Abstract

We consider how to use a charge-coupled device (CCD) as an imaging device for a Fabry-Perot interferometer. When the CCD is used in a conventional manner (pixel by pixel readout), the read noise limits its usefulness. Instead, we propose using the CCD in an operational mode so that the 2-D circular symmetric Fabry-Perot interference pattern is read as a 1-D array. The recovery of the signal is effected by carrying out an Abel inversion of the 1-D array. We show how by carrying out this operation it is possible to reduce greatly the effect of read noise. Finally, we consider how this image technique reflects on the accuracy of a Doppler shift measurement.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. B. Armstrong, “The Airglow and Aurora with a Photoelectric Fabry-Perot Interferometer” E. B. Armstrong, A. Dalgarno, Eds. (Pergamon, New York, 1956), p. 366.
  2. E. G. Armstrong, “The Temperature in the Atmospheric Region Emitting Nightglow OI 5777-in Regions Above Faint Auroral Ones,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 13, 205–000 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. A. Biondi, W. A. Feibelman, “Twilight and Nightglow Spectral Line Shapes of Oxygen 16300 and 15577 Radiation,” Planet. Space Sci. 16, 431–000 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. B. Hays, A. F. Nagy, R. G. Roble, “Interferometric Measurements of the 6300 Å Doppler Temperature During a Magnetic Storm,” J. Geophys. Res. 74, 4162–0000 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Hernandez, “Lower-Thermosphere Temperatures Determined from the Line Profiles of the OI 17,924-K (5577 Å) Emission in the Night Sky,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 5165–0000 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Hernandez, T. E. VanZandt, V. L. Peterson, J. P. Turtle, “Comparison of Optical and Incoherent Scatter Measurements of Nighttime Exospheric Temperature at the Magnetic Equator,” J. Geophys. Res. 80, 3271–0000 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Hernandez, R. G. Roble, “Direct Measurements of Nighttime Thermospheric Winds and Temperatures, 1. Seasonal Variations During Geomagnetic Quiet Periods,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 2065–0000 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Hernandez, R. G. Roble, “Direct Measurements of Nighttime Thermospheric Winds and Temperatures, 2. Geomagnetic Storms,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 5173–0000 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. W. Smith, P. J. Sweeney, “Winds in the Thermosphere of the Northern Polar Cap,” Nature 284, 437–438 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. B. Hays, J. W. Meriwether, R. G. Roble, “Nighttime Thermospheric Winds and High Latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 1905–0000 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, “The Fabry-Perot Interferometer on Dynamics Explorer,” Space Sci. Instrum. 5, 395–000 (1981).
  12. T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, P. B. Hays, D. A. Symanow, D. H. Ceckowski, “Image Plane Detector for the Dynamics Explorer Fabry-Perot Interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3503–3513 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. W. R. Skinner, P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, “High Resolution Doppler Imager,” IGARSS ’87 (Feb.1987).
  14. D. P. Sipler, M. A. Biondi, “Equatorial F-Region Neutral Winds from Nightglow OI 630.0 nm Doppler Shift,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 15, 373–000 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. A. Rounce, F. E. Barlow, S. J. Kellock, “Miniature Imaging Photon Detectors,” J. Phys. E, 13, 763–000 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. Martin, P. Jelinski, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, “Wedge-and-Strip Anodes for Centroid-Finding Position-Sensitive Photon and Particle Detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067–0000 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. G. Sivjee, T. J. Hallinan, G. R. Swenson, “Fabry-Perot-Interferometer Imaging System for Thermospheric Temperature and Wind Measurements,” Appl. Opt. 19, 2206–2209 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. I. P. Csorba, Image Tubes, The Howard W. Sams Engineering-Reference Book Series (Howard W. Sams, Indianapolis, 1985).
  19. J. Janesick, M. Blouke, “Sky on a Chip: The Fabulous CCD,” Sky Telesc. 74, 238–000 (1987).
  20. J. R. Janesick, T. Elliott, S. Collins, M. M. Blouke, J. Freeman, “Scientific Charge-Coupled Devices,” Opt. Eng. 26, 692 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. N. Bracewell, The Fourier Transform and its Applications (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1978).

1987

J. Janesick, M. Blouke, “Sky on a Chip: The Fabulous CCD,” Sky Telesc. 74, 238–000 (1987).

J. R. Janesick, T. Elliott, S. Collins, M. M. Blouke, J. Freeman, “Scientific Charge-Coupled Devices,” Opt. Eng. 26, 692 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1983

1981

C. Martin, P. Jelinski, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, “Wedge-and-Strip Anodes for Centroid-Finding Position-Sensitive Photon and Particle Detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067–0000 (1981).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, “The Fabry-Perot Interferometer on Dynamics Explorer,” Space Sci. Instrum. 5, 395–000 (1981).

