Abstract

Useful grating efficiences for a variety of new spectrometer types have been attained. These results are discussed.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. W. Barbee, “Combined Microstucture X-Ray Optics; Multilayer Diffraction Gratings,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 103, 307–314 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. W. Barbee, “Use of Multilayer Diffraction Gratings in the Determination of X-Ray, Soft X-Ray, and VUV Elemental Scattering Cross-Sections,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 911, 169–176 (1988); T. W. Barbee, “Application of Multilayer Structures to the Determination of Optical Constants in the X-Ray, Soft X-Ray, and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectral Ranges,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (1988), to be published.
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. W. Barbee, “Combined Microstructure X-Ray Optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1989), to be published.
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. C. Rife, “Applications of Layered Synthetic Microstructures in Vacuum Ultraviolet and Soft X-Ray Grating Spectrometers,” NRL Memorandum Report6278 (1988), to be published.
  5. R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, “Layered Synthetic Microstructure Technology Considerations for the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3534–3537 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. M. Hawryluk, N. M. Ceglio, D. G. Stearns, K. Danzmann, M. Kuhne, P. Muller, B. Wende, “Soft X-Ray Beamsplitters and Highly Dispersive Multilayer Mirrors for Use as Soft X-Ray Laser Cavity Components,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 688, 81–90 (1986).
  7. W. Jark, “Enhancement of Diffraction Grating Efficiencies in the Soft X-Ray Region by a Multilayer Coating,” Opt. Commun. 65, 201–205 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “An Ultrahigh Vacuum Reflectometer/Goniometer for Use with Synchrotron Radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 465–468 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, “Features and Initial Performance Tests of the Grating/Crystal Monochromator,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 252–255 (1982); J. C. Rife, H. R. Sadeghi, W. R. Hunter, “Upgrades and Recent Performance of the Grating/Crystal Monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1989), to be published.
    [CrossRef]
  10. Optical constants were derived from the following reference: B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fugikawa, “Low Energy X-Ray Interaction Coefficients: Photoabsorption, Scattering, and Reflection,” Atomic and Nuclear Data Tables 27, 1–144 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. R. Ciarlo, D. E. Miller, “Silicon Diffraction Gratings for Multilayer Structures,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 688, 163–170 (1986).

1988 (2)

T. W. Barbee, “Combined Microstucture X-Ray Optics; Multilayer Diffraction Gratings,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 103, 307–314 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Barbee, “Use of Multilayer Diffraction Gratings in the Determination of X-Ray, Soft X-Ray, and VUV Elemental Scattering Cross-Sections,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 911, 169–176 (1988); T. W. Barbee, “Application of Multilayer Structures to the Determination of Optical Constants in the X-Ray, Soft X-Ray, and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectral Ranges,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (1988), to be published.
[CrossRef]

1986 (4)

D. R. Ciarlo, D. E. Miller, “Silicon Diffraction Gratings for Multilayer Structures,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 688, 163–170 (1986).

A. M. Hawryluk, N. M. Ceglio, D. G. Stearns, K. Danzmann, M. Kuhne, P. Muller, B. Wende, “Soft X-Ray Beamsplitters and Highly Dispersive Multilayer Mirrors for Use as Soft X-Ray Laser Cavity Components,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 688, 81–90 (1986).

W. Jark, “Enhancement of Diffraction Grating Efficiencies in the Soft X-Ray Region by a Multilayer Coating,” Opt. Commun. 65, 201–205 (1986).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “An Ultrahigh Vacuum Reflectometer/Goniometer for Use with Synchrotron Radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 465–468 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1982 (2)

J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, “Features and Initial Performance Tests of the Grating/Crystal Monochromator,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 252–255 (1982); J. C. Rife, H. R. Sadeghi, W. R. Hunter, “Upgrades and Recent Performance of the Grating/Crystal Monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1989), to be published.
[CrossRef]

Optical constants were derived from the following reference: B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fugikawa, “Low Energy X-Ray Interaction Coefficients: Photoabsorption, Scattering, and Reflection,” Atomic and Nuclear Data Tables 27, 1–144 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Barbee, T. W.

T. W. Barbee, “Combined Microstucture X-Ray Optics; Multilayer Diffraction Gratings,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 103, 307–314 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Barbee, “Use of Multilayer Diffraction Gratings in the Determination of X-Ray, Soft X-Ray, and VUV Elemental Scattering Cross-Sections,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 911, 169–176 (1988); T. W. Barbee, “Application of Multilayer Structures to the Determination of Optical Constants in the X-Ray, Soft X-Ray, and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectral Ranges,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (1988), to be published.
[CrossRef]

T. W. Barbee, “Combined Microstructure X-Ray Optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1989), to be published.
[CrossRef]

Ceglio, N. M.

