Abstract

Previous investigators have determined the optical properties of the liver at isolated wavelengths using various models of light propagation. In this study we derived coefficients for absorption, scattering, and anisotropy for rat liver between 350 and 2200 nm using measurements of integrated reflectance, transmittance, and on-axis attenuation and a diffusion approximation algorithm to solve the 1-D transport equation. These results were used to estimate the effective attenuation coefficient, penetration depth, and temperature rise induced by laser irradiation. The data should be of value to investigators in the field of tissue optics and developers of photomedical applications involving the liver.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. E. Profio, D. R. Doiron, “Transport of Light in Tissue in Photodynamic Therapy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 46, 591–599 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. T. Walsh, T. F. Deutsch, “Pulsed CO2 Laser Tissue Ablation: Measurement of the Ablation Rate,” Lasers Surg. Med. 8, 264–275 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. Matthewson, P. Coleridege-Smith, J. P. O’Sullivan, T. C. Northfield, S. G. Bown, “Biological Effects of Intrahepatic Nd:YAG Laser Photocoagulation in Rats,” Gastroenterology 93, 550–557 (1987).
    [PubMed]
  4. S. Holt, J. Tulip, D. Hamilton, J. Cummins, A. Fields, C. Dick, “Experimental Laser Phototherapy of the Morris 7777 Hepatoma in the Rat,” Hepatology 5, 175–180 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. L. Jacques, S. A. Prahl, “Modeling Optical and Thermal Distributions in Tissue During Laser Irradiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 6, 494–503 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (Academic, New York, 1978).
  7. R. A. J. Groenhuis, H. A. Ferwerda, J. J. Ten Bosch, “Scattering and Absorption of Turbid Materials Determined from Reflection Measurements. 1: Theory,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2456–2467 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. H. Joseph, W. J. Wiscombe, J. A. Weinman, “The Delta-Eddington Approximation for Radiative Flux Transfer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 2452–2459 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. A. Prahl, “Calculation of Light Distributions and Optical Properties of Tissue,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Biomedical Engineering, U. Texas-Austin (1988).
  10. M. Keijzer, W. M. Star, P. R. W. Storchi, “Optical Diffusion in Layered Media,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1820–1824 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. Schuster, “Radiation Through a Foggy Atmosphere,” Astrophys. J. 21, 1–22 (1905).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. L. Boulnois, “Photophysical Processes in Recent Medical Laser Developments: a Review,” Lasers in Med. Sci. 1, 47–66 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. A. Parrish, “New Concepts in Therapeutic Photomedicine: Photochemistry, Optical Targeting, and the Therapeutic Window,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 77, 45–50 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. N. Pimstone, “Utility of Porphoryins and Light in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Malignancy,” Hepatology 5, 338–340 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. Andreola, A. Bertoni, R. Marchesini, E. Mellino, “Evaluation of Optical Characteristics of Different Human Tissues in Vitro (Abstract),” Lasers Surg. Med. 8, 142 (1988).
  18. S. L. Jacques, C. A. Alter, S. A. Prahl, “Angular Dependence of Helium-Neon Laser Light Scattering by Human Dermis,” Lasers Life Sci. 1, 309–333 (1987).
  19. L. E. Preuss, F. P. Bolin, B. W. Cain, “Tissue as a Medium for Laser Light Transport—Implications for Photoradiation Therapy,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 357, 77–84 (1982).
  20. B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, D. M. Burns, “Effect of Photosensitizer Concentration in Tissue on the Penetration Depth of Photoactivating Light,” Lasers Med. Sci. 1, 235–244 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  21. G. Renault, M. Muffat-Joly, J. Polianski, J. J. Pocidalo, “In vitro Determination of Liver Tissue Optical Absorbance Characteristics: Application to in situ NADH Laser Fluorimetry,” Innov. Tech. Biol. Med. 6, 673–689 (1985).
  22. J. S. MacLeod, D. Blanc, M. J. Colles, “Measurement of the Optical Absorption Coefficient at 1.06 Micrometers of Various Tissues Using the Photoacoustic Effect (Abstract),” Laser Surg. Med. 8, 143 (1988).
  23. K. E. Spell, “The Thermal Conductivities of Some Biological Fluids,” Phys. Med. Biol. 5, 139–153 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. N. Takata, L. Zaneveld, W. Richter, “Laser-Induced Thermal Damage in Skin,” USAF School of Aerospace Med., Brooks AFB, TX, Rep. SAM-TR-77-38 (1977).
  25. L. E. Preuss, F. P. Bolin, “Letter to the Editor,” Lasers Life Sci. 1, 335–336 (1987).
  26. B. C. Wilson, W. P. Jeeves, D. M. Lowe, “In Vivo and Post Mortem Measurements of the Attenuation Spectra of Light in Mammalian Tissues,” Photochem. Photobiol. 42, 153–162 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