1980

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. A. Rounce, F. E. Barlow, S. J. Kellock, “Miniature Imaging Photon Detectors,” J. Phys. E, 13, 763–000 (1980).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Sivjee, T. J. Hallinan, G. R. Swenson, “Fabry-Perot-Interferometer Imaging System for Thermospheric Temperature and Wind Measurements,” Appl. Opt. 19, 2206–2209 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Smith, P. J. Sweeney, “Winds in the Thermosphere of the Northern Polar Cap,” Nature 284, 437–438 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979

P. B. Hays, J. W. Meriwether, R. G. Roble, “Nighttime Thermospheric Winds and High Latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 1905–0000 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978

D. P. Sipler, M. A. Biondi, “Equatorial F-Region Neutral Winds from Nightglow OI 630.0 nm Doppler Shift,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 15, 373–000 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976

G. Hernandez, R. G. Roble, “Direct Measurements of Nighttime Thermospheric Winds and Temperatures, 1. Seasonal Variations During Geomagnetic Quiet Periods,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 2065–0000 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. Hernandez, R. G. Roble, “Direct Measurements of Nighttime Thermospheric Winds and Temperatures, 2. Geomagnetic Storms,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 5173–0000 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. Hernandez, “Lower-Thermosphere Temperatures Determined from the Line Profiles of the OI 17,924-K (5577 Å) Emission in the Night Sky,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 5165–0000 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975

G. Hernandez, T. E. VanZandt, V. L. Peterson, J. P. Turtle, “Comparison of Optical and Incoherent Scatter Measurements of Nighttime Exospheric Temperature at the Magnetic Equator,” J. Geophys. Res. 80, 3271–0000 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1969

P. B. Hays, A. F. Nagy, R. G. Roble, “Interferometric Measurements of the 6300 Å Doppler Temperature During a Magnetic Storm,” J. Geophys. Res. 74, 4162–0000 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968

M. A. Biondi, W. A. Feibelman, “Twilight and Nightglow Spectral Line Shapes of Oxygen 16300 and 15577 Radiation,” Planet. Space Sci. 16, 431–000 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1959

E. G. Armstrong, “The Temperature in the Atmospheric Region Emitting Nightglow OI 5777-in Regions Above Faint Auroral Ones,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 13, 205–000 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Abreu, V. J.

W. R. Skinner, P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, “High Resolution Doppler Imager,” IGARSS ’87 (Feb.1987).

Anger, H. O.

C. Martin, P. Jelinski, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, “Wedge-and-Strip Anodes for Centroid-Finding Position-Sensitive Photon and Particle Detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067–0000 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, E. B.

E. B. Armstrong, “The Airglow and Aurora with a Photoelectric Fabry-Perot Interferometer” E. B. Armstrong, A. Dalgarno, Eds. (Pergamon, New York, 1956), p. 366.

Armstrong, E. G.

E. G. Armstrong, “The Temperature in the Atmospheric Region Emitting Nightglow OI 5777-in Regions Above Faint Auroral Ones,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 13, 205–000 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Barlow, F. E.

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. A. Rounce, F. E. Barlow, S. J. Kellock, “Miniature Imaging Photon Detectors,” J. Phys. E, 13, 763–000 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Biondi, M. A.

D. P. Sipler, M. A. Biondi, “Equatorial F-Region Neutral Winds from Nightglow OI 630.0 nm Doppler Shift,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 15, 373–000 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Biondi, W. A. Feibelman, “Twilight and Nightglow Spectral Line Shapes of Oxygen 16300 and 15577 Radiation,” Planet. Space Sci. 16, 431–000 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Blouke, M.

J. Janesick, M. Blouke, “Sky on a Chip: The Fabulous CCD,” Sky Telesc. 74, 238–000 (1987).

Blouke, M. M.

J. R. Janesick, T. Elliott, S. Collins, M. M. Blouke, J. Freeman, “Scientific Charge-Coupled Devices,” Opt. Eng. 26, 692 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bracewell, R. N.

R. N. Bracewell, The Fourier Transform and its Applications (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1978).

Ceckowski, D. H.

Collins, S.

J. R. Janesick, T. Elliott, S. Collins, M. M. Blouke, J. Freeman, “Scientific Charge-Coupled Devices,” Opt. Eng. 26, 692 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Csorba, I. P.

