Abstract

Thin films deposited by ion beam sputtering typically have a high compressive stress. This paper demonstrates that this stress can be reduced by cosputtering two materials. Thin film mixtures of zirconia (ZrO2) and silica (SiO2) were prepared with a range of compositions using ion beam sputtering. The refractive index was found to vary almost linearly with composition. The large stress observed in zirconia films was found to be reduced significantly by the addition of silica.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Kalb, “Neutral Ion Beam Sputter Deposition of High-Quality Optical Film,” Opt. News 12, No. 8, 13–17 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. R. Sites, H. Demiryont, D. B. Kerwin, “Ion-Beam Sputter Deposition of Oxide Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 3, 656 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Raj, J. S. Price, C. K. Carniglia, “Ion Beam Deposited Oxide Coatings,” Natl. Bur Stand U.S. Spec Publ 746, 325–332 (1985).
  4. B. Pond, R. A. Schmell, C. K. Carniglia, T. Raj, “Comparison of the Optical Properties of Some High-Index Oxide Films Prepared by Ion Beam Sputter Deposition with Those of Electron Beam Evaporated Films,” NIST U.S. Spec. Publ. 752, 410–417 (1986).
  5. G. K. Wehner, G. S. Anderson, “The Nature of Physical Sputtering,” in Handbook of Thin Film Technology, L. I. Maissel, R. Glang, Eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1970), Chap. 3.
  6. C. K. Carniglia, B. Pond, “Production of Resonator Optics for 1315 nm Oxygen Iodine Laser,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. In-strum. Eng. 895, 281–287 (1988).
  7. G. A. Muranova, A. F. Perveev, “Fabrication of Thin-Film Waveguides by the Sputtering of a Target by Means of a Neutral Ion Beam,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 54, 22–24 (1987).
  8. R. N. Castellano, “Composition and Stress State of Thin Films Deposited by Ion Beam Sputtering,” Vacuum 27, 109–117 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. H. Allen, “Reactive Ion Beam Sputtered Optical Coatings,” in Proceedings, Society of Vacuum Coaters Technical Conference (1987), pp. 27–41.
  10. S. Sey-Shing, “Internal Stress in Ion Beam Sputtered Molybdenum Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 572–576 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Windischmann, “Intrinsic Stress in AlN Prepared by Dual-Ion-Beam Sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 154, 159–170 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. N. Farabaugh, D. M. Sanders, “Microstructure of Dielectric Thin Films formed by e-Beam Coevaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 1, 356–359 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  13. O. A. Motovilov, O. G. Rudina, “Optical Properties of Layers of Oxide Mixtures Produced by Cathode Sputtering,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 41, 327–330 (1974).
  14. D. M. Sanders, E. N. Farabaugh, W. K. Haller, “Glassy Optical Coatings by Multisource Evaporation,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 346, 31–38 (1982).
  15. H. Demiryont, J. R. Sites, “Effects of Oxygen in Ion-Beam Sputter Deposition of Titanium Oxide,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 1457–1460 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. E. Sundgren, A. Rockett, J. E. Greene, “Microstructural and Microchemical Characterization of Hard Coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 2720–2783 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. S. Campbell, “Mechanical Properties of Thin Films,” in Handbook of Thin Film Technology, L. I. Maissel, R. Glang, Eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1970), Chap. 12.
  18. D. P. Arndt et al., “Multiple Determination of the Optical Constants of Thin Film Coating Materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. C. K. Carniglia, “Effects of Dispersion on the Determination of Optical Constants of Thin Films,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 652, 158–165 (1986).
  20. C. K. Carniglia, “Method for Measuring the Optical Properties of Slightly Absorbing, Inhomogeneous Dielectric Thin Films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3(13), P40 (1986).
  21. M. Harris, H. A. Macleod, S. Ogura, “The Relationship Between Optical Inhomogeneity and Film Structure,” Thin Solid Films 57, 173–178 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Charles Evans and Associates, 301 Chesapeake Dr., Redwood City, CA 99063.
  23. A. Feldman, E. N. Farabaugh, W. K. Haller, “Modifying Structure and Properties of Optical Films by Coevaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 2969–2974 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  24. R. Jacobsson, “Inhomogeneous and Coevaporated Homogeneous Films for Optical Applications,” in Physics of Thin Films, Vol. 8, G. Hass, M. H. Francombe, R. W. Hoffman, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1975), pp. 51–98.
  25. M. Kobayashi, H. Terui, “Refractive Index and Attenuation Characteristics of SiO2–Ta2O5 Optical Waveguide Film,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3121–3127 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. C. Misiano, E. Simonetti, “Co-Sputtered Optical Films,” Vacuum 27, 403–406 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  27. H. Demiryont, “Optical Properties of SiO2–TiO2 Composite Films,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2647–2650 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. R. E. Klinger, C. K. Carniglia, “Optical and Crystalline Inhomogeneity in Evaporated Zirconia Films,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3184–3187 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. B. Johnston, C. K. Carniglia, “Use of an Exponential Function to Model the Absorption of a Dielectric Thin Film,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3(13), P69 (1986).

