Abstract

After a brief description of the threats which face the issuers of documents and valuable papers, the concept of thin film anticounterfeiting coatings proposed by the NRCC is explained. The colorimetric considerations which govern the design of such devices are reviewed. Typical coating designs suitable for use in transmission and reflection are discussed. Reflection coatings can be constructed with and without an integral black absorber coating. The need for geometric patterns in the anticounterfeiting coating is explained. Various methods for producing such logos are proposed. Mention is made of the various numerical tools developed for the design and investigation of single films and multilayers, their desensitization to construction errors, and for the investigation of different process control strategies. During the duration of the project, experiments were performed on the optical constants and nonoptical properties of a number of metal and dielectric films considered for use in the anticounterfeiting coatings. These and some of the processes and equipment investigated during the development of a prototype production facility are reviewed. Finally, some security and economic aspects of the devices are considered.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. Merry, R. G. Hutton, “Latent Image Forming Process,” U.S. Patent4,033,059 (9Aug.1972).
  2. D. R. Giordano, “Non-Counterfeitable Documents,” U.S. Patent4,176,859 (4Dec.1979).
  3. A. V. Alasia, “Encoding System,” U.S. Patent4,092,654 (May1978).
  4. D. H. Solomon, J. B. Ross, M. Girolomo, R. A. Brett, “Banknotes and the Like,” U.S. Patent4,536,016 (20Aug.1985).
  5. J. A. Dobrowolski, K. M. Baird, P. D. Carman, A. J. Waldorf, “Optical Interface Coatings for Inhibiting of Counterfeiting,” Opt. Acta 20, 925–937 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. M. Baird, J. A. Dobrowolski, D. Carman, A. Waldorf, “Optical Interference Authenticating Means,” U.S. Patent3,858,977 (7Jan.1975).
  7. D. B. Judd, G. Wyszecki, Color in Business, Science, and Industry (Wiley, New York, 1975), p. 302.
  8. G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (Wiley, New York, 1982), p. 179.
  9. D. L. MacAdam, “Visual Sensitivities to Color Differences in Daylight,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 247–274 (1942).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Farnsworth, “The Farnsworth Rectilinear Uniform Chromaticity Scale Diagram,” No. 38, Memorandum Rep. 44-1, Med. Res. Lab., U.S. Submarine Base, New London, CN (Apr.1944).
  11. T. Alfrey, J. Schrenk, “Highly Reflective Thermoplastic Bodies for Infrared, Visible or Ultraviolet Light,” U.S. Patent3,711,176 (16Jan.1973).
  12. C. D. Han, R. Shetty, “Studies on Multilayer Film Coextrusion,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 16, 697–705 (1976); “Studies on Multilayer Film Coextrusion II: Interfacial Instability in Flat Film Coextrusion,” 18, 180–186 (1978); “Studies on Multilayer Film Coextrusion III: The Rheology of Blown Film Coextrusion,” 18, 187–199 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Bartella et al., “Multiple Analysis of an Unknown Optical Multilayer Coating,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2625–2646 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. A. Dobrowolski, F. C. Ho, A. J. Waldorf, “Form Depicting, Optical Interference Authenticating Device,” Canadian Patent1,232,068 (26Jan.1988).
  15. J. A. Dobrowolski, A. J. Waldorf, “Method of Manufacturing an Optical Interference Authenticating Device,” U.S. Patent4,626,445 (2Dec.1986).
