Abstract

We show how we can measure with accuracy the distribution law of thicknesses deposited inside a vacuum chamber. These measurement techniques are applied to the simultaneous production of high rejection narrowband multiple halfwave Fabry-Perot filters. To prevent any alteration of the filters’ optical properties, we must control the variations vs time of the evaporant distribution.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. Grezes-Besset, C. Amra, B. Cousin, G. Otrio, E. Pelletier, R. Richier, “Etude de la diaphonie d’un système de démultiplex-age par filtres interférentiels. Conséquences de la diffusion de la lumière par les irrégularités des surfaces optiques,” Ann. Tele-commun. 43, Nos. 3–4, 135–141 (1988).
  2. P. Bousquet, A. Fornier, R. Kowalczyk, E. Pelletier, P. Roche, “Optical Filters: Monitoring Process Allowing the Auto-Correction of Thickness Errors,” Thin Solid Films 13, 285–290 (1972); H. A. Macleod, “Turning Value Monitoring of Narrow-Band All-Dielectric Thin-Film Optical Filters,” Opt. Acta 19, 1–28 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Fornier, R. Richier, E. Pelletier, B. Bovard, G. Salvini, “Coritrôle optique du dépôt de couches multidiélectriques quart d’onde: techniques hybrides de traitement du signal utilisées pour améliorer les performances,” Ann. Telecommun. 42, 140–148 (1987).
  4. A. Fornier, R. Richier, E. Pelletier, “Realization of Fabry-Perot Filters for Wavelength Demultiplexing,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 652, 27–32 (1986).
  5. E. Pelletier, R. Kowalczyk, A. Fornier, “Influence du procede de controle sur les tolerances de realisation des filtres interferentiels a bande etroite,” Opt. Acta 20, 509–526 (1973); H. A. Macleod, “Thin Film Narrow Band Optical Filters,” Thin Solid Films 34, 335–342 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. Pelletier, “Les couches minces au service de l’interféromètre de Fabry-Perot,” J. Opt. 17, 43–52 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Holland, W. Steckelmacher, “The Distribution of Thin Films Condensed on Surfaces by the Vacuum Evaporation Method,” Vacuum 2, 346–364 (1952); K. H. Behrndt, “Film-Thickness and Deposition-Rate Monitoring Devices and Techniques for Producing Films of Uniform Thickness,” Phys. Thin Films 3, 1–59 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. P. Borgogno, B. Lazarides, E. Pelletier, “Automatic Determination of the Optical Constants of Inhomogeneous Thin Films,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4020–4029 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. A. Macleod, D. Richmond, “The Effect of Errors in the Optical Monitoring of Narrow-Band All Dielectric Thin Optical Filters,” Opt. Acta 21, 429–443 (1974).
    [CrossRef]

1988 (1)

C. Grezes-Besset, C. Amra, B. Cousin, G. Otrio, E. Pelletier, R. Richier, “Etude de la diaphonie d’un système de démultiplex-age par filtres interférentiels. Conséquences de la diffusion de la lumière par les irrégularités des surfaces optiques,” Ann. Tele-commun. 43, Nos. 3–4, 135–141 (1988).

1987 (1)

A. Fornier, R. Richier, E. Pelletier, B. Bovard, G. Salvini, “Coritrôle optique du dépôt de couches multidiélectriques quart d’onde: techniques hybrides de traitement du signal utilisées pour améliorer les performances,” Ann. Telecommun. 42, 140–148 (1987).

1986 (2)

A. Fornier, R. Richier, E. Pelletier, “Realization of Fabry-Perot Filters for Wavelength Demultiplexing,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 652, 27–32 (1986).