1988 (1)

C. K. Carniglia, B. Pond, “Production of Resonator Optics for 1315 nm Oxygen Iodine Laser,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. In-strum. Eng. 895, 281–287 (1988).

1987 (2)

G. A. Muranova, A. F. Perveev, “Fabrication of Thin-Film Waveguides by the Sputtering of a Target by Means of a Neutral Ion Beam,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 54, 22–24 (1987).

H. Windischmann, “Intrinsic Stress in AlN Prepared by Dual-Ion-Beam Sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 154, 159–170 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (8)

B. Pond, R. A. Schmell, C. K. Carniglia, T. Raj, “Comparison of the Optical Properties of Some High-Index Oxide Films Prepared by Ion Beam Sputter Deposition with Those of Electron Beam Evaporated Films,” NIST U.S. Spec. Publ. 752, 410–417 (1986).

S. Sey-Shing, “Internal Stress in Ion Beam Sputtered Molybdenum Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 572–576 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. Kalb, “Neutral Ion Beam Sputter Deposition of High-Quality Optical Film,” Opt. News 12, No. 8, 13–17 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Sundgren, A. Rockett, J. E. Greene, “Microstructural and Microchemical Characterization of Hard Coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 2720–2783 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Carniglia, “Effects of Dispersion on the Determination of Optical Constants of Thin Films,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 652, 158–165 (1986).

C. K. Carniglia, “Method for Measuring the Optical Properties of Slightly Absorbing, Inhomogeneous Dielectric Thin Films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3(13), P40 (1986).

A. Feldman, E. N. Farabaugh, W. K. Haller, “Modifying Structure and Properties of Optical Films by Coevaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 2969–2974 (1986).
[CrossRef]

B. Johnston, C. K. Carniglia, “Use of an Exponential Function to Model the Absorption of a Dielectric Thin Film,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3(13), P69 (1986).

1985 (4)

H. Demiryont, “Optical Properties of SiO2–TiO2 Composite Films,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2647–2650 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Klinger, C. K. Carniglia, “Optical and Crystalline Inhomogeneity in Evaporated Zirconia Films,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3184–3187 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Sites, H. Demiryont, D. B. Kerwin, “Ion-Beam Sputter Deposition of Oxide Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 3, 656 (1985).
[CrossRef]

T. Raj, J. S. Price, C. K. Carniglia, “Ion Beam Deposited Oxide Coatings,” Natl. Bur Stand U.S. Spec Publ 746, 325–332 (1985).