  16. T. H. Baum, C. R. Jones, “Laser Chemical Vapor Deposition of Gold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 538–540 (1985); “Laser Chemical Vapor Deposition of Gold: Part II,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 4, 1187–1191 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. A. Dobrowolski, “Versatile Computer Program for Absorbing Optical Thin Film Systems,” Appl. Opt. 20, 74–81 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. A. Dobrowolski, F. C. Ho, A. J. Waldorf, “Determination of Optical Constants of Thin Film Coating Materials Based on Inverse Synthesis,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3191–3200 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. A. Dobrowolski, S. H. Lewis, M. Ranger, R. L. Wilkinson, A. J. Waldorf, “Design of a Prototype Semi-Continuous Roll Coater for Optical Multilayers,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, 40–44 (1982).
  20. J. A. Dobrowolski, “Source Configurations for the Deposition of Uniform Thin Films Onto a Moving Web,” in Proceedings, Seventh International Vacuum Congress and Third International Conference on Solid Surfaces, Vienna (1977), p. 1571.
  21. J. A. Dobrowolski, M. Ranger, “A Compact Isolation Valve for Use in Roll Coaters,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 1, 1868–1871 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Ranger, “Vacuum Coating Vessel With Movable Shutter Plate,” U.S. Patent4,478,174 (23Oct.1984).
  23. J. A. Dobrowolski, A. Waldorf, R. L. Wilkinson, “A Practical High Capacity, High Evaporation Rate, Resistance-Heated Source,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 21, 881–885 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. A. Dobrowolski, M. Ranger, R. L. Wilkinson, “Measurements of Angular Evaporation Characteristics of Sources,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 1, 1403–1408 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  25. G. Whitehead, P. Grant, “The Optical Monitor: A Fast, Accurate Instrument for the Measurement of Optical Thin Film Spectra Transmittance,” in Proceedings, Twenty-Eighth Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (1985), p. 109.
  26. I. Powell, J. C. M. Zwinkels, A. R. Robertson, “Development of Optical Monitor for Control of Thin Films Depositions,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3645–3652 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. J. A. Dobrowolski, “Vapor Deposition Regulating Apparatus,” U.S. Patent4,543,910 (1Oct.1985).
  28. J. C. W. Heseltine, “Optical Thin Films Production Roll Coater,” in Proceedings, First International Conference on Vacuum Web Coating, New Orleans29 Nov.–1 Dec. 1987, pp. 000–000.
  29. Courtesy Identicard Ltd., 89 Galaxy Bvd., Unit 8, Rexdale, Ont. M9W 6A4, Canada.
  30. P. D. Lee, “Security Devices,” U.S. Patent4,186,943 (5Feb.1980).
  31. P. H. Berning, R. W. Phillips, “Thin Film Optically Variable Article and Method Having Gold to Green Color Shift for Currency Authentication,” U.S. Patent4,705,300 (10Nov.1987).
  32. P. H. Berning, R. W. Phillips, “Thin Film Optical Variable Article Having Substantial Color Shift with Angle and Method,” U.S. Patent4,705,356 (10Nov.1987).
  33. G. S. Ash, “Article and Method for Forming Thin Film Flakes and Coatings,” U.S. Patent4,434,010 (28Feb.1984).
  34. A. D. Sylvester, A. F. Turner, H. H. Schroeder, “Decorative Optical Material,” U.S. Patent3,011,383 (5Dec.1961).
  35. J. A. Dobrowolski, L. A. Whitehead, “Viewing Angle Color Sensitive Lighting Accessory,” U.S. Patent4,649,462 (10Mar.1987).