A. M. Hawryluk, N. M. Ceglio, D. G. Stearns, K. Danzmann, M. Kuhne, P. Muller, B. Wende, “Soft X-Ray Beamsplitters and Highly Dispersive Multilayer Mirrors for Use as Soft X-Ray Laser Cavity Components,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 688, 81–90 (1986).

Ciarlo, D. R.

D. R. Ciarlo, D. E. Miller, “Silicon Diffraction Gratings for Multilayer Structures,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 688, 163–170 (1986).

Danzmann, K.

A. M. Hawryluk, N. M. Ceglio, D. G. Stearns, K. Danzmann, M. Kuhne, P. Muller, B. Wende, “Soft X-Ray Beamsplitters and Highly Dispersive Multilayer Mirrors for Use as Soft X-Ray Laser Cavity Components,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 688, 81–90 (1986).

Fugikawa, B. K.

Optical constants were derived from the following reference: B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fugikawa, “Low Energy X-Ray Interaction Coefficients: Photoabsorption, Scattering, and Reflection,” Atomic and Nuclear Data Tables 27, 1–144 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hawryluk, A. M.

A. M. Hawryluk, N. M. Ceglio, D. G. Stearns, K. Danzmann, M. Kuhne, P. Muller, B. Wende, “Soft X-Ray Beamsplitters and Highly Dispersive Multilayer Mirrors for Use as Soft X-Ray Laser Cavity Components,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 688, 81–90 (1986).

Henke, B. L.

Optical constants were derived from the following reference: B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fugikawa, “Low Energy X-Ray Interaction Coefficients: Photoabsorption, Scattering, and Reflection,” Atomic and Nuclear Data Tables 27, 1–144 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, W. R.

W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “An Ultrahigh Vacuum Reflectometer/Goniometer for Use with Synchrotron Radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 465–468 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, “Features and Initial Performance Tests of the Grating/Crystal Monochromator,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 252–255 (1982); J. C. Rife, H. R. Sadeghi, W. R. Hunter, “Upgrades and Recent Performance of the Grating/Crystal Monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1989), to be published.
[CrossRef]

Jark, W.

W. Jark, “Enhancement of Diffraction Grating Efficiencies in the Soft X-Ray Region by a Multilayer Coating,” Opt. Commun. 65, 201–205 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Keski-Kuha, R. A. M.

Kuhne, M.

A. M. Hawryluk, N. M. Ceglio, D. G. Stearns, K. Danzmann, M. Kuhne, P. Muller, B. Wende, “Soft X-Ray Beamsplitters and Highly Dispersive Multilayer Mirrors for Use as Soft X-Ray Laser Cavity Components,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 688, 81–90 (1986).

Lee, P.

Optical constants were derived from the following reference: B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fugikawa, “Low Energy X-Ray Interaction Coefficients: Photoabsorption, Scattering, and Reflection,” Atomic and Nuclear Data Tables 27, 1–144 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. E.

D. R. Ciarlo, D. E. Miller, “Silicon Diffraction Gratings for Multilayer Structures,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 688, 163–170 (1986).

Muller, P.

A. M. Hawryluk, N. M. Ceglio, D. G. Stearns, K. Danzmann, M. Kuhne, P. Muller, B. Wende, “Soft X-Ray Beamsplitters and Highly Dispersive Multilayer Mirrors for Use as Soft X-Ray Laser Cavity Components,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 688, 81–90 (1986).

Rife, J. C.

W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “An Ultrahigh Vacuum Reflectometer/Goniometer for Use with Synchrotron Radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 465–468 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, “Features and Initial Performance Tests of the Grating/Crystal Monochromator,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 252–255 (1982); J. C. Rife, H. R. Sadeghi, W. R. Hunter, “Upgrades and Recent Performance of the Grating/Crystal Monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1989), to be published.
[CrossRef]

J. C. Rife, “Applications of Layered Synthetic Microstructures in Vacuum Ultraviolet and Soft X-Ray Grating Spectrometers,” NRL Memorandum Report6278 (1988), to be published.

Shimabukuro, R. L.