I. P. Csorba, Image Tubes, The Howard W. Sams Engineering-Reference Book Series (Howard W. Sams, Indianapolis, 1985).

Elliott, T.

J. R. Janesick, T. Elliott, S. Collins, M. M. Blouke, J. Freeman, “Scientific Charge-Coupled Devices,” Opt. Eng. 26, 692 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Feibelman, W. A.

M. A. Biondi, W. A. Feibelman, “Twilight and Nightglow Spectral Line Shapes of Oxygen 16300 and 15577 Radiation,” Planet. Space Sci. 16, 431–000 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, J.

J. R. Janesick, T. Elliott, S. Collins, M. M. Blouke, J. Freeman, “Scientific Charge-Coupled Devices,” Opt. Eng. 26, 692 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hallinan, T. J.

Hays, P. B.

T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, P. B. Hays, D. A. Symanow, D. H. Ceckowski, “Image Plane Detector for the Dynamics Explorer Fabry-Perot Interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3503–3513 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, “The Fabry-Perot Interferometer on Dynamics Explorer,” Space Sci. Instrum. 5, 395–000 (1981).

P. B. Hays, J. W. Meriwether, R. G. Roble, “Nighttime Thermospheric Winds and High Latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 1905–0000 (1979).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, A. F. Nagy, R. G. Roble, “Interferometric Measurements of the 6300 Å Doppler Temperature During a Magnetic Storm,” J. Geophys. Res. 74, 4162–0000 (1969).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Skinner, P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, “High Resolution Doppler Imager,” IGARSS ’87 (Feb.1987).

Hernandez, G.

G. Hernandez, R. G. Roble, “Direct Measurements of Nighttime Thermospheric Winds and Temperatures, 2. Geomagnetic Storms,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 5173–0000 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. Hernandez, “Lower-Thermosphere Temperatures Determined from the Line Profiles of the OI 17,924-K (5577 Å) Emission in the Night Sky,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 5165–0000 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. Hernandez, R. G. Roble, “Direct Measurements of Nighttime Thermospheric Winds and Temperatures, 1. Seasonal Variations During Geomagnetic Quiet Periods,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 2065–0000 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. Hernandez, T. E. VanZandt, V. L. Peterson, J. P. Turtle, “Comparison of Optical and Incoherent Scatter Measurements of Nighttime Exospheric Temperature at the Magnetic Equator,” J. Geophys. Res. 80, 3271–0000 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Janesick, J.

J. Janesick, M. Blouke, “Sky on a Chip: The Fabulous CCD,” Sky Telesc. 74, 238–000 (1987).

Janesick, J. R.

J. R. Janesick, T. Elliott, S. Collins, M. M. Blouke, J. Freeman, “Scientific Charge-Coupled Devices,” Opt. Eng. 26, 692 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Jelinski, P.

C. Martin, P. Jelinski, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, “Wedge-and-Strip Anodes for Centroid-Finding Position-Sensitive Photon and Particle Detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067–0000 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kellock, S. J.

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. A. Rounce, F. E. Barlow, S. J. Kellock, “Miniature Imaging Photon Detectors,” J. Phys. E, 13, 763–000 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kennedy, B. C.

T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, P. B. Hays, D. A. Symanow, D. H. Ceckowski, “Image Plane Detector for the Dynamics Explorer Fabry-Perot Interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3503–3513 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, “The Fabry-Perot Interferometer on Dynamics Explorer,” Space Sci. Instrum. 5, 395–000 (1981).

Killeen, T. L.

T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, P. B. Hays, D. A. Symanow, D. H. Ceckowski, “Image Plane Detector for the Dynamics Explorer Fabry-Perot Interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3503–3513 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, “The Fabry-Perot Interferometer on Dynamics Explorer,” Space Sci. Instrum. 5, 395–000 (1981).

Lampton, M.

C. Martin, P. Jelinski, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, “Wedge-and-Strip Anodes for Centroid-Finding Position-Sensitive Photon and Particle Detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067–0000 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Malina, R. F.

C. Martin, P. Jelinski, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, “Wedge-and-Strip Anodes for Centroid-Finding Position-Sensitive Photon and Particle Detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067–0000 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Martin, C.

C. Martin, P. Jelinski, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, “Wedge-and-Strip Anodes for Centroid-Finding Position-Sensitive Photon and Particle Detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067–0000 (1981).
[CrossRef]

McWhirter, I.

