Abstract

An experimental study of the behavior of malachite green sensitized plates was carried out. The transmittance variation of the irradiated plates was taken as a parameter. It has been observed that photoreduction in the malachite green plates is present only when ammonium dichromate is added to the plates. The introduction of external electron donors does not improve the photochemical reaction. It has been determined that malachite green molecules form a weak complex with the dichromate molecules and this complex can only be destroyed photochemically. This effect can explain the limited response of the malachite green dichromated plates.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. A. Shankoff, “Phase Holograms in Dichromated Gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 7, 2101–2105 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. Kubota, T. Ose, M. Sasaki, K. Honda, “Hologram Formation with Red Light in Methylene Blue Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 15, 556–558 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. Solano, R. A. Lessard, P. C. Roberge, “Methylene Blue Sensitized Gelatin as a Photosensitive Medium for Conventional and Polarizing Holography,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1989–1997 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Calixto, C. Solano, R. A. Lessard, “Real-Time Optical Image Processing and Polarization Holography with Dyed Gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2941–2947 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. Solano, R. A. Lessard, “Phase Gratings Formed by Induced Anisotropy in Dyed Gelatin Plates,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1776–1779 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. Oster, J. Bellin, “Photoreduction of Triphenylmethane Dyes in the Bound State,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 79, 294–298 (1956).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Oster, G. Oster, “Visible Light Bichromate Process and Material,” U.S. Pat.3,074,794 (1963).
  8. M. Mazakova, P. Sharlandjiev, M. Pantcheva, G. Spassov, “Electron Donors and Heat Treatment: Their Effect on the Diffraction Efficiency of Dichromated Gelatin Reflection Holograms,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2156–2160 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. A. Macroft, “The Production of Dichromated Gelatin Emulsions for Recording Phase Holograms,” M.Sc. Dissertation, Air Force Institute of Technology (1975).
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    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Nikitine, “Contributions a la Theorie du Photodichroism,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 206, 1219–0000 (1938).
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  13. S. Nikitine, “Considerations Theoriques sur le Signe du Photodichroisme,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 208, 513 (1939).
  14. C. Solano, “La sensibilisation des Couches de Gelatine Utilisees pour le Traitment des Images et en Holographie Conventionelle et Polarisee,” Ph.D. Thesis, U. Laval, Quebec (1985).

1987 (1)

1985 (3)

1976 (2)

E. P. Ippen, C. V. Shank, A. Bergmas, “Picosecond Recovery Dynamics of Malachite Green,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 38, 611 (1976).
[CrossRef]

T. Kubota, T. Ose, M. Sasaki, K. Honda, “Hologram Formation with Red Light in Methylene Blue Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 15, 556–558 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1968 (1)

1956 (1)

G. Oster, J. Bellin, “Photoreduction of Triphenylmethane Dyes in the Bound State,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 79, 294–298 (1956).
[CrossRef]

1939 (1)

S. Nikitine, “Considerations Theoriques sur le Signe du Photodichroisme,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 208, 513 (1939).

1938 (1)

S. Nikitine, “Contributions a la Theorie du Photodichroism,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 206, 1219–0000 (1938).

Bellin, J.

G. Oster, J. Bellin, “Photoreduction of Triphenylmethane Dyes in the Bound State,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 79, 294–298 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Bergmas, A.

E. P. Ippen, C. V. Shank, A. Bergmas, “Picosecond Recovery Dynamics of Malachite Green,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 38, 611 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Birks, J. B.

J. B. Birks, Photophysics of Aromatic Molecules (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1970).

Calixto, S.

Honda, K.

Ippen, E. P.

E. P. Ippen, C. V. Shank, A. Bergmas, “Picosecond Recovery Dynamics of Malachite Green,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 38, 611 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Kubota, T.

Lessard, R. A.

Macroft, D. A.

D. A. Macroft, “The Production of Dichromated Gelatin Emulsions for Recording Phase Holograms,” M.Sc. Dissertation, Air Force Institute of Technology (1975).

Mazakova, M.

Nikitine, S.

S. Nikitine, “Considerations Theoriques sur le Signe du Photodichroisme,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 208, 513 (1939).

S. Nikitine, “Contributions a la Theorie du Photodichroism,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 206, 1219–0000 (1938).

Ose, T.

Oster, G.

G. Oster, J. Bellin, “Photoreduction of Triphenylmethane Dyes in the Bound State,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 79, 294–298 (1956).
[CrossRef]

G. Oster, G. Oster, “Visible Light Bichromate Process and Material,” U.S. Pat.3,074,794 (1963).

G. Oster, G. Oster, “Visible Light Bichromate Process and Material,” U.S. Pat.3,074,794 (1963).

Pantcheva, M.

Roberge, P. C.

Sasaki, M.

Shank, C. V.

E. P. Ippen, C. V. Shank, A. Bergmas, “Picosecond Recovery Dynamics of Malachite Green,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 38, 611 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Shankoff, T. A.

Sharlandjiev, P.

Solano, C.

Spassov, G.

Appl. Opt. (6)

C. R. Acad. Sci. (2)

S. Nikitine, “Contributions a la Theorie du Photodichroism,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 206, 1219–0000 (1938).

S. Nikitine, “Considerations Theoriques sur le Signe du Photodichroisme,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 208, 513 (1939).

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

E. P. Ippen, C. V. Shank, A. Bergmas, “Picosecond Recovery Dynamics of Malachite Green,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 38, 611 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

G. Oster, J. Bellin, “Photoreduction of Triphenylmethane Dyes in the Bound State,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 79, 294–298 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

G. Oster, G. Oster, “Visible Light Bichromate Process and Material,” U.S. Pat.3,074,794 (1963).

C. Solano, “La sensibilisation des Couches de Gelatine Utilisees pour le Traitment des Images et en Holographie Conventionelle et Polarisee,” Ph.D. Thesis, U. Laval, Quebec (1985).

D. A. Macroft, “The Production of Dichromated Gelatin Emulsions for Recording Phase Holograms,” M.Sc. Dissertation, Air Force Institute of Technology (1975).

J. B. Birks, Photophysics of Aromatic Molecules (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1970).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

MG spectrum observed with different gelatin concentrations as indicated.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmittance change vs exposure energy. The amount of ammonium dichromate was chosen as a parameter. Malachite green concentration was (a) 2.6 × 10−4 mol/liter and (b) 1.08 × 10−4 mol/liter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Absorption of the unexposed plate compared with the irradiated plate as a function of wavelength (nm). The reading light of the spectrophotometer was polarized perpendicular or parallel to the polarization direction of the recording light, (b) Induced dichroism (KK) l and absorption spectrum of the MGD plate.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmittance change vs exposure energy for a plate containing 1.08 × 10−4 mol/liter of malachite green and 0.01 mol/liter of ammonium dichromate for different laser beam intensities.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Electron Donor Introduced In the MG Plates

Tables Icon

Table II Electron Donor Used in the MGD Plates

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