Abstract

A wideband system, controlled by an IBM PC/XT computer, has been established for monitoring and measuring optical coatings in vacuum. With supporting software, it is adaptable to various monitoring methods, which include using merit functions as criteria for terminating deposition, and the simultaneous display of transmittance functions T, ∂T/∂t, and ∂T/∂λ at a particular wavelength. It can also be used in the measurement of optical constants of dielectric layers in vacuum. The design considerations of the system are discussed, and experimental results are given.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. Vidal, A. Fornier, E. Pelletier, “Optical Monitoring of Nonquarterwave Multilayer Filters,” Appl. Opt. 17, 1038–1047 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. B. Vidal, A. Fornier, E. Pelletier, “Wideband Optical Monitoring of Nonquarterwave Multilayer Filters,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3851–3856 (1979).
    [PubMed]
  3. B. Vidal, E. Pelletier, “Nonquarterwave Multilayer Filters: Optical Monitoring with a Minicomputer Allowing Correction of Thickness Errors,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3857–3862 (1979).
    [PubMed]
  4. F. Flory, B. Schmitt, E. Pelletier, H. A. Macleod, “Interpretation of Wide Scans of Growing Optical Films in Terms of Layer Microstructure,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 403, 109–000 (1983).
  5. J. P. Borgogno, P. Bousquet, F. Flory, B. Lazarides, E. Pelletier, P. Roche, “Inhomogeneity in Films: Limitation of the Accuracy of Optical Monitoring of Thin Films,” Appl. Opt. 20, 90–94 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. P. Borgogno, B. Lazarides, E. Pelletier, “Automatic Detemination of the Optical Constants of Inhomogeneous Thin Films,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4020–4029 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. F. Tang, Zheng Quan, Applied Thin-Film Optics (Shanghai Publishing House of Science & Technology, 1984), p. 466.

1983 (1)

F. Flory, B. Schmitt, E. Pelletier, H. A. Macleod, “Interpretation of Wide Scans of Growing Optical Films in Terms of Layer Microstructure,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 403, 109–000 (1983).

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

1979 (2)

1978 (1)

Borgogno, J. P.

Bousquet, P.

Flory, F.

F. Flory, B. Schmitt, E. Pelletier, H. A. Macleod, “Interpretation of Wide Scans of Growing Optical Films in Terms of Layer Microstructure,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 403, 109–000 (1983).

J. P. Borgogno, P. Bousquet, F. Flory, B. Lazarides, E. Pelletier, P. Roche, “Inhomogeneity in Films: Limitation of the Accuracy of Optical Monitoring of Thin Films,” Appl. Opt. 20, 90–94 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fornier, A.

Lazarides, B.

Macleod, H. A.

F. Flory, B. Schmitt, E. Pelletier, H. A. Macleod, “Interpretation of Wide Scans of Growing Optical Films in Terms of Layer Microstructure,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 403, 109–000 (1983).

Pelletier, E.

Quan, Zheng

J. F. Tang, Zheng Quan, Applied Thin-Film Optics (Shanghai Publishing House of Science & Technology, 1984), p. 466.

Roche, P.

Schmitt, B.

F. Flory, B. Schmitt, E. Pelletier, H. A. Macleod, “Interpretation of Wide Scans of Growing Optical Films in Terms of Layer Microstructure,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 403, 109–000 (1983).

Tang, J. F.

J. F. Tang, Zheng Quan, Applied Thin-Film Optics (Shanghai Publishing House of Science & Technology, 1984), p. 466.

Vidal, B.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the wideband system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

System spectral response with and without correction.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Flow chart of design and manufacture for an optical coating.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Refractive indices of ZnS and MgF2 measured under vacuum.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Index of TiO2–ZrO2 thin films vs the thickness; T = 200°C; the deposition rate = 15 nm/min.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Merit functions calculated and recorded for layers 1, 5, and 11 in the filter of design 1.52/H L H 2 L H L H L H 2 L H/air, Nh = 2.33, Nl = 1.33, λ0 = 700 nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Transmittance T1(λ), T5(λ), and T11(λ) both calculated and measured for the same run as that in Fig. 6.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Experimental results for four separate runs of the same filter as shown in Fig. 6.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Experimental result of the twenty-three-layer longwave pass filter composed of nonquarterwave layers.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

T, ∂T/∂t, and ∂T/∂λ recorded during deposition of layer four on the filter of design 1.52/H L H L H 2 L H L H L H L/air, Nh = 2.33, Nl = 1.33. The monitoring wavelength is 700 nm.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Experimental result for the same run as in Fig. 10.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Spectra desired, designed, and achieved for the correcting filter.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Calculated spectra with and without refinement of d5 compared with the desired spectrum.

Tables (2)

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Table I Parameters of the Twenty-Three-Layer Longwave Pass Filter λR = 570 nm

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Table II Parameters of the Correcting Filter

Equations (4)

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f i ( d ) = j = 1 N Ω i j | T i ( λ i j , d ) T i ( λ i j , d i ) | ,
F i ( a , b , c , d ) = j = 1 N | T i ( λ i j ) T i ( λ i j , a , b , c , d ) | ,
T ( λ ) = a + b λ + c λ 2 ,
T / λ | λ = λ 0 = b + 2 c · λ 0 .

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