E. Pelletier, “Les couches minces au service de l’interféromètre de Fabry-Perot,” J. Opt. 17, 43–52 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1974 (1)

H. A. Macleod, D. Richmond, “The Effect of Errors in the Optical Monitoring of Narrow-Band All Dielectric Thin Optical Filters,” Opt. Acta 21, 429–443 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

E. Pelletier, R. Kowalczyk, A. Fornier, “Influence du procede de controle sur les tolerances de realisation des filtres interferentiels a bande etroite,” Opt. Acta 20, 509–526 (1973); H. A. Macleod, “Thin Film Narrow Band Optical Filters,” Thin Solid Films 34, 335–342 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. Bousquet, A. Fornier, R. Kowalczyk, E. Pelletier, P. Roche, “Optical Filters: Monitoring Process Allowing the Auto-Correction of Thickness Errors,” Thin Solid Films 13, 285–290 (1972); H. A. Macleod, “Turning Value Monitoring of Narrow-Band All-Dielectric Thin-Film Optical Filters,” Opt. Acta 19, 1–28 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1952 (1)

L. Holland, W. Steckelmacher, “The Distribution of Thin Films Condensed on Surfaces by the Vacuum Evaporation Method,” Vacuum 2, 346–364 (1952); K. H. Behrndt, “Film-Thickness and Deposition-Rate Monitoring Devices and Techniques for Producing Films of Uniform Thickness,” Phys. Thin Films 3, 1–59 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Amra, C.

C. Grezes-Besset, C. Amra, B. Cousin, G. Otrio, E. Pelletier, R. Richier, “Etude de la diaphonie d’un système de démultiplex-age par filtres interférentiels. Conséquences de la diffusion de la lumière par les irrégularités des surfaces optiques,” Ann. Tele-commun. 43, Nos. 3–4, 135–141 (1988).

Borgogno, J. P.

Bousquet, P.

P. Bousquet, A. Fornier, R. Kowalczyk, E. Pelletier, P. Roche, “Optical Filters: Monitoring Process Allowing the Auto-Correction of Thickness Errors,” Thin Solid Films 13, 285–290 (1972); H. A. Macleod, “Turning Value Monitoring of Narrow-Band All-Dielectric Thin-Film Optical Filters,” Opt. Acta 19, 1–28 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bovard, B.

A. Fornier, R. Richier, E. Pelletier, B. Bovard, G. Salvini, “Coritrôle optique du dépôt de couches multidiélectriques quart d’onde: techniques hybrides de traitement du signal utilisées pour améliorer les performances,” Ann. Telecommun. 42, 140–148 (1987).

Cousin, B.

C. Grezes-Besset, C. Amra, B. Cousin, G. Otrio, E. Pelletier, R. Richier, “Etude de la diaphonie d’un système de démultiplex-age par filtres interférentiels. Conséquences de la diffusion de la lumière par les irrégularités des surfaces optiques,” Ann. Tele-commun. 43, Nos. 3–4, 135–141 (1988).

Fornier, A.

A. Fornier, R. Richier, E. Pelletier, B. Bovard, G. Salvini, “Coritrôle optique du dépôt de couches multidiélectriques quart d’onde: techniques hybrides de traitement du signal utilisées pour améliorer les performances,” Ann. Telecommun. 42, 140–148 (1987).

A. Fornier, R. Richier, E. Pelletier, “Realization of Fabry-Perot Filters for Wavelength Demultiplexing,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 652, 27–32 (1986).

E. Pelletier, R. Kowalczyk, A. Fornier, “Influence du procede de controle sur les tolerances de realisation des filtres interferentiels a bande etroite,” Opt. Acta 20, 509–526 (1973); H. A. Macleod, “Thin Film Narrow Band Optical Filters,” Thin Solid Films 34, 335–342 (1976).
[CrossRef]

P. Bousquet, A. Fornier, R. Kowalczyk, E. Pelletier, P. Roche, “Optical Filters: Monitoring Process Allowing the Auto-Correction of Thickness Errors,” Thin Solid Films 13, 285–290 (1972); H. A. Macleod, “Turning Value Monitoring of Narrow-Band All-Dielectric Thin-Film Optical Filters,” Opt. Acta 19, 1–28 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Grezes-Besset, C.