1986 (1)

1985 (2)

J. Bartella et al., “Multiple Analysis of an Unknown Optical Multilayer Coating,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2625–2646 (1985).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Baum, C. R. Jones, “Laser Chemical Vapor Deposition of Gold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 538–540 (1985); “Laser Chemical Vapor Deposition of Gold: Part II,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 4, 1187–1191 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983 (3)

J. A. Dobrowolski, F. C. Ho, A. J. Waldorf, “Determination of Optical Constants of Thin Film Coating Materials Based on Inverse Synthesis,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3191–3200 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dobrowolski, M. Ranger, “A Compact Isolation Valve for Use in Roll Coaters,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 1, 1868–1871 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Dobrowolski, M. Ranger, R. L. Wilkinson, “Measurements of Angular Evaporation Characteristics of Sources,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 1, 1403–1408 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

J. A. Dobrowolski, A. Waldorf, R. L. Wilkinson, “A Practical High Capacity, High Evaporation Rate, Resistance-Heated Source,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 21, 881–885 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Dobrowolski, S. H. Lewis, M. Ranger, R. L. Wilkinson, A. J. Waldorf, “Design of a Prototype Semi-Continuous Roll Coater for Optical Multilayers,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, 40–44 (1982).

1981 (1)

1976 (1)

C. D. Han, R. Shetty, “Studies on Multilayer Film Coextrusion,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 16, 697–705 (1976); “Studies on Multilayer Film Coextrusion II: Interfacial Instability in Flat Film Coextrusion,” 18, 180–186 (1978); “Studies on Multilayer Film Coextrusion III: The Rheology of Blown Film Coextrusion,” 18, 187–199 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

J. A. Dobrowolski, K. M. Baird, P. D. Carman, A. J. Waldorf, “Optical Interface Coatings for Inhibiting of Counterfeiting,” Opt. Acta 20, 925–937 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1942 (1)

Alasia, A. V.

A. V. Alasia, “Encoding System,” U.S. Patent4,092,654 (May1978).

Alfrey, T.

T. Alfrey, J. Schrenk, “Highly Reflective Thermoplastic Bodies for Infrared, Visible or Ultraviolet Light,” U.S. Patent3,711,176 (16Jan.1973).

Ash, G. S.

G. S. Ash, “Article and Method for Forming Thin Film Flakes and Coatings,” U.S. Patent4,434,010 (28Feb.1984).

Baird, K. M.

J. A. Dobrowolski, K. M. Baird, P. D. Carman, A. J. Waldorf, “Optical Interface Coatings for Inhibiting of Counterfeiting,” Opt. Acta 20, 925–937 (1973).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Baird, J. A. Dobrowolski, D. Carman, A. Waldorf, “Optical Interference Authenticating Means,” U.S. Patent3,858,977 (7Jan.1975).

Bartella, J.

Baum, T. H.

T. H. Baum, C. R. Jones, “Laser Chemical Vapor Deposition of Gold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 538–540 (1985); “Laser Chemical Vapor Deposition of Gold: Part II,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 4, 1187–1191 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Berning, P. H.

P. H. Berning, R. W. Phillips, “Thin Film Optically Variable Article and Method Having Gold to Green Color Shift for Currency Authentication,” U.S. Patent4,705,300 (10Nov.1987).

P. H. Berning, R. W. Phillips, “Thin Film Optical Variable Article Having Substantial Color Shift with Angle and Method,” U.S. Patent4,705,356 (10Nov.1987).

Brett, R. A.

D. H. Solomon, J. B. Ross, M. Girolomo, R. A. Brett, “Banknotes and the Like,” U.S. Patent4,536,016 (20Aug.1985).

Carman, D.

K. M. Baird, J. A. Dobrowolski, D. Carman, A. Waldorf, “Optical Interference Authenticating Means,” U.S. Patent3,858,977 (7Jan.1975).

Carman, P. D.

J. A. Dobrowolski, K. M. Baird, P. D. Carman, A. J. Waldorf, “Optical Interface Coatings for Inhibiting of Counterfeiting,” Opt. Acta 20, 925–937 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Dobrowolski, J. A.

J. A. Dobrowolski, F. C. Ho, A. J. Waldorf, “Determination of Optical Constants of Thin Film Coating Materials Based on Inverse Synthesis,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3191–3200 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dobrowolski, M. Ranger, “A Compact Isolation Valve for Use in Roll Coaters,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 1, 1868–1871 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Dobrowolski, M. Ranger, R. L. Wilkinson, “Measurements of Angular Evaporation Characteristics of Sources,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 1, 1403–1408 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Dobrowolski, A. Waldorf, R. L. Wilkinson, “A Practical High Capacity, High Evaporation Rate, Resistance-Heated Source,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 21, 881–885 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Dobrowolski, S. H. Lewis, M. Ranger, R. L. Wilkinson, A. J. Waldorf, “Design of a Prototype Semi-Continuous Roll Coater for Optical Multilayers,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, 40–44 (1982).

