Abstract

We describe the principle of an optical digital processor for mathematical morphology (MM). The proposed central processing unit is based on binary logic using states of polarization and spatial data shift using geometric optics. Two dimensional Boolean operations are performed by means of logical gates using ferroelectric liquid crystal light valves, which are shown to be able to perform iterative processes well suited to MM operation implementation. A complete optical architecture is proposed from which the programming of elementary MM transformations is demonstrated.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Serra, Image Analysis and Mathematical Morphology, Academic, New York, (1982).
  2. K. Preston, M. Duff, Modern Cellular Automata,Plenum, New York, (1986).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. W. Lohmann, J. Weigelt, “Spatial Filtering Logic Based on Polarization,” Appl. Opt. 26, 131–135 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. A. Handschy et al., “Polarization-Based Optical Parallel Logic Gate Utilizing Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals,” Opt. Lett. 12, 611–613 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. N. A. Clark, S. I. Lagerwall, “Submicrosecond Bistable Electrooptic Switching in Liquid Crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 899–901 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. M. Johnson, G. Moddel, S. Anderson, “Optical Logic Gates Using Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 44, 42–47 (1987).
  11. D. Armitage, J. I. Thachara, “Ferroelectric Liquid-Crystal and Nematic Spatial Light Modulators,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 684, 60–67 (1986)
  12. G. Moddel, K. M. Johnson, M. Handschy, “Photoaddressing of High-Speed Liquid Crystal Spatial Light Modulators,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 754, 207–213 (1987).
  13. P. Cambon, J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, “An Optical Processor for Mathematical Morphology,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 936, 632–635 (1988).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. P. J. Zanzucchi, C. R. Wronski, D. E. Carlson, “Optical and Photoconductive Properties of Discharge-Produced Amorphous Silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 12, 5227–5236 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Shin-Cheng Jwo, Neng-Tsang Wu, Yean-Kuen Fang, Yu-Wen Chen, Jyh-Wong Hong, Chun-Yen Chang, “Amorphous Silicon/Silicon Carbide Superlattice Avalanche Photodiode,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 35, 1279–1282 (1988).
    [CrossRef]

1988 (6)

1987 (4)

A. W. Lohmann, J. Weigelt, “Spatial Filtering Logic Based on Polarization,” Appl. Opt. 26, 131–135 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Handschy et al., “Polarization-Based Optical Parallel Logic Gate Utilizing Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals,” Opt. Lett. 12, 611–613 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Johnson, G. Moddel, S. Anderson, “Optical Logic Gates Using Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 44, 42–47 (1987).

G. Moddel, K. M. Johnson, M. Handschy, “Photoaddressing of High-Speed Liquid Crystal Spatial Light Modulators,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 754, 207–213 (1987).

1986 (2)

K. H. Brenner, A. Huang, N. Streibl, “Digital Optical Computing with Symbolic Substitution,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3054–3060 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Armitage, J. I. Thachara, “Ferroelectric Liquid-Crystal and Nematic Spatial Light Modulators,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 684, 60–67 (1986)

1980 (1)

N. A. Clark, S. I. Lagerwall, “Submicrosecond Bistable Electrooptic Switching in Liquid Crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 899–901 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

P. J. Zanzucchi, C. R. Wronski, D. E. Carlson, “Optical and Photoconductive Properties of Discharge-Produced Amorphous Silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 12, 5227–5236 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, S.

J. M. Johnson, G. Moddel, S. Anderson, “Optical Logic Gates Using Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 44, 42–47 (1987).

Armitage, D.

D. Armitage, J. I. Thachara, “Ferroelectric Liquid-Crystal and Nematic Spatial Light Modulators,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 684, 60–67 (1986)

Ashley, P. R.

Botha, E.

Brenner, K. H.

Cambon, P.

P. Cambon, J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, “An Optical Processor for Mathematical Morphology,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 936, 632–635 (1988).

Carlson, D. E.

P. J. Zanzucchi, C. R. Wronski, D. E. Carlson, “Optical and Photoconductive Properties of Discharge-Produced Amorphous Silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 12, 5227–5236 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Casasent, D.

Chang, Chun-Yen

Shin-Cheng Jwo, Neng-Tsang Wu, Yean-Kuen Fang, Yu-Wen Chen, Jyh-Wong Hong, Chun-Yen Chang, “Amorphous Silicon/Silicon Carbide Superlattice Avalanche Photodiode,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 35, 1279–1282 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Chavel, P.

Chen, Yu-Wen

Shin-Cheng Jwo, Neng-Tsang Wu, Yean-Kuen Fang, Yu-Wen Chen, Jyh-Wong Hong, Chun-Yen Chang, “Amorphous Silicon/Silicon Carbide Superlattice Avalanche Photodiode,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 35, 1279–1282 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Clark, N. A.

N. A. Clark, S. I. Lagerwall, “Submicrosecond Bistable Electrooptic Switching in Liquid Crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 899–901 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J. H.

de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, J. L.

P. Cambon, J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, “An Optical Processor for Mathematical Morphology,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 936, 632–635 (1988).

Devos, F.

Duff, M.