C. Grezes-Besset, C. Amra, B. Cousin, G. Otrio, E. Pelletier, R. Richier, “Etude de la diaphonie d’un système de démultiplex-age par filtres interférentiels. Conséquences de la diffusion de la lumière par les irrégularités des surfaces optiques,” Ann. Tele-commun. 43, Nos. 3–4, 135–141 (1988).

Holland, L.

L. Holland, W. Steckelmacher, “The Distribution of Thin Films Condensed on Surfaces by the Vacuum Evaporation Method,” Vacuum 2, 346–364 (1952); K. H. Behrndt, “Film-Thickness and Deposition-Rate Monitoring Devices and Techniques for Producing Films of Uniform Thickness,” Phys. Thin Films 3, 1–59 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Kowalczyk, R.

E. Pelletier, R. Kowalczyk, A. Fornier, “Influence du procede de controle sur les tolerances de realisation des filtres interferentiels a bande etroite,” Opt. Acta 20, 509–526 (1973); H. A. Macleod, “Thin Film Narrow Band Optical Filters,” Thin Solid Films 34, 335–342 (1976).
[CrossRef]

P. Bousquet, A. Fornier, R. Kowalczyk, E. Pelletier, P. Roche, “Optical Filters: Monitoring Process Allowing the Auto-Correction of Thickness Errors,” Thin Solid Films 13, 285–290 (1972); H. A. Macleod, “Turning Value Monitoring of Narrow-Band All-Dielectric Thin-Film Optical Filters,” Opt. Acta 19, 1–28 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Lazarides, B.

Macleod, H. A.

H. A. Macleod, D. Richmond, “The Effect of Errors in the Optical Monitoring of Narrow-Band All Dielectric Thin Optical Filters,” Opt. Acta 21, 429–443 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Otrio, G.

C. Grezes-Besset, C. Amra, B. Cousin, G. Otrio, E. Pelletier, R. Richier, “Etude de la diaphonie d’un système de démultiplex-age par filtres interférentiels. Conséquences de la diffusion de la lumière par les irrégularités des surfaces optiques,” Ann. Tele-commun. 43, Nos. 3–4, 135–141 (1988).

Pelletier, E.

C. Grezes-Besset, C. Amra, B. Cousin, G. Otrio, E. Pelletier, R. Richier, “Etude de la diaphonie d’un système de démultiplex-age par filtres interférentiels. Conséquences de la diffusion de la lumière par les irrégularités des surfaces optiques,” Ann. Tele-commun. 43, Nos. 3–4, 135–141 (1988).

A. Fornier, R. Richier, E. Pelletier, B. Bovard, G. Salvini, “Coritrôle optique du dépôt de couches multidiélectriques quart d’onde: techniques hybrides de traitement du signal utilisées pour améliorer les performances,” Ann. Telecommun. 42, 140–148 (1987).

A. Fornier, R. Richier, E. Pelletier, “Realization of Fabry-Perot Filters for Wavelength Demultiplexing,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 652, 27–32 (1986).

E. Pelletier, “Les couches minces au service de l’interféromètre de Fabry-Perot,” J. Opt. 17, 43–52 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Borgogno, B. Lazarides, E. Pelletier, “Automatic Determination of the Optical Constants of Inhomogeneous Thin Films,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4020–4029 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Pelletier, R. Kowalczyk, A. Fornier, “Influence du procede de controle sur les tolerances de realisation des filtres interferentiels a bande etroite,” Opt. Acta 20, 509–526 (1973); H. A. Macleod, “Thin Film Narrow Band Optical Filters,” Thin Solid Films 34, 335–342 (1976).
[CrossRef]

P. Bousquet, A. Fornier, R. Kowalczyk, E. Pelletier, P. Roche, “Optical Filters: Monitoring Process Allowing the Auto-Correction of Thickness Errors,” Thin Solid Films 13, 285–290 (1972); H. A. Macleod, “Turning Value Monitoring of Narrow-Band All-Dielectric Thin-Film Optical Filters,” Opt. Acta 19, 1–28 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Richier, R.

C. Grezes-Besset, C. Amra, B. Cousin, G. Otrio, E. Pelletier, R. Richier, “Etude de la diaphonie d’un système de démultiplex-age par filtres interférentiels. Conséquences de la diffusion de la lumière par les irrégularités des surfaces optiques,” Ann. Tele-commun. 43, Nos. 3–4, 135–141 (1988).

A. Fornier, R. Richier, E. Pelletier, B. Bovard, G. Salvini, “Coritrôle optique du dépôt de couches multidiélectriques quart d’onde: techniques hybrides de traitement du signal utilisées pour améliorer les performances,” Ann. Telecommun. 42, 140–148 (1987).

A. Fornier, R. Richier, E. Pelletier, “Realization of Fabry-Perot Filters for Wavelength Demultiplexing,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 652, 27–32 (1986).

Richmond, D.

H. A. Macleod, D. Richmond, “The Effect of Errors in the Optical Monitoring of Narrow-Band All Dielectric Thin Optical Filters,” Opt. Acta 21, 429–443 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Roche, P.

P. Bousquet, A. Fornier, R. Kowalczyk, E. Pelletier, P. Roche, “Optical Filters: Monitoring Process Allowing the Auto-Correction of Thickness Errors,” Thin Solid Films 13, 285–290 (1972); H. A. Macleod, “Turning Value Monitoring of Narrow-Band All-Dielectric Thin-Film Optical Filters,” Opt. Acta 19, 1–28 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Salvini, G.

A. Fornier, R. Richier, E. Pelletier, B. Bovard, G. Salvini, “Coritrôle optique du dépôt de couches multidiélectriques quart d’onde: techniques hybrides de traitement du signal utilisées pour améliorer les performances,” Ann. Telecommun. 42, 140–148 (1987).

Steckelmacher, W.

L. Holland, W. Steckelmacher, “The Distribution of Thin Films Condensed on Surfaces by the Vacuum Evaporation Method,” Vacuum 2, 346–364 (1952); K. H. Behrndt, “Film-Thickness and Deposition-Rate Monitoring Devices and Techniques for Producing Films of Uniform Thickness,” Phys. Thin Films 3, 1–59 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Tele-commun. (1)

C. Grezes-Besset, C. Amra, B. Cousin, G. Otrio, E. Pelletier, R. Richier, “Etude de la diaphonie d’un système de démultiplex-age par filtres interférentiels. Conséquences de la diffusion de la lumière par les irrégularités des surfaces optiques,” Ann. Tele-commun. 43, Nos. 3–4, 135–141 (1988).

Ann. Telecommun. (1)

A. Fornier, R. Richier, E. Pelletier, B. Bovard, G. Salvini, “Coritrôle optique du dépôt de couches multidiélectriques quart d’onde: techniques hybrides de traitement du signal utilisées pour améliorer les performances,” Ann. Telecommun. 42, 140–148 (1987).

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Opt. (1)

E. Pelletier, “Les couches minces au service de l’interféromètre de Fabry-Perot,” J. Opt. 17, 43–52 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (2)

E. Pelletier, R. Kowalczyk, A. Fornier, “Influence du procede de controle sur les tolerances de realisation des filtres interferentiels a bande etroite,” Opt. Acta 20, 509–526 (1973); H. A. Macleod, “Thin Film Narrow Band Optical Filters,” Thin Solid Films 34, 335–342 (1976).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Macleod, D. Richmond, “The Effect of Errors in the Optical Monitoring of Narrow-Band All Dielectric Thin Optical Filters,” Opt. Acta 21, 429–443 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

A. Fornier, R. Richier, E. Pelletier, “Realization of Fabry-Perot Filters for Wavelength Demultiplexing,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 652, 27–32 (1986).