J. A. Dobrowolski, “Versatile Computer Program for Absorbing Optical Thin Film Systems,” Appl. Opt. 20, 74–81 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dobrowolski, K. M. Baird, P. D. Carman, A. J. Waldorf, “Optical Interface Coatings for Inhibiting of Counterfeiting,” Opt. Acta 20, 925–937 (1973).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Baird, J. A. Dobrowolski, D. Carman, A. Waldorf, “Optical Interference Authenticating Means,” U.S. Patent3,858,977 (7Jan.1975).

J. A. Dobrowolski, A. J. Waldorf, “Method of Manufacturing an Optical Interference Authenticating Device,” U.S. Patent4,626,445 (2Dec.1986).

J. A. Dobrowolski, F. C. Ho, A. J. Waldorf, “Form Depicting, Optical Interference Authenticating Device,” Canadian Patent1,232,068 (26Jan.1988).

J. A. Dobrowolski, “Source Configurations for the Deposition of Uniform Thin Films Onto a Moving Web,” in Proceedings, Seventh International Vacuum Congress and Third International Conference on Solid Surfaces, Vienna (1977), p. 1571.

J. A. Dobrowolski, “Vapor Deposition Regulating Apparatus,” U.S. Patent4,543,910 (1Oct.1985).

J. A. Dobrowolski, L. A. Whitehead, “Viewing Angle Color Sensitive Lighting Accessory,” U.S. Patent4,649,462 (10Mar.1987).

Farnsworth, D.

D. Farnsworth, “The Farnsworth Rectilinear Uniform Chromaticity Scale Diagram,” No. 38, Memorandum Rep. 44-1, Med. Res. Lab., U.S. Submarine Base, New London, CN (Apr.1944).

Giordano, D. R.

D. R. Giordano, “Non-Counterfeitable Documents,” U.S. Patent4,176,859 (4Dec.1979).

Girolomo, M.

D. H. Solomon, J. B. Ross, M. Girolomo, R. A. Brett, “Banknotes and the Like,” U.S. Patent4,536,016 (20Aug.1985).

Grant, P.

G. Whitehead, P. Grant, “The Optical Monitor: A Fast, Accurate Instrument for the Measurement of Optical Thin Film Spectra Transmittance,” in Proceedings, Twenty-Eighth Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (1985), p. 109.

Han, C. D.

C. D. Han, R. Shetty, “Studies on Multilayer Film Coextrusion,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 16, 697–705 (1976); “Studies on Multilayer Film Coextrusion II: Interfacial Instability in Flat Film Coextrusion,” 18, 180–186 (1978); “Studies on Multilayer Film Coextrusion III: The Rheology of Blown Film Coextrusion,” 18, 187–199 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Heseltine, J. C. W.

J. C. W. Heseltine, “Optical Thin Films Production Roll Coater,” in Proceedings, First International Conference on Vacuum Web Coating, New Orleans29 Nov.–1 Dec. 1987, pp. 000–000.

Ho, F. C.

J. A. Dobrowolski, F. C. Ho, A. J. Waldorf, “Determination of Optical Constants of Thin Film Coating Materials Based on Inverse Synthesis,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3191–3200 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dobrowolski, F. C. Ho, A. J. Waldorf, “Form Depicting, Optical Interference Authenticating Device,” Canadian Patent1,232,068 (26Jan.1988).

Hutton, R. G.

T. Merry, R. G. Hutton, “Latent Image Forming Process,” U.S. Patent4,033,059 (9Aug.1972).

Jones, C. R.