1984 (2)

D. P. Arndt et al., “Multiple Determination of the Optical Constants of Thin Film Coating Materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Demiryont, J. R. Sites, “Effects of Oxygen in Ion-Beam Sputter Deposition of Titanium Oxide,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 1457–1460 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

M. Kobayashi, H. Terui, “Refractive Index and Attenuation Characteristics of SiO2–Ta2O5 Optical Waveguide Film,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3121–3127 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. N. Farabaugh, D. M. Sanders, “Microstructure of Dielectric Thin Films formed by e-Beam Coevaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 1, 356–359 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

D. M. Sanders, E. N. Farabaugh, W. K. Haller, “Glassy Optical Coatings by Multisource Evaporation,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 346, 31–38 (1982).

1979 (1)

M. Harris, H. A. Macleod, S. Ogura, “The Relationship Between Optical Inhomogeneity and Film Structure,” Thin Solid Films 57, 173–178 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977 (2)

C. Misiano, E. Simonetti, “Co-Sputtered Optical Films,” Vacuum 27, 403–406 (1977).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Castellano, “Composition and Stress State of Thin Films Deposited by Ion Beam Sputtering,” Vacuum 27, 109–117 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

O. A. Motovilov, O. G. Rudina, “Optical Properties of Layers of Oxide Mixtures Produced by Cathode Sputtering,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 41, 327–330 (1974).

Allen, T. H.

T. H. Allen, “Reactive Ion Beam Sputtered Optical Coatings,” in Proceedings, Society of Vacuum Coaters Technical Conference (1987), pp. 27–41.

Anderson, G. S.

G. K. Wehner, G. S. Anderson, “The Nature of Physical Sputtering,” in Handbook of Thin Film Technology, L. I. Maissel, R. Glang, Eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1970), Chap. 3.

Arndt, D. P.

Campbell, D. S.

D. S. Campbell, “Mechanical Properties of Thin Films,” in Handbook of Thin Film Technology, L. I. Maissel, R. Glang, Eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1970), Chap. 12.

Carniglia, C. K.

C. K. Carniglia, B. Pond, “Production of Resonator Optics for 1315 nm Oxygen Iodine Laser,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. In-strum. Eng. 895, 281–287 (1988).

B. Pond, R. A. Schmell, C. K. Carniglia, T. Raj, “Comparison of the Optical Properties of Some High-Index Oxide Films Prepared by Ion Beam Sputter Deposition with Those of Electron Beam Evaporated Films,” NIST U.S. Spec. Publ. 752, 410–417 (1986).

C. K. Carniglia, “Effects of Dispersion on the Determination of Optical Constants of Thin Films,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 652, 158–165 (1986).

C. K. Carniglia, “Method for Measuring the Optical Properties of Slightly Absorbing, Inhomogeneous Dielectric Thin Films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3(13), P40 (1986).

B. Johnston, C. K. Carniglia, “Use of an Exponential Function to Model the Absorption of a Dielectric Thin Film,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3(13), P69 (1986).

R. E. Klinger, C. K. Carniglia, “Optical and Crystalline Inhomogeneity in Evaporated Zirconia Films,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3184–3187 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Raj, J. S. Price, C. K. Carniglia, “Ion Beam Deposited Oxide Coatings,” Natl. Bur Stand U.S. Spec Publ 746, 325–332 (1985).

Castellano, R. N.

R. N. Castellano, “Composition and Stress State of Thin Films Deposited by Ion Beam Sputtering,” Vacuum 27, 109–117 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Demiryont, H.

J. R. Sites, H. Demiryont, D. B. Kerwin, “Ion-Beam Sputter Deposition of Oxide Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 3, 656 (1985).
[CrossRef]

H. Demiryont, “Optical Properties of SiO2–TiO2 Composite Films,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2647–2650 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Demiryont, J. R. Sites, “Effects of Oxygen in Ion-Beam Sputter Deposition of Titanium Oxide,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 1457–1460 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Farabaugh, E. N.

A. Feldman, E. N. Farabaugh, W. K. Haller, “Modifying Structure and Properties of Optical Films by Coevaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 2969–2974 (1986).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Farabaugh, D. M. Sanders, “Microstructure of Dielectric Thin Films formed by e-Beam Coevaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 1, 356–359 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Sanders, E. N. Farabaugh, W. K. Haller, “Glassy Optical Coatings by Multisource Evaporation,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 346, 31–38 (1982).