J. T. Walsh, T. F. Deutsch, “Pulsed CO2 Laser Tissue Ablation: Measurement of the Ablation Rate,” Lasers Surg. Med. 8, 264–275 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Keijzer, W. M. Star, P. R. W. Storchi, “Optical Diffusion in Layered Media,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1820–1824 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Andreola, A. Bertoni, R. Marchesini, E. Mellino, “Evaluation of Optical Characteristics of Different Human Tissues in Vitro (Abstract),” Lasers Surg. Med. 8, 142 (1988).

J. S. MacLeod, D. Blanc, M. J. Colles, “Measurement of the Optical Absorption Coefficient at 1.06 Micrometers of Various Tissues Using the Photoacoustic Effect (Abstract),” Laser Surg. Med. 8, 143 (1988).

1987

S. L. Jacques, C. A. Alter, S. A. Prahl, “Angular Dependence of Helium-Neon Laser Light Scattering by Human Dermis,” Lasers Life Sci. 1, 309–333 (1987).

A. J. Welch, G. Yoon, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Practical Models for Light Distribution in Laser-Irradiated Tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 6, 488–493 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Profio, D. R. Doiron, “Transport of Light in Tissue in Photodynamic Therapy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 46, 591–599 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Matthewson, P. Coleridege-Smith, J. P. O’Sullivan, T. C. Northfield, S. G. Bown, “Biological Effects of Intrahepatic Nd:YAG Laser Photocoagulation in Rats,” Gastroenterology 93, 550–557 (1987).
[PubMed]

S. L. Jacques, S. A. Prahl, “Modeling Optical and Thermal Distributions in Tissue During Laser Irradiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 6, 494–503 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. E. Preuss, F. P. Bolin, “Letter to the Editor,” Lasers Life Sci. 1, 335–336 (1987).

1986

J. L. Boulnois, “Photophysical Processes in Recent Medical Laser Developments: a Review,” Lasers in Med. Sci. 1, 47–66 (1986).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, D. M. Burns, “Effect of Photosensitizer Concentration in Tissue on the Penetration Depth of Photoactivating Light,” Lasers Med. Sci. 1, 235–244 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

G. Renault, M. Muffat-Joly, J. Polianski, J. J. Pocidalo, “In vitro Determination of Liver Tissue Optical Absorbance Characteristics: Application to in situ NADH Laser Fluorimetry,” Innov. Tech. Biol. Med. 6, 673–689 (1985).

S. Holt, J. Tulip, D. Hamilton, J. Cummins, A. Fields, C. Dick, “Experimental Laser Phototherapy of the Morris 7777 Hepatoma in the Rat,” Hepatology 5, 175–180 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Wilson, W. P. Jeeves, D. M. Lowe, “In Vivo and Post Mortem Measurements of the Attenuation Spectra of Light in Mammalian Tissues,” Photochem. Photobiol. 42, 153–162 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Pimstone, “Utility of Porphoryins and Light in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Malignancy,” Hepatology 5, 338–340 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983

1982

L. E. Preuss, F. P. Bolin, B. W. Cain, “Tissue as a Medium for Laser Light Transport—Implications for Photoradiation Therapy,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 357, 77–84 (1982).

1981

J. A. Parrish, “New Concepts in Therapeutic Photomedicine: Photochemistry, Optical Targeting, and the Therapeutic Window,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 77, 45–50 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976

J. H. Joseph, W. J. Wiscombe, J. A. Weinman, “The Delta-Eddington Approximation for Radiative Flux Transfer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 2452–2459 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1960

K. E. Spell, “The Thermal Conductivities of Some Biological Fluids,” Phys. Med. Biol. 5, 139–153 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1948

1905

A. Schuster, “Radiation Through a Foggy Atmosphere,” Astrophys. J. 21, 1–22 (1905).
[CrossRef]

Alter, C. A.

S. L. Jacques, C. A. Alter, S. A. Prahl, “Angular Dependence of Helium-Neon Laser Light Scattering by Human Dermis,” Lasers Life Sci. 1, 309–333 (1987).

Andreola, S.