T. H. Baum, C. R. Jones, “Laser Chemical Vapor Deposition of Gold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 538–540 (1985); “Laser Chemical Vapor Deposition of Gold: Part II,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 4, 1187–1191 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Judd, D. B.

D. B. Judd, G. Wyszecki, Color in Business, Science, and Industry (Wiley, New York, 1975), p. 302.

Lee, P. D.

P. D. Lee, “Security Devices,” U.S. Patent4,186,943 (5Feb.1980).

Lewis, S. H.

J. A. Dobrowolski, S. H. Lewis, M. Ranger, R. L. Wilkinson, A. J. Waldorf, “Design of a Prototype Semi-Continuous Roll Coater for Optical Multilayers,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, 40–44 (1982).

MacAdam, D. L.

Merry, T.

T. Merry, R. G. Hutton, “Latent Image Forming Process,” U.S. Patent4,033,059 (9Aug.1972).

Phillips, R. W.

P. H. Berning, R. W. Phillips, “Thin Film Optical Variable Article Having Substantial Color Shift with Angle and Method,” U.S. Patent4,705,356 (10Nov.1987).

P. H. Berning, R. W. Phillips, “Thin Film Optically Variable Article and Method Having Gold to Green Color Shift for Currency Authentication,” U.S. Patent4,705,300 (10Nov.1987).

Powell, I.

Ranger, M.

J. A. Dobrowolski, M. Ranger, R. L. Wilkinson, “Measurements of Angular Evaporation Characteristics of Sources,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 1, 1403–1408 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Dobrowolski, M. Ranger, “A Compact Isolation Valve for Use in Roll Coaters,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 1, 1868–1871 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Dobrowolski, S. H. Lewis, M. Ranger, R. L. Wilkinson, A. J. Waldorf, “Design of a Prototype Semi-Continuous Roll Coater for Optical Multilayers,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, 40–44 (1982).

M. Ranger, “Vacuum Coating Vessel With Movable Shutter Plate,” U.S. Patent4,478,174 (23Oct.1984).

Robertson, A. R.

Ross, J. B.

D. H. Solomon, J. B. Ross, M. Girolomo, R. A. Brett, “Banknotes and the Like,” U.S. Patent4,536,016 (20Aug.1985).

Schrenk, J.

T. Alfrey, J. Schrenk, “Highly Reflective Thermoplastic Bodies for Infrared, Visible or Ultraviolet Light,” U.S. Patent3,711,176 (16Jan.1973).

Schroeder, H. H.

A. D. Sylvester, A. F. Turner, H. H. Schroeder, “Decorative Optical Material,” U.S. Patent3,011,383 (5Dec.1961).

Shetty, R.

C. D. Han, R. Shetty, “Studies on Multilayer Film Coextrusion,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 16, 697–705 (1976); “Studies on Multilayer Film Coextrusion II: Interfacial Instability in Flat Film Coextrusion,” 18, 180–186 (1978); “Studies on Multilayer Film Coextrusion III: The Rheology of Blown Film Coextrusion,” 18, 187–199 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Solomon, D. H.

D. H. Solomon, J. B. Ross, M. Girolomo, R. A. Brett, “Banknotes and the Like,” U.S. Patent4,536,016 (20Aug.1985).

Stiles, W. S.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (Wiley, New York, 1982), p. 179.

Sylvester, A. D.

A. D. Sylvester, A. F. Turner, H. H. Schroeder, “Decorative Optical Material,” U.S. Patent3,011,383 (5Dec.1961).

Turner, A. F.

A. D. Sylvester, A. F. Turner, H. H. Schroeder, “Decorative Optical Material,” U.S. Patent3,011,383 (5Dec.1961).

Waldorf, A.

J. A. Dobrowolski, A. Waldorf, R. L. Wilkinson, “A Practical High Capacity, High Evaporation Rate, Resistance-Heated Source,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 21, 881–885 (1982).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Baird, J. A. Dobrowolski, D. Carman, A. Waldorf, “Optical Interference Authenticating Means,” U.S. Patent3,858,977 (7Jan.1975).