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. A. Rounce, F. E. Barlow, S. J. Kellock, “Miniature Imaging Photon Detectors,” J. Phys. E, 13, 763–000 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Meriwether, J. W.

P. B. Hays, J. W. Meriwether, R. G. Roble, “Nighttime Thermospheric Winds and High Latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 1905–0000 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Nagy, A. F.

P. B. Hays, A. F. Nagy, R. G. Roble, “Interferometric Measurements of the 6300 Å Doppler Temperature During a Magnetic Storm,” J. Geophys. Res. 74, 4162–0000 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, V. L.

G. Hernandez, T. E. VanZandt, V. L. Peterson, J. P. Turtle, “Comparison of Optical and Incoherent Scatter Measurements of Nighttime Exospheric Temperature at the Magnetic Equator,” J. Geophys. Res. 80, 3271–0000 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Rees, D.

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. A. Rounce, F. E. Barlow, S. J. Kellock, “Miniature Imaging Photon Detectors,” J. Phys. E, 13, 763–000 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Roble, R. G.

P. B. Hays, J. W. Meriwether, R. G. Roble, “Nighttime Thermospheric Winds and High Latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 1905–0000 (1979).
[CrossRef]

G. Hernandez, R. G. Roble, “Direct Measurements of Nighttime Thermospheric Winds and Temperatures, 2. Geomagnetic Storms,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 5173–0000 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. Hernandez, R. G. Roble, “Direct Measurements of Nighttime Thermospheric Winds and Temperatures, 1. Seasonal Variations During Geomagnetic Quiet Periods,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 2065–0000 (1976).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, A. F. Nagy, R. G. Roble, “Interferometric Measurements of the 6300 Å Doppler Temperature During a Magnetic Storm,” J. Geophys. Res. 74, 4162–0000 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Rounce, P. A.

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. A. Rounce, F. E. Barlow, S. J. Kellock, “Miniature Imaging Photon Detectors,” J. Phys. E, 13, 763–000 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Sipler, D. P.

D. P. Sipler, M. A. Biondi, “Equatorial F-Region Neutral Winds from Nightglow OI 630.0 nm Doppler Shift,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 15, 373–000 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Sivjee, G. G.

Skinner, W. R.

W. R. Skinner, P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, “High Resolution Doppler Imager,” IGARSS ’87 (Feb.1987).

Smith, R. W.

R. W. Smith, P. J. Sweeney, “Winds in the Thermosphere of the Northern Polar Cap,” Nature 284, 437–438 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Sweeney, P. J.

R. W. Smith, P. J. Sweeney, “Winds in the Thermosphere of the Northern Polar Cap,” Nature 284, 437–438 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Swenson, G. R.

Symanow, D. A.

Turtle, J. P.

G. Hernandez, T. E. VanZandt, V. L. Peterson, J. P. Turtle, “Comparison of Optical and Incoherent Scatter Measurements of Nighttime Exospheric Temperature at the Magnetic Equator,” J. Geophys. Res. 80, 3271–0000 (1975).
[CrossRef]

VanZandt, T. E.

G. Hernandez, T. E. VanZandt, V. L. Peterson, J. P. Turtle, “Comparison of Optical and Incoherent Scatter Measurements of Nighttime Exospheric Temperature at the Magnetic Equator,” J. Geophys. Res. 80, 3271–0000 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Geophys. Res. Lett.

D. P. Sipler, M. A. Biondi, “Equatorial F-Region Neutral Winds from Nightglow OI 630.0 nm Doppler Shift,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 15, 373–000 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Terr. Phys.

E. G. Armstrong, “The Temperature in the Atmospheric Region Emitting Nightglow OI 5777-in Regions Above Faint Auroral Ones,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 13, 205–000 (1959).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

P. B. Hays, J. W. Meriwether, R. G. Roble, “Nighttime Thermospheric Winds and High Latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 1905–0000 (1979).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, A. F. Nagy, R. G. Roble, “Interferometric Measurements of the 6300 Å Doppler Temperature During a Magnetic Storm,” J. Geophys. Res. 74, 4162–0000 (1969).
[CrossRef]

G. Hernandez, “Lower-Thermosphere Temperatures Determined from the Line Profiles of the OI 17,924-K (5577 Å) Emission in the Night Sky,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 5165–0000 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. Hernandez, T. E. VanZandt, V. L. Peterson, J. P. Turtle, “Comparison of Optical and Incoherent Scatter Measurements of Nighttime Exospheric Temperature at the Magnetic Equator,” J. Geophys. Res. 80, 3271–0000 (1975).
[CrossRef]