S. Andreola, A. Bertoni, R. Marchesini, E. Mellino, “Evaluation of Optical Characteristics of Different Human Tissues in Vitro (Abstract),” Lasers Surg. Med. 8, 142 (1988).

Bertoni, A.

S. Andreola, A. Bertoni, R. Marchesini, E. Mellino, “Evaluation of Optical Characteristics of Different Human Tissues in Vitro (Abstract),” Lasers Surg. Med. 8, 142 (1988).

Blanc, D.

J. S. MacLeod, D. Blanc, M. J. Colles, “Measurement of the Optical Absorption Coefficient at 1.06 Micrometers of Various Tissues Using the Photoacoustic Effect (Abstract),” Laser Surg. Med. 8, 143 (1988).

Bolin, F. P.

L. E. Preuss, F. P. Bolin, “Letter to the Editor,” Lasers Life Sci. 1, 335–336 (1987).

L. E. Preuss, F. P. Bolin, B. W. Cain, “Tissue as a Medium for Laser Light Transport—Implications for Photoradiation Therapy,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 357, 77–84 (1982).

Boulnois, J. L.

J. L. Boulnois, “Photophysical Processes in Recent Medical Laser Developments: a Review,” Lasers in Med. Sci. 1, 47–66 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bown, S. G.

K. Matthewson, P. Coleridege-Smith, J. P. O’Sullivan, T. C. Northfield, S. G. Bown, “Biological Effects of Intrahepatic Nd:YAG Laser Photocoagulation in Rats,” Gastroenterology 93, 550–557 (1987).
[PubMed]

Burns, D. M.

B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, D. M. Burns, “Effect of Photosensitizer Concentration in Tissue on the Penetration Depth of Photoactivating Light,” Lasers Med. Sci. 1, 235–244 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Cain, B. W.

L. E. Preuss, F. P. Bolin, B. W. Cain, “Tissue as a Medium for Laser Light Transport—Implications for Photoradiation Therapy,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 357, 77–84 (1982).

Coleridege-Smith, P.

K. Matthewson, P. Coleridege-Smith, J. P. O’Sullivan, T. C. Northfield, S. G. Bown, “Biological Effects of Intrahepatic Nd:YAG Laser Photocoagulation in Rats,” Gastroenterology 93, 550–557 (1987).
[PubMed]

Colles, M. J.

J. S. MacLeod, D. Blanc, M. J. Colles, “Measurement of the Optical Absorption Coefficient at 1.06 Micrometers of Various Tissues Using the Photoacoustic Effect (Abstract),” Laser Surg. Med. 8, 143 (1988).

Cummins, J.

S. Holt, J. Tulip, D. Hamilton, J. Cummins, A. Fields, C. Dick, “Experimental Laser Phototherapy of the Morris 7777 Hepatoma in the Rat,” Hepatology 5, 175–180 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deutsch, T. F.

J. T. Walsh, T. F. Deutsch, “Pulsed CO2 Laser Tissue Ablation: Measurement of the Ablation Rate,” Lasers Surg. Med. 8, 264–275 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dick, C.

S. Holt, J. Tulip, D. Hamilton, J. Cummins, A. Fields, C. Dick, “Experimental Laser Phototherapy of the Morris 7777 Hepatoma in the Rat,” Hepatology 5, 175–180 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doiron, D. R.

A. E. Profio, D. R. Doiron, “Transport of Light in Tissue in Photodynamic Therapy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 46, 591–599 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferwerda, H. A.

Fields, A.

S. Holt, J. Tulip, D. Hamilton, J. Cummins, A. Fields, C. Dick, “Experimental Laser Phototherapy of the Morris 7777 Hepatoma in the Rat,” Hepatology 5, 175–180 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Groenhuis, R. A. J.

Hamilton, D.

S. Holt, J. Tulip, D. Hamilton, J. Cummins, A. Fields, C. Dick, “Experimental Laser Phototherapy of the Morris 7777 Hepatoma in the Rat,” Hepatology 5, 175–180 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holt, S.

S. Holt, J. Tulip, D. Hamilton, J. Cummins, A. Fields, C. Dick, “Experimental Laser Phototherapy of the Morris 7777 Hepatoma in the Rat,” Hepatology 5, 175–180 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishimaru, A.

A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (Academic, New York, 1978).

Jacques, S. L.

S. L. Jacques, S. A. Prahl, “Modeling Optical and Thermal Distributions in Tissue During Laser Irradiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 6, 494–503 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques, C. A. Alter, S. A. Prahl, “Angular Dependence of Helium-Neon Laser Light Scattering by Human Dermis,” Lasers Life Sci. 1, 309–333 (1987).