Waldorf, A. J.

J. A. Dobrowolski, F. C. Ho, A. J. Waldorf, “Determination of Optical Constants of Thin Film Coating Materials Based on Inverse Synthesis,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3191–3200 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dobrowolski, S. H. Lewis, M. Ranger, R. L. Wilkinson, A. J. Waldorf, “Design of a Prototype Semi-Continuous Roll Coater for Optical Multilayers,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, 40–44 (1982).

J. A. Dobrowolski, K. M. Baird, P. D. Carman, A. J. Waldorf, “Optical Interface Coatings for Inhibiting of Counterfeiting,” Opt. Acta 20, 925–937 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Dobrowolski, A. J. Waldorf, “Method of Manufacturing an Optical Interference Authenticating Device,” U.S. Patent4,626,445 (2Dec.1986).

J. A. Dobrowolski, F. C. Ho, A. J. Waldorf, “Form Depicting, Optical Interference Authenticating Device,” Canadian Patent1,232,068 (26Jan.1988).

Whitehead, G.

G. Whitehead, P. Grant, “The Optical Monitor: A Fast, Accurate Instrument for the Measurement of Optical Thin Film Spectra Transmittance,” in Proceedings, Twenty-Eighth Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (1985), p. 109.

Whitehead, L. A.

J. A. Dobrowolski, L. A. Whitehead, “Viewing Angle Color Sensitive Lighting Accessory,” U.S. Patent4,649,462 (10Mar.1987).

Wilkinson, R. L.

J. A. Dobrowolski, M. Ranger, R. L. Wilkinson, “Measurements of Angular Evaporation Characteristics of Sources,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 1, 1403–1408 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Dobrowolski, A. Waldorf, R. L. Wilkinson, “A Practical High Capacity, High Evaporation Rate, Resistance-Heated Source,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 21, 881–885 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Dobrowolski, S. H. Lewis, M. Ranger, R. L. Wilkinson, A. J. Waldorf, “Design of a Prototype Semi-Continuous Roll Coater for Optical Multilayers,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, 40–44 (1982).

Wyszecki, G.

D. B. Judd, G. Wyszecki, Color in Business, Science, and Industry (Wiley, New York, 1975), p. 302.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (Wiley, New York, 1982), p. 179.

Zwinkels, J. C. M.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. H. Baum, C. R. Jones, “Laser Chemical Vapor Deposition of Gold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 538–540 (1985); “Laser Chemical Vapor Deposition of Gold: Part II,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 4, 1187–1191 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. A. Dobrowolski, A. Waldorf, R. L. Wilkinson, “A Practical High Capacity, High Evaporation Rate, Resistance-Heated Source,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 21, 881–885 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (2)

J. A. Dobrowolski, M. Ranger, R. L. Wilkinson, “Measurements of Angular Evaporation Characteristics of Sources,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 1, 1403–1408 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Dobrowolski, M. Ranger, “A Compact Isolation Valve for Use in Roll Coaters,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 1, 1868–1871 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (1)

J. A. Dobrowolski, K. M. Baird, P. D. Carman, A. J. Waldorf, “Optical Interface Coatings for Inhibiting of Counterfeiting,” Opt. Acta 20, 925–937 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Polym. Eng. Sci. (1)

C. D. Han, R. Shetty, “Studies on Multilayer Film Coextrusion,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 16, 697–705 (1976); “Studies on Multilayer Film Coextrusion II: Interfacial Instability in Flat Film Coextrusion,” 18, 180–186 (1978); “Studies on Multilayer Film Coextrusion III: The Rheology of Blown Film Coextrusion,” 18, 187–199 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

J. A. Dobrowolski, S. H. Lewis, M. Ranger, R. L. Wilkinson, A. J. Waldorf, “Design of a Prototype Semi-Continuous Roll Coater for Optical Multilayers,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, 40–44 (1982).