Feldman, A.

A. Feldman, E. N. Farabaugh, W. K. Haller, “Modifying Structure and Properties of Optical Films by Coevaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 2969–2974 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Greene, J. E.

J. E. Sundgren, A. Rockett, J. E. Greene, “Microstructural and Microchemical Characterization of Hard Coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 2720–2783 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Haller, W. K.

A. Feldman, E. N. Farabaugh, W. K. Haller, “Modifying Structure and Properties of Optical Films by Coevaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 2969–2974 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Sanders, E. N. Farabaugh, W. K. Haller, “Glassy Optical Coatings by Multisource Evaporation,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 346, 31–38 (1982).

Harris, M.

M. Harris, H. A. Macleod, S. Ogura, “The Relationship Between Optical Inhomogeneity and Film Structure,” Thin Solid Films 57, 173–178 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Jacobsson, R.

R. Jacobsson, “Inhomogeneous and Coevaporated Homogeneous Films for Optical Applications,” in Physics of Thin Films, Vol. 8, G. Hass, M. H. Francombe, R. W. Hoffman, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1975), pp. 51–98.

Johnston, B.

B. Johnston, C. K. Carniglia, “Use of an Exponential Function to Model the Absorption of a Dielectric Thin Film,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3(13), P69 (1986).

Kalb, A.

A. Kalb, “Neutral Ion Beam Sputter Deposition of High-Quality Optical Film,” Opt. News 12, No. 8, 13–17 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kerwin, D. B.

J. R. Sites, H. Demiryont, D. B. Kerwin, “Ion-Beam Sputter Deposition of Oxide Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 3, 656 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Klinger, R. E.

Kobayashi, M.

Macleod, H. A.

M. Harris, H. A. Macleod, S. Ogura, “The Relationship Between Optical Inhomogeneity and Film Structure,” Thin Solid Films 57, 173–178 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Misiano, C.

C. Misiano, E. Simonetti, “Co-Sputtered Optical Films,” Vacuum 27, 403–406 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Motovilov, O. A.

O. A. Motovilov, O. G. Rudina, “Optical Properties of Layers of Oxide Mixtures Produced by Cathode Sputtering,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 41, 327–330 (1974).

Muranova, G. A.

G. A. Muranova, A. F. Perveev, “Fabrication of Thin-Film Waveguides by the Sputtering of a Target by Means of a Neutral Ion Beam,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 54, 22–24 (1987).

Ogura, S.

M. Harris, H. A. Macleod, S. Ogura, “The Relationship Between Optical Inhomogeneity and Film Structure,” Thin Solid Films 57, 173–178 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Perveev, A. F.

G. A. Muranova, A. F. Perveev, “Fabrication of Thin-Film Waveguides by the Sputtering of a Target by Means of a Neutral Ion Beam,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 54, 22–24 (1987).

Pond, B.

C. K. Carniglia, B. Pond, “Production of Resonator Optics for 1315 nm Oxygen Iodine Laser,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. In-strum. Eng. 895, 281–287 (1988).

B. Pond, R. A. Schmell, C. K. Carniglia, T. Raj, “Comparison of the Optical Properties of Some High-Index Oxide Films Prepared by Ion Beam Sputter Deposition with Those of Electron Beam Evaporated Films,” NIST U.S. Spec. Publ. 752, 410–417 (1986).

Price, J. S.

T. Raj, J. S. Price, C. K. Carniglia, “Ion Beam Deposited Oxide Coatings,” Natl. Bur Stand U.S. Spec Publ 746, 325–332 (1985).

Raj, T.

B. Pond, R. A. Schmell, C. K. Carniglia, T. Raj, “Comparison of the Optical Properties of Some High-Index Oxide Films Prepared by Ion Beam Sputter Deposition with Those of Electron Beam Evaporated Films,” NIST U.S. Spec. Publ. 752, 410–417 (1986).