K. Preston, M. Duff, Modern Cellular Automata,Plenum, New York, (1986).

Fang, Yean-Kuen

Shin-Cheng Jwo, Neng-Tsang Wu, Yean-Kuen Fang, Yu-Wen Chen, Jyh-Wong Hong, Chun-Yen Chang, “Amorphous Silicon/Silicon Carbide Superlattice Avalanche Photodiode,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 35, 1279–1282 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gayda, P.

Goodman, S. D.

Handschy, M.

G. Moddel, K. M. Johnson, M. Handschy, “Photoaddressing of High-Speed Liquid Crystal Spatial Light Modulators,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 754, 207–213 (1987).

Handschy, M. A.

Hong, Jyh-Wong

Shin-Cheng Jwo, Neng-Tsang Wu, Yean-Kuen Fang, Yu-Wen Chen, Jyh-Wong Hong, Chun-Yen Chang, “Amorphous Silicon/Silicon Carbide Superlattice Avalanche Photodiode,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 35, 1279–1282 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Huang, A.

Johnson, J. M.

J. M. Johnson, G. Moddel, S. Anderson, “Optical Logic Gates Using Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 44, 42–47 (1987).

Johnson, K. M.

G. Moddel, K. M. Johnson, M. Handschy, “Photoaddressing of High-Speed Liquid Crystal Spatial Light Modulators,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 754, 207–213 (1987).

Jwo, Shin-Cheng

Shin-Cheng Jwo, Neng-Tsang Wu, Yean-Kuen Fang, Yu-Wen Chen, Jyh-Wong Hong, Chun-Yen Chang, “Amorphous Silicon/Silicon Carbide Superlattice Avalanche Photodiode,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 35, 1279–1282 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lagerwall, S. I.

N. A. Clark, S. I. Lagerwall, “Submicrosecond Bistable Electrooptic Switching in Liquid Crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 899–901 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Lohmann, A. W.

Moddel, G.

G. Moddel, K. M. Johnson, M. Handschy, “Photoaddressing of High-Speed Liquid Crystal Spatial Light Modulators,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 754, 207–213 (1987).

J. M. Johnson, G. Moddel, S. Anderson, “Optical Logic Gates Using Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 44, 42–47 (1987).

Oh, T. K.

Preston, K.

K. Preston, M. Duff, Modern Cellular Automata,Plenum, New York, (1986).

Rhodes, W. T.

Serra, J.

J. Serra, Image Analysis and Mathematical Morphology, Academic, New York, (1982).

Streibl, N.

Taboury, J.

Thachara, J. I.

D. Armitage, J. I. Thachara, “Ferroelectric Liquid-Crystal and Nematic Spatial Light Modulators,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 684, 60–67 (1986)

Wang, J. M.

Weigelt, J.

Wronski, C. R.

P. J. Zanzucchi, C. R. Wronski, D. E. Carlson, “Optical and Photoconductive Properties of Discharge-Produced Amorphous Silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 12, 5227–5236 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Neng-Tsang

Shin-Cheng Jwo, Neng-Tsang Wu, Yean-Kuen Fang, Yu-Wen Chen, Jyh-Wong Hong, Chun-Yen Chang, “Amorphous Silicon/Silicon Carbide Superlattice Avalanche Photodiode,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 35, 1279–1282 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Zanzucchi, P. J.

P. J. Zanzucchi, C. R. Wronski, D. E. Carlson, “Optical and Photoconductive Properties of Discharge-Produced Amorphous Silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 12, 5227–5236 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

N. A. Clark, S. I. Lagerwall, “Submicrosecond Bistable Electrooptic Switching in Liquid Crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 899–901 (1980).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

Shin-Cheng Jwo, Neng-Tsang Wu, Yean-Kuen Fang, Yu-Wen Chen, Jyh-Wong Hong, Chun-Yen Chang, “Amorphous Silicon/Silicon Carbide Superlattice Avalanche Photodiode,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 35, 1279–1282 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. J. Zanzucchi, C. R. Wronski, D. E. Carlson, “Optical and Photoconductive Properties of Discharge-Produced Amorphous Silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 12, 5227–5236 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. M. Johnson, G. Moddel, S. Anderson, “Optical Logic Gates Using Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 44, 42–47 (1987).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (3)

D. Armitage, J. I. Thachara, “Ferroelectric Liquid-Crystal and Nematic Spatial Light Modulators,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 684, 60–67 (1986)

G. Moddel, K. M. Johnson, M. Handschy, “Photoaddressing of High-Speed Liquid Crystal Spatial Light Modulators,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 754, 207–213 (1987).

P. Cambon, J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, “An Optical Processor for Mathematical Morphology,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 936, 632–635 (1988).

Other (2)

J. Serra, Image Analysis and Mathematical Morphology, Academic, New York, (1982).

K. Preston, M. Duff, Modern Cellular Automata,Plenum, New York, (1986).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Example of the dilation of the object X by the structuring element B.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical computer hardware for general programmable MM operators.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photodiode symmetrical transmissive-mode of the FLCLV. (a) FLCLV physical design, (b) equivalent simplified electrical scheme, (c) Switching voltage waveform for a FLCLV reset. (d) Switching voltage waveform for a set.

Tables (2)

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Table I Logical Conventions

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Table II Computing Steps to Perform an Erosion

Equations (4)

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X B = ( x : B x X ) ,
X Θ Β = ( x : B x X ϕ ) .
X B = ( X b : b B ) .
X B = X X t X b X l X τ .

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