Jeeves, W. P.

B. C. Wilson, W. P. Jeeves, D. M. Lowe, “In Vivo and Post Mortem Measurements of the Attenuation Spectra of Light in Mammalian Tissues,” Photochem. Photobiol. 42, 153–162 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joseph, J. H.

J. H. Joseph, W. J. Wiscombe, J. A. Weinman, “The Delta-Eddington Approximation for Radiative Flux Transfer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 2452–2459 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Keijzer, M.

Kubelka, P. A.

Lowe, D. M.

B. C. Wilson, W. P. Jeeves, D. M. Lowe, “In Vivo and Post Mortem Measurements of the Attenuation Spectra of Light in Mammalian Tissues,” Photochem. Photobiol. 42, 153–162 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacLeod, J. S.

J. S. MacLeod, D. Blanc, M. J. Colles, “Measurement of the Optical Absorption Coefficient at 1.06 Micrometers of Various Tissues Using the Photoacoustic Effect (Abstract),” Laser Surg. Med. 8, 143 (1988).

Marchesini, R.

S. Andreola, A. Bertoni, R. Marchesini, E. Mellino, “Evaluation of Optical Characteristics of Different Human Tissues in Vitro (Abstract),” Lasers Surg. Med. 8, 142 (1988).

Matthewson, K.

K. Matthewson, P. Coleridege-Smith, J. P. O’Sullivan, T. C. Northfield, S. G. Bown, “Biological Effects of Intrahepatic Nd:YAG Laser Photocoagulation in Rats,” Gastroenterology 93, 550–557 (1987).
[PubMed]

Mellino, E.

S. Andreola, A. Bertoni, R. Marchesini, E. Mellino, “Evaluation of Optical Characteristics of Different Human Tissues in Vitro (Abstract),” Lasers Surg. Med. 8, 142 (1988).

Muffat-Joly, M.

G. Renault, M. Muffat-Joly, J. Polianski, J. J. Pocidalo, “In vitro Determination of Liver Tissue Optical Absorbance Characteristics: Application to in situ NADH Laser Fluorimetry,” Innov. Tech. Biol. Med. 6, 673–689 (1985).

Northfield, T. C.

K. Matthewson, P. Coleridege-Smith, J. P. O’Sullivan, T. C. Northfield, S. G. Bown, “Biological Effects of Intrahepatic Nd:YAG Laser Photocoagulation in Rats,” Gastroenterology 93, 550–557 (1987).
[PubMed]

O’Sullivan, J. P.

K. Matthewson, P. Coleridege-Smith, J. P. O’Sullivan, T. C. Northfield, S. G. Bown, “Biological Effects of Intrahepatic Nd:YAG Laser Photocoagulation in Rats,” Gastroenterology 93, 550–557 (1987).
[PubMed]

Parrish, J. A.

J. A. Parrish, “New Concepts in Therapeutic Photomedicine: Photochemistry, Optical Targeting, and the Therapeutic Window,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 77, 45–50 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patterson, M. S.

B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, D. M. Burns, “Effect of Photosensitizer Concentration in Tissue on the Penetration Depth of Photoactivating Light,” Lasers Med. Sci. 1, 235–244 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Pimstone, N.

N. Pimstone, “Utility of Porphoryins and Light in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Malignancy,” Hepatology 5, 338–340 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pocidalo, J. J.

G. Renault, M. Muffat-Joly, J. Polianski, J. J. Pocidalo, “In vitro Determination of Liver Tissue Optical Absorbance Characteristics: Application to in situ NADH Laser Fluorimetry,” Innov. Tech. Biol. Med. 6, 673–689 (1985).

Polianski, J.

G. Renault, M. Muffat-Joly, J. Polianski, J. J. Pocidalo, “In vitro Determination of Liver Tissue Optical Absorbance Characteristics: Application to in situ NADH Laser Fluorimetry,” Innov. Tech. Biol. Med. 6, 673–689 (1985).

Prahl, S. A.

S. L. Jacques, C. A. Alter, S. A. Prahl, “Angular Dependence of Helium-Neon Laser Light Scattering by Human Dermis,” Lasers Life Sci. 1, 309–333 (1987).

S. L. Jacques, S. A. Prahl, “Modeling Optical and Thermal Distributions in Tissue During Laser Irradiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 6, 494–503 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Prahl, “Calculation of Light Distributions and Optical Properties of Tissue,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Biomedical Engineering, U. Texas-Austin (1988).