T. Raj, J. S. Price, C. K. Carniglia, “Ion Beam Deposited Oxide Coatings,” Natl. Bur Stand U.S. Spec Publ 746, 325–332 (1985).

Rockett, A.

J. E. Sundgren, A. Rockett, J. E. Greene, “Microstructural and Microchemical Characterization of Hard Coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 2720–2783 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rudina, O. G.

O. A. Motovilov, O. G. Rudina, “Optical Properties of Layers of Oxide Mixtures Produced by Cathode Sputtering,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 41, 327–330 (1974).

Sanders, D. M.

E. N. Farabaugh, D. M. Sanders, “Microstructure of Dielectric Thin Films formed by e-Beam Coevaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 1, 356–359 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Sanders, E. N. Farabaugh, W. K. Haller, “Glassy Optical Coatings by Multisource Evaporation,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 346, 31–38 (1982).

Schmell, R. A.

B. Pond, R. A. Schmell, C. K. Carniglia, T. Raj, “Comparison of the Optical Properties of Some High-Index Oxide Films Prepared by Ion Beam Sputter Deposition with Those of Electron Beam Evaporated Films,” NIST U.S. Spec. Publ. 752, 410–417 (1986).

Sey-Shing, S.

S. Sey-Shing, “Internal Stress in Ion Beam Sputtered Molybdenum Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 572–576 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Simonetti, E.

C. Misiano, E. Simonetti, “Co-Sputtered Optical Films,” Vacuum 27, 403–406 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Sites, J. R.

J. R. Sites, H. Demiryont, D. B. Kerwin, “Ion-Beam Sputter Deposition of Oxide Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 3, 656 (1985).
[CrossRef]

H. Demiryont, J. R. Sites, “Effects of Oxygen in Ion-Beam Sputter Deposition of Titanium Oxide,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 1457–1460 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Sundgren, J. E.

J. E. Sundgren, A. Rockett, J. E. Greene, “Microstructural and Microchemical Characterization of Hard Coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 2720–2783 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Terui, H.

Wehner, G. K.

G. K. Wehner, G. S. Anderson, “The Nature of Physical Sputtering,” in Handbook of Thin Film Technology, L. I. Maissel, R. Glang, Eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1970), Chap. 3.

Windischmann, H.

H. Windischmann, “Intrinsic Stress in AlN Prepared by Dual-Ion-Beam Sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 154, 159–170 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

B. Johnston, C. K. Carniglia, “Use of an Exponential Function to Model the Absorption of a Dielectric Thin Film,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3(13), P69 (1986).

C. K. Carniglia, “Method for Measuring the Optical Properties of Slightly Absorbing, Inhomogeneous Dielectric Thin Films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3(13), P40 (1986).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (6)

A. Feldman, E. N. Farabaugh, W. K. Haller, “Modifying Structure and Properties of Optical Films by Coevaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 2969–2974 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Sites, H. Demiryont, D. B. Kerwin, “Ion-Beam Sputter Deposition of Oxide Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 3, 656 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. Sey-Shing, “Internal Stress in Ion Beam Sputtered Molybdenum Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 572–576 (1986).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Farabaugh, D. M. Sanders, “Microstructure of Dielectric Thin Films formed by e-Beam Coevaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 1, 356–359 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. Demiryont, J. R. Sites, “Effects of Oxygen in Ion-Beam Sputter Deposition of Titanium Oxide,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 1457–1460 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Sundgren, A. Rockett, J. E. Greene, “Microstructural and Microchemical Characterization of Hard Coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 2720–2783 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Natl. Bur Stand U.S. Spec Publ (1)

T. Raj, J. S. Price, C. K. Carniglia, “Ion Beam Deposited Oxide Coatings,” Natl. Bur Stand U.S. Spec Publ 746, 325–332 (1985).