G. Hernandez, R. G. Roble, “Direct Measurements of Nighttime Thermospheric Winds and Temperatures, 1. Seasonal Variations During Geomagnetic Quiet Periods,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 2065–0000 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. Hernandez, R. G. Roble, “Direct Measurements of Nighttime Thermospheric Winds and Temperatures, 2. Geomagnetic Storms,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 5173–0000 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. E

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. A. Rounce, F. E. Barlow, S. J. Kellock, “Miniature Imaging Photon Detectors,” J. Phys. E, 13, 763–000 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Nature

R. W. Smith, P. J. Sweeney, “Winds in the Thermosphere of the Northern Polar Cap,” Nature 284, 437–438 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

J. R. Janesick, T. Elliott, S. Collins, M. M. Blouke, J. Freeman, “Scientific Charge-Coupled Devices,” Opt. Eng. 26, 692 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Planet. Space Sci.

M. A. Biondi, W. A. Feibelman, “Twilight and Nightglow Spectral Line Shapes of Oxygen 16300 and 15577 Radiation,” Planet. Space Sci. 16, 431–000 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

C. Martin, P. Jelinski, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, “Wedge-and-Strip Anodes for Centroid-Finding Position-Sensitive Photon and Particle Detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067–0000 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sky Telesc.

J. Janesick, M. Blouke, “Sky on a Chip: The Fabulous CCD,” Sky Telesc. 74, 238–000 (1987).

Space Sci. Instrum.

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, “The Fabry-Perot Interferometer on Dynamics Explorer,” Space Sci. Instrum. 5, 395–000 (1981).

Other

W. R. Skinner, P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, “High Resolution Doppler Imager,” IGARSS ’87 (Feb.1987).

E. B. Armstrong, “The Airglow and Aurora with a Photoelectric Fabry-Perot Interferometer” E. B. Armstrong, A. Dalgarno, Eds. (Pergamon, New York, 1956), p. 366.

R. N. Bracewell, The Fourier Transform and its Applications (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1978).

I. P. Csorba, Image Tubes, The Howard W. Sams Engineering-Reference Book Series (Howard W. Sams, Indianapolis, 1985).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Quantum efficiencies for multialkali photocathode, GaAs photocathode, and typical CCD.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic illustrating the pixel by pixel readout process in a CCD. Read noise is added to every pixel once read. The circles in the figure illustrate the Fabry-Perot interference pattern, while the circular shaded area represents the pattern in which pixels should be added to image the desired spectral feature.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic illustrating alternative CCD operational scheme in which the projected 2-D Fabry-Perot interference pattern is read as a 1-D array. The elements of the 1-D array are the sum of the pixels in every row of the CCD. The spectral line shape is then recovered by a mathematical inversion of the line integrals. When used in this configuration the read noise is added to every row instead of to every pixel.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulated response (without noise) of a CCD to a Fabry-Perot interference pattern using the line integral approach.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Results of the Abel inversion of the CCD signal assuming (a) photon noise and (b) photon noise plus 10-e read noise for a 300-R source. In each case the solid line is the actual Airy function, while the dots represent the mean of the recovery. The standard deviation of the recovered signal at each point is also shown.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Recovery of the spectral signal using the pixel by pixel read out approach assuming (a) photon noise and (b) photon noise plus read noise for a 300-R source. In each case the solid line is the actual Airy function, while the dots represent the mean of the recovery. The standard deviation of the recovered signal at each point is also shown.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Wind error as a function of brightness using (a) Abel inversion with no read noise; (b) Abel inversion with 10-e read noise; (c) pixel by pixel or ring CCD with no read noise; (d) pixel by pixel with 10-e read noise; and (e) ring CCD with 10-e read noise.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Simulation Parameters

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T ( x ) = ( 1 R 1 + R ) ( 1 + 2 n R n cos 2 π n x ) .
x = 2 μ t ν 0 ( 1 + Δ ν ν 0 θ 2 2 ) .
C j ( x ) = 2 x j x max F ( r ) r d r ( r 2 x j 2 ) 1 / 2 ,
F ( r ) = 1 π r x max C j ( x ) x ( x ) d x ( x 2 r 2 ) 1 / 2 .
F i ( υ ) = F i ( 0 ) + F i ν ν c υ ,
υ = c ν i = 1 N F i ( υ ) F i ( 0 ) σ i 2 F i ν i = 1 N ( F i ν ) 2 1 σ i 2 ,

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