Preuss, L. E.

L. E. Preuss, F. P. Bolin, “Letter to the Editor,” Lasers Life Sci. 1, 335–336 (1987).

L. E. Preuss, F. P. Bolin, B. W. Cain, “Tissue as a Medium for Laser Light Transport—Implications for Photoradiation Therapy,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 357, 77–84 (1982).

Profio, A. E.

A. E. Profio, D. R. Doiron, “Transport of Light in Tissue in Photodynamic Therapy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 46, 591–599 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Renault, G.

G. Renault, M. Muffat-Joly, J. Polianski, J. J. Pocidalo, “In vitro Determination of Liver Tissue Optical Absorbance Characteristics: Application to in situ NADH Laser Fluorimetry,” Innov. Tech. Biol. Med. 6, 673–689 (1985).

Richter, W.

A. N. Takata, L. Zaneveld, W. Richter, “Laser-Induced Thermal Damage in Skin,” USAF School of Aerospace Med., Brooks AFB, TX, Rep. SAM-TR-77-38 (1977).

Schuster, A.

A. Schuster, “Radiation Through a Foggy Atmosphere,” Astrophys. J. 21, 1–22 (1905).
[CrossRef]

Spell, K. E.

K. E. Spell, “The Thermal Conductivities of Some Biological Fluids,” Phys. Med. Biol. 5, 139–153 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Star, W. M.

Storchi, P. R. W.

Takata, A. N.

A. N. Takata, L. Zaneveld, W. Richter, “Laser-Induced Thermal Damage in Skin,” USAF School of Aerospace Med., Brooks AFB, TX, Rep. SAM-TR-77-38 (1977).

Ten Bosch, J. J.

Tulip, J.

S. Holt, J. Tulip, D. Hamilton, J. Cummins, A. Fields, C. Dick, “Experimental Laser Phototherapy of the Morris 7777 Hepatoma in the Rat,” Hepatology 5, 175–180 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Gemert, M. J. C.

A. J. Welch, G. Yoon, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Practical Models for Light Distribution in Laser-Irradiated Tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 6, 488–493 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walsh, J. T.

J. T. Walsh, T. F. Deutsch, “Pulsed CO2 Laser Tissue Ablation: Measurement of the Ablation Rate,” Lasers Surg. Med. 8, 264–275 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weinman, J. A.

J. H. Joseph, W. J. Wiscombe, J. A. Weinman, “The Delta-Eddington Approximation for Radiative Flux Transfer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 2452–2459 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Welch, A. J.

A. J. Welch, G. Yoon, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Practical Models for Light Distribution in Laser-Irradiated Tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 6, 488–493 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, D. M. Burns, “Effect of Photosensitizer Concentration in Tissue on the Penetration Depth of Photoactivating Light,” Lasers Med. Sci. 1, 235–244 (1986).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Wilson, W. P. Jeeves, D. M. Lowe, “In Vivo and Post Mortem Measurements of the Attenuation Spectra of Light in Mammalian Tissues,” Photochem. Photobiol. 42, 153–162 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiscombe, W. J.

J. H. Joseph, W. J. Wiscombe, J. A. Weinman, “The Delta-Eddington Approximation for Radiative Flux Transfer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 2452–2459 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, G.

A. J. Welch, G. Yoon, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Practical Models for Light Distribution in Laser-Irradiated Tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 6, 488–493 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zaneveld, L.

A. N. Takata, L. Zaneveld, W. Richter, “Laser-Induced Thermal Damage in Skin,” USAF School of Aerospace Med., Brooks AFB, TX, Rep. SAM-TR-77-38 (1977).

Appl. Opt.

Astrophys. J.

A. Schuster, “Radiation Through a Foggy Atmosphere,” Astrophys. J. 21, 1–22 (1905).
[CrossRef]

Gastroenterology

K. Matthewson, P. Coleridege-Smith, J. P. O’Sullivan, T. C. Northfield, S. G. Bown, “Biological Effects of Intrahepatic Nd:YAG Laser Photocoagulation in Rats,” Gastroenterology 93, 550–557 (1987).
[PubMed]

Hepatology

S. Holt, J. Tulip, D. Hamilton, J. Cummins, A. Fields, C. Dick, “Experimental Laser Phototherapy of the Morris 7777 Hepatoma in the Rat,” Hepatology 5, 175–180 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Pimstone, “Utility of Porphoryins and Light in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Malignancy,” Hepatology 5, 338–340 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Innov. Tech. Biol. Med.