NIST U.S. Spec. Publ. (1)

B. Pond, R. A. Schmell, C. K. Carniglia, T. Raj, “Comparison of the Optical Properties of Some High-Index Oxide Films Prepared by Ion Beam Sputter Deposition with Those of Electron Beam Evaporated Films,” NIST U.S. Spec. Publ. 752, 410–417 (1986).

Opt. News (1)

A. Kalb, “Neutral Ion Beam Sputter Deposition of High-Quality Optical Film,” Opt. News 12, No. 8, 13–17 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. In-strum. Eng. (1)

C. K. Carniglia, B. Pond, “Production of Resonator Optics for 1315 nm Oxygen Iodine Laser,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. In-strum. Eng. 895, 281–287 (1988).

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (2)

D. M. Sanders, E. N. Farabaugh, W. K. Haller, “Glassy Optical Coatings by Multisource Evaporation,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 346, 31–38 (1982).

C. K. Carniglia, “Effects of Dispersion on the Determination of Optical Constants of Thin Films,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 652, 158–165 (1986).

Sov. J. Opt. Technol. (2)

O. A. Motovilov, O. G. Rudina, “Optical Properties of Layers of Oxide Mixtures Produced by Cathode Sputtering,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 41, 327–330 (1974).

G. A. Muranova, A. F. Perveev, “Fabrication of Thin-Film Waveguides by the Sputtering of a Target by Means of a Neutral Ion Beam,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 54, 22–24 (1987).

Thin Solid Films (2)

H. Windischmann, “Intrinsic Stress in AlN Prepared by Dual-Ion-Beam Sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 154, 159–170 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. Harris, H. A. Macleod, S. Ogura, “The Relationship Between Optical Inhomogeneity and Film Structure,” Thin Solid Films 57, 173–178 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Vacuum (2)

C. Misiano, E. Simonetti, “Co-Sputtered Optical Films,” Vacuum 27, 403–406 (1977).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Castellano, “Composition and Stress State of Thin Films Deposited by Ion Beam Sputtering,” Vacuum 27, 109–117 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

T. H. Allen, “Reactive Ion Beam Sputtered Optical Coatings,” in Proceedings, Society of Vacuum Coaters Technical Conference (1987), pp. 27–41.

G. K. Wehner, G. S. Anderson, “The Nature of Physical Sputtering,” in Handbook of Thin Film Technology, L. I. Maissel, R. Glang, Eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1970), Chap. 3.

D. S. Campbell, “Mechanical Properties of Thin Films,” in Handbook of Thin Film Technology, L. I. Maissel, R. Glang, Eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1970), Chap. 12.

R. Jacobsson, “Inhomogeneous and Coevaporated Homogeneous Films for Optical Applications,” in Physics of Thin Films, Vol. 8, G. Hass, M. H. Francombe, R. W. Hoffman, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1975), pp. 51–98.

Charles Evans and Associates, 301 Chesapeake Dr., Redwood City, CA 99063.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Stress vs film composition for cosputtered zirconia–silica films.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

X-ray diffraction patterns for (a) the zirconia film, and (b) the zriconia–silica mixed oxide film with a 9% silica fraction.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Refractive index at 633 nm vs film composition for cosputtered zirconia–silica films. The linear model is shown by the dashed line, and the Drude model is shown by the solid curve.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dispersive refractive index for the zirconia film (upper curve) and the 9% silica film (lower curve). The vertical bars on the refractive index curves indicate the variation in index or inhomogeneity of the film. A more complete description of these bars is given in the text.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dispersive refractive index for nine of the cosputtered zirconia–silica films. The atomic percent of silica is indicated for each curve.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Dispersive extinction coefficients for seven of the cosputtered zirconia–silica films. The curves correspond from top to bottom to the films with the following atomic percentages of silica: 0, 26, 43, 54, 66, 82, and 95. The dashed portions of the curves indicate extrapolations using the exponential curves.

Tables (1)

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Table I Summary of Film Properties for Cosputtered Zirconia–Silica Films

Equations (1)

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I s = I z ( d z 0 / d s 0 ) f / ( 1 f ) .

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