Abstract

A multichannel photoelectron counting system employing a Reticon 1024-element linear silicon photodiode array with fiber optic window has been developed. The primary design philosophy was to produce a 1-D electronic camera optimized for high dispersion astronomical spectrophotometry of faint sources by intensifying the photodiode array with a microchannel plate. With an intensification factor of ≃108, single photon incidences will be amplified beyond system noise, becoming readily discriminable by low resolution pulse counting electronics. The system will approach the ideal of a truly noiseless amplifier with shot-limited performance. Funds not being available for the purchase of a microchannel plate, operation of the system in the rapid scanning intensified mode was illustrated by using the photodiode array as a line scanner imaging bright sources, and operation in the slow chilled Reticon mode was illustrated by installation in an automated 3-m Czerny-Turner double monochromator.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. S. Vogt, R. G. Tull, P. Kelton, “Self-Scanned Photodiode Array: High Performance Operation in High Dispersion Astronomical Spectrophotometry,” Appl. Opt. 17, 574–592 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. EG&G reticon, Image Sensing Products, 345 Potrero Ave., Sunnyvale, CA 94086 (1985).
  3. P. Horowitz, W. Hill, The Art of Electronics (Cambridge U.P., London, 1985), p. 601.
  4. W. C. Livingston, J. Harvey, C. Slaughter, D. Trumbo, “Solar Magnetograph Employing Integrated Diode Array,” Appl. Opt. 15, 40–52 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. B. Mende, E. G. Shelly, “Single Electron Recording by Self-Scanned Diode Arrays,” Appl. Opt. 14, 691–697 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. D. Robinson, O. B. Slee, “Activity on Cool Stars,” Aust. J. Astron. 1, No. 3, 105 (1986).
  7. M. A. Gruntman, A. M. Demchenkova, Instrum. Exp. Tech. USA 29, No. 5, 1144 (1986).
  8. J. M. Schonkeren, Photomultipliers (Philips, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, Apr.1970).
  9. B. Maddoux, EG&G reticon; private communication (25Mar.1987).
  10. CSIRO, Division of Applied Physics, “Report on One Tungsten-Filament Lamp,” 31May1982.

1986 (2)

R. D. Robinson, O. B. Slee, “Activity on Cool Stars,” Aust. J. Astron. 1, No. 3, 105 (1986).

M. A. Gruntman, A. M. Demchenkova, Instrum. Exp. Tech. USA 29, No. 5, 1144 (1986).

1978 (1)

1976 (1)

1975 (1)

Demchenkova, A. M.

M. A. Gruntman, A. M. Demchenkova, Instrum. Exp. Tech. USA 29, No. 5, 1144 (1986).

Gruntman, M. A.

M. A. Gruntman, A. M. Demchenkova, Instrum. Exp. Tech. USA 29, No. 5, 1144 (1986).

Harvey, J.

Hill, W.

P. Horowitz, W. Hill, The Art of Electronics (Cambridge U.P., London, 1985), p. 601.

Horowitz, P.

P. Horowitz, W. Hill, The Art of Electronics (Cambridge U.P., London, 1985), p. 601.

Kelton, P.

Livingston, W. C.

Maddoux, B.

B. Maddoux, EG&G reticon; private communication (25Mar.1987).

Mende, S. B.

Robinson, R. D.

R. D. Robinson, O. B. Slee, “Activity on Cool Stars,” Aust. J. Astron. 1, No. 3, 105 (1986).

Schonkeren, J. M.

J. M. Schonkeren, Photomultipliers (Philips, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, Apr.1970).

Shelly, E. G.

Slaughter, C.

Slee, O. B.

R. D. Robinson, O. B. Slee, “Activity on Cool Stars,” Aust. J. Astron. 1, No. 3, 105 (1986).

Trumbo, D.

Tull, R. G.

Vogt, S. S.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Aust. J. Astron. (1)

R. D. Robinson, O. B. Slee, “Activity on Cool Stars,” Aust. J. Astron. 1, No. 3, 105 (1986).

Instrum. Exp. Tech. USA (1)

M. A. Gruntman, A. M. Demchenkova, Instrum. Exp. Tech. USA 29, No. 5, 1144 (1986).

Other (5)

J. M. Schonkeren, Photomultipