Abstract

The rugate filter employs a sinusoidal refractive index depth profile to produce high reflection in a narrow band of wavelengths. Fabrication relies on a continuously variable index of refraction in the wavelength regime of interest. The near IR refractive index of amorphous silicon–nitrogen films decreases continuously as the composition varies from pure silicon to stoichiometric silicon nitride (Si3N4). Ion implantation was found unsuitable as a fabrication method for rugate filters. Homogeneous and inhomogeneous films up to 5 μm in thickness have been produced by simultaneous deposition of electron beam evaporated silicon and of energetic nitrogen particles arising from an ion beam. The relative fluxes of beam and evaporant are found to determine the ratio of nitrogen to silicon in the films and therefore to determine the index. Single-band reflection filters of the rugate design of high peak optical density were fabricated under computer control using a quartz crystal oscillator shielded from the beam to monitor the silicon evaporation and three suppressed Faraday cups to monitor the ion beam current.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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