Thin Solid Films (1)

P. Bousquet, A. Fornier, R. Kowalczyk, E. Pelletier, P. Roche, “Optical Filters: Monitoring Process Allowing the Auto-Correction of Thickness Errors,” Thin Solid Films 13, 285–290 (1972); H. A. Macleod, “Turning Value Monitoring of Narrow-Band All-Dielectric Thin-Film Optical Filters,” Opt. Acta 19, 1–28 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Vacuum (1)

L. Holland, W. Steckelmacher, “The Distribution of Thin Films Condensed on Surfaces by the Vacuum Evaporation Method,” Vacuum 2, 346–364 (1952); K. H. Behrndt, “Film-Thickness and Deposition-Rate Monitoring Devices and Techniques for Producing Films of Uniform Thickness,” Phys. Thin Films 3, 1–59 (1966).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Apparatus for thickness monitoring.3

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Example of signals DTE and DTL recorded during evaporation. The figure concerns the deposition of a 2H layer which is added on a multilayer whose design is: substrate/H L H L 4H, λ0 = 842 nm, where H is a quarterwave high index layer and L is a quarterwave low index layer. At the end of the deposition, we theoretically reach an optical thickness of 6H. The endpoint deposition is based on the prediction of the zero of DTE, and a mask is used to protect the substrates from the evaporant material. We can observe that both DTE and DTL are close to zero. This is proof that the multilayer is correctly realized. Because of an automatic change of scale, one can observe some discontinuities in the DTL curve.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured profiles of triple halfwave filters manufactured during five different evaporations. The design is: design 1: substrate/(H L H L 6H L H L H) L (H L H L 6H L H L H) L (H L H L 6H L H L H)/air λ0 = 842 nm (with notations of Fig. 2).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Epicycloidal system designed for seven rotating substrates: six satellites and a central substrate which is used for the optical monitoring.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Simulation of making THW filters (design 1 of Fig. 3): α, perfect monitoring, all the layers are quarterwave: profile obtained on the monitoring sample (a), profile obtained on a satellite (b); β, defects in the monitoring, a random error of <0.02λ0/4 on each layer of the stack: profile obtained on the monitoring sample (c); profile obtained on a satellite (d). The value of uniformity is calculated from Ref. 7 using surface source model (U = 0.982).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental results on 10-nm band THW filters, satellite substrates, and monitoring plate have the same height in the evaporation chamber (design 1 of Fig. 3).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured and calculated variations of wavelength shift vs central sample height in the chamber. The calculation is performed using a surface source model.7 Relative height is the difference between central substrate and satellite substrates.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Experimental results after adjustment of the height of the different substrates (design 1 of Fig. 3).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

With the optical monitoring process used, the filter obtained on the monitoring plate has correct optical properties. On the satellites, the profiles are strongly affected. One must take into account the dependence with time of the layer uniformity to explain these discrepancies (see Fig. 10). Design 2 with λ0 = 824 nm: substrate/(H L H L H 6L H L H L H) L (H L H L H 6L H L H L H) L (H L H L H 6L H L H L H)/air (with notations of Fig. 2).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

To explain experimental results obtained on satellite filters (Fig. 9), we assume that the uniformity is slightly affected for some layers in the stack (design 2 − λ0 = 824 nm). Some defects of ~1 nm are sufficient (see Table I).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Problems due to the time dependence of uniformity are partially eliminated by using greater crucibles (design 2 with λ0 = 846 nm).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Filters obtained on the satellites are identical to the monitoring plate except for a wavelength shift. This result is obtained with the help of several experimental adjustments, such as systematic filling of the crucibles at different stages of the realization of the stack. We thus eliminate the variation of uniformity law with time (design 2 with λ0 = 846 nm).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Design 2, λ0 = 824 nma

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