G. Renault, M. Muffat-Joly, J. Polianski, J. J. Pocidalo, “In vitro Determination of Liver Tissue Optical Absorbance Characteristics: Application to in situ NADH Laser Fluorimetry,” Innov. Tech. Biol. Med. 6, 673–689 (1985).

J. Atmos. Sci.

J. H. Joseph, W. J. Wiscombe, J. A. Weinman, “The Delta-Eddington Approximation for Radiative Flux Transfer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 2452–2459 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Invest. Dermatol.

J. A. Parrish, “New Concepts in Therapeutic Photomedicine: Photochemistry, Optical Targeting, and the Therapeutic Window,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 77, 45–50 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Laser Surg. Med.

J. S. MacLeod, D. Blanc, M. J. Colles, “Measurement of the Optical Absorption Coefficient at 1.06 Micrometers of Various Tissues Using the Photoacoustic Effect (Abstract),” Laser Surg. Med. 8, 143 (1988).

Lasers in Med. Sci.

J. L. Boulnois, “Photophysical Processes in Recent Medical Laser Developments: a Review,” Lasers in Med. Sci. 1, 47–66 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Life Sci.

S. L. Jacques, C. A. Alter, S. A. Prahl, “Angular Dependence of Helium-Neon Laser Light Scattering by Human Dermis,” Lasers Life Sci. 1, 309–333 (1987).

L. E. Preuss, F. P. Bolin, “Letter to the Editor,” Lasers Life Sci. 1, 335–336 (1987).

Lasers Med. Sci.

B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, D. M. Burns, “Effect of Photosensitizer Concentration in Tissue on the Penetration Depth of Photoactivating Light,” Lasers Med. Sci. 1, 235–244 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Surg. Med.

S. Andreola, A. Bertoni, R. Marchesini, E. Mellino, “Evaluation of Optical Characteristics of Different Human Tissues in Vitro (Abstract),” Lasers Surg. Med. 8, 142 (1988).

A. J. Welch, G. Yoon, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Practical Models for Light Distribution in Laser-Irradiated Tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 6, 488–493 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Walsh, T. F. Deutsch, “Pulsed CO2 Laser Tissue Ablation: Measurement of the Ablation Rate,” Lasers Surg. Med. 8, 264–275 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques, S. A. Prahl, “Modeling Optical and Thermal Distributions in Tissue During Laser Irradiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 6, 494–503 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Photochem. Photobiol.

A. E. Profio, D. R. Doiron, “Transport of Light in Tissue in Photodynamic Therapy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 46, 591–599 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Wilson, W. P. Jeeves, D. M. Lowe, “In Vivo and Post Mortem Measurements of the Attenuation Spectra of Light in Mammalian Tissues,” Photochem. Photobiol. 42, 153–162 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol.

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[CrossRef]

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Other

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Average value of μa over the 350–2200-nm wavelength range. Vertical bars represent one standard deviation and appear at 200-nm intervals for clarity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Average value of μs over the 350–2200-nm wavelength range. Vertical bars represent one standard deviation and appear at 200-nm intervals.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Average value of anisotropy parameter g over the 350–2200-nm wavelength range. Vertical bars at 200-nm intervals represent one standard deviation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Results of a Monte Carlo simulation. The radiant fluence induced by a broad incident beam with radiant fluence of 1 J/cm2 is plotted as a function of depth into the liver. The radiant fluence just below the surface is ~1.25 J/cm2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Temperature rise induced by an impulse of radiation (radiant fluence 1 J/cm2) is plotted as a function of depth into liver (see text for details).

Tables (2)

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Table I Mean Values of μa, μs, g, μeff and Penetration Depth at Selected Laser Wavelengths

Tables Icon

Table II Previous Measurements of the Optical Properties of Liver

Equations (7)

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R t = ( R s R 0 ) / [ ( R 100 / R BaSO 4 ) R 0 ] ,
T t = ( T s T 0 ) / ( T 100 T 0 ) .
ψ ( z ) = ψ 0 k exp ( μ eff * z ) ,
μ eff = { 3 μ a [ μ a + μ s ( 1 g ) ] } 1 / 2 .
Δ T = ( μ a ψ 0 ) / ( ρ C ) ,
ρ = W ( 1 g / cc ) + ( 1 W ) ( 1 . 2 g / cc ) in g / cc ,
C = ( 0 . 37 + 0 . 67 W / ρ ) ( 4 . 18 J / cal ) in J / g ° C ,

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