Other (23)

J. A. Dobrowolski, “Source Configurations for the Deposition of Uniform Thin Films Onto a Moving Web,” in Proceedings, Seventh International Vacuum Congress and Third International Conference on Solid Surfaces, Vienna (1977), p. 1571.

D. Farnsworth, “The Farnsworth Rectilinear Uniform Chromaticity Scale Diagram,” No. 38, Memorandum Rep. 44-1, Med. Res. Lab., U.S. Submarine Base, New London, CN (Apr.1944).

T. Alfrey, J. Schrenk, “Highly Reflective Thermoplastic Bodies for Infrared, Visible or Ultraviolet Light,” U.S. Patent3,711,176 (16Jan.1973).

J. A. Dobrowolski, F. C. Ho, A. J. Waldorf, “Form Depicting, Optical Interference Authenticating Device,” Canadian Patent1,232,068 (26Jan.1988).

J. A. Dobrowolski, A. J. Waldorf, “Method of Manufacturing an Optical Interference Authenticating Device,” U.S. Patent4,626,445 (2Dec.1986).

K. M. Baird, J. A. Dobrowolski, D. Carman, A. Waldorf, “Optical Interference Authenticating Means,” U.S. Patent3,858,977 (7Jan.1975).

D. B. Judd, G. Wyszecki, Color in Business, Science, and Industry (Wiley, New York, 1975), p. 302.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (Wiley, New York, 1982), p. 179.

T. Merry, R. G. Hutton, “Latent Image Forming Process,” U.S. Patent4,033,059 (9Aug.1972).

D. R. Giordano, “Non-Counterfeitable Documents,” U.S. Patent4,176,859 (4Dec.1979).

A. V. Alasia, “Encoding System,” U.S. Patent4,092,654 (May1978).

D. H. Solomon, J. B. Ross, M. Girolomo, R. A. Brett, “Banknotes and the Like,” U.S. Patent4,536,016 (20Aug.1985).

M. Ranger, “Vacuum Coating Vessel With Movable Shutter Plate,” U.S. Patent4,478,174 (23Oct.1984).

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Courtesy Identicard Ltd., 89 Galaxy Bvd., Unit 8, Rexdale, Ont. M9W 6A4, Canada.

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Figures (17)

Figure 1
Figure 1

Color photographs of TFSDs and other iridescent materials taken in daylight at near-normal and oblique angles. Color photographs of TFSDs taken in daylight at near-normal and oblique angles.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Viewing geometry for transmission (A) and reflection (B) TFSDs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Specular and diffuse reflection.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normal incidence spectral reflectance curves and angular variation of the chromaticity coordinates and luminous reflectances of the following reflectors: (A) red-to-green (curve 1) and red pigment (2); (B) green-to-blue with (1) and without (2) integral black absorber; (C) blue-to-black (4) and blue-to-red (2).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Performance of the following reflectors: (A) black-to-red without (curve 1) and with (2) second surface reflection; (B) all-dielectric reflector for the visible spectrum; (C) background (1) and logo (2) of a TFSD with two form depicting layers.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Effective angles of incidence of TFSDs with protective polyester films.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Different locations within a TFSD for insertion of logo patterns (see text).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Production of patterns by the hot foil stamping process.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Schematic representation of roll coaters with stationary (A) and moving (B) masks for the production of 1- and 2-D patterns.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Patterns attainable with stationary masks.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Two-dimensional pattern masks.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Producing a TFSD with a complex pattern consisting of eight different colors.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Effect of mask-to-substrate distance (A) and source separation (B) on the width of a penumbra.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Producing a patterned penumbra.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Laser etching apparatus.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Cross sections through laser etched TFSDs. Schematic of a roll coater with a laser etching station.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Vapor deposition regulating apparatus for the dynamic control of the transverse thickness uniformity during roll coating.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Construction Parameters of Systems In Figs. 4 and 5

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