Optical constants were derived from the following reference: B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fugikawa, “Low Energy X-Ray Interaction Coefficients: Photoabsorption, Scattering, and Reflection,” Atomic and Nuclear Data Tables 27, 1–144 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Stearns, D. G.

A. M. Hawryluk, N. M. Ceglio, D. G. Stearns, K. Danzmann, M. Kuhne, P. Muller, B. Wende, “Soft X-Ray Beamsplitters and Highly Dispersive Multilayer Mirrors for Use as Soft X-Ray Laser Cavity Components,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 688, 81–90 (1986).

Tanaka, T. J.

Optical constants were derived from the following reference: B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fugikawa, “Low Energy X-Ray Interaction Coefficients: Photoabsorption, Scattering, and Reflection,” Atomic and Nuclear Data Tables 27, 1–144 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Wende, B.

A. M. Hawryluk, N. M. Ceglio, D. G. Stearns, K. Danzmann, M. Kuhne, P. Muller, B. Wende, “Soft X-Ray Beamsplitters and Highly Dispersive Multilayer Mirrors for Use as Soft X-Ray Laser Cavity Components,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 688, 81–90 (1986).

Williams, R. T.

J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, “Features and Initial Performance Tests of the Grating/Crystal Monochromator,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 252–255 (1982); J. C. Rife, H. R. Sadeghi, W. R. Hunter, “Upgrades and Recent Performance of the Grating/Crystal Monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1989), to be published.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Atomic and Nuclear Data Tables (1)

Optical constants were derived from the following reference: B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fugikawa, “Low Energy X-Ray Interaction Coefficients: Photoabsorption, Scattering, and Reflection,” Atomic and Nuclear Data Tables 27, 1–144 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (1)

T. W. Barbee, “Combined Microstucture X-Ray Optics; Multilayer Diffraction Gratings,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 103, 307–314 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods A (2)

W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “An Ultrahigh Vacuum Reflectometer/Goniometer for Use with Synchrotron Radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 465–468 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, “Features and Initial Performance Tests of the Grating/Crystal Monochromator,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 252–255 (1982); J. C. Rife, H. R. Sadeghi, W. R. Hunter, “Upgrades and Recent Performance of the Grating/Crystal Monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1989), to be published.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

W. Jark, “Enhancement of Diffraction Grating Efficiencies in the Soft X-Ray Region by a Multilayer Coating,” Opt. Commun. 65, 201–205 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (3)

D. R. Ciarlo, D. E. Miller, “Silicon Diffraction Gratings for Multilayer Structures,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 688, 163–170 (1986).

A. M. Hawryluk, N. M. Ceglio, D. G. Stearns, K. Danzmann, M. Kuhne, P. Muller, B. Wende, “Soft X-Ray Beamsplitters and Highly Dispersive Multilayer Mirrors for Use as Soft X-Ray Laser Cavity Components,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 688, 81–90 (1986).

T. W. Barbee, “Use of Multilayer Diffraction Gratings in the Determination of X-Ray, Soft X-Ray, and VUV Elemental Scattering Cross-Sections,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 911, 169–176 (1988); T. W. Barbee, “Application of Multilayer Structures to the Determination of Optical Constants in the X-Ray, Soft X-Ray, and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectral Ranges,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (1988), to be published.
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

T. W. Barbee, “Combined Microstructure X-Ray Optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1989), to be published.
[CrossRef]

J. C. Rife, “Applications of Layered Synthetic Microstructures in Vacuum Ultraviolet and Soft X-Ray Grating Spectrometers,” NRL Memorandum Report6278 (1988), to be published.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A 2Ө detector scan of diffracted monochromatic (60.57-A) radiation with the grating set at a grazing angle of 43.8° and Ө = 47.6°. Maximum reflectance is ~0.38% and occurs in eighth order. The horizontal scale is given in terms of 2Ө (degrees). Correction for a small second-order contamination of the monochromator flux has not been made but would raise peak efficiency to ~0.4%

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Eighth-order efficiency of the multilayer grating (diamonds), reflectance of the flat (circles), calculated peak reflectance of the multilayer coating (uppermost solid line), and calculated reflectance of the multilayer coating when matched to the grating (dashed line). The bottom solid curve is the reflectance of gold for equivalent wavelengths and grazing angles.

Equations (4)

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λ = 2 d sin ϕ m sin θ ,
λ = 2 D n sin θ ,
D n = d sin ϕ m .
R = R 0 exp [ ( 2 π σ D ) 2 ] = R 0 exp [ ( 4 π σ sin θ λ ) 2 ] ,

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