T. Y. Chang, “Optical Reading of Field-Effect Transistors by Phase-Space Absorption Quenching in a Single InGaAs Quantum Well Conducting Channel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 585–588 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lau, K. Y.

R. A. Soref, K. Y. Lau, “A Proposed Carrier-Induced Electrooptical Switch in III–V Quantum-Well Waveguides,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 993, 126–136 (1988).

Miller, B. I.

U. Koren, T. L. Koch, B. I. Miller, A. Shahar, “An InGaAs/ InGaAsP Distributed Feedback Laser with an Intracavity Phase Modulator,” in Technical Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), paper PD9.

Miller, D. A. B.

D. S. Chemla, I. Bar-Joseph, C. Klingshirn, D. A. B. Miller, J. M. Kuo, T. Y. Chang, “Optical Reading of Field-Effect Transistors by Phase-Space Absorption Quenching in a Single InGaAs Quantum Well Conducting Channel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 585–588 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Shahar, A.

U. Koren, T. L. Koch, B. I. Miller, A. Shahar, “An InGaAs/ InGaAsP Distributed Feedback Laser with an Intracavity Phase Modulator,” in Technical Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), paper PD9.

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, K. Y. Lau, “A Proposed Carrier-Induced Electrooptical Switch in III–V Quantum-Well Waveguides,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 993, 126–136 (1988).

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, “Bandfilling Electro-Optic Effect in InP, GaAs, GaSb, InAs, and InSb,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 994, 168–186 (1988).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. S. Chemla, I. Bar-Joseph, C. Klingshirn, D. A. B. Miller, J. M. Kuo, T. Y. Chang, “Optical Reading of Field-Effect Transistors by Phase-Space Absorption Quenching in a Single InGaAs Quantum Well Conducting Channel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 585–588 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. H. Abeles, W. K. Chan, A. Kastalsky, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, R. Bhat, “Guided-Wave GaAs/AlGaAs FET Optical Modulator Based on Free-Carrier-Induced Bleaching,” Electron. Lett. 23, 1303–1305 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

I. Bar-Joseph et al., “Absorption Spectroscopy of the Continuous Transition from Low to High Electron Density in a Single Modulation-Doped InGaAs Quantum Well,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1357–1360 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (2)

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, “Bandfilling Electro-Optic Effect in InP, GaAs, GaSb, InAs, and InSb,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 994, 168–186 (1988).

R. A. Soref, K. Y. Lau, “A Proposed Carrier-Induced Electrooptical Switch in III–V Quantum-Well Waveguides,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 993, 126–136 (1988).

Other (1)

U. Koren, T. L. Koch, B. I. Miller, A. Shahar, “An InGaAs/ InGaAsP Distributed Feedback Laser with an Intracavity Phase Modulator,” in Technical Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), paper PD9.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Differential absorption spectra produced by variation of electron density in a single InGaAs quantum well at 10 K. Data from Ref. 2 are shown for five concentrations (a)–(e).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Carrier-induced refraction-change corresponding to each of the five curves (a)–(e) in Fig. 1. Results were obtained from a Kramers-Kronig analysis.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Refractive index change at a fixed photon energy as a function of injected electron density for the InGaAs/InAlAs QW system

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Top view of a proposed 2 × 2 directional coupler switch constructed from MQW channel waveguides. Shaded areas represent forward-biased regions. The cross and bar states are shown.

Equations (1)

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Δ n ( E , N ) = c ћ π P 0 Δ α ( E , N ) E 2 E 2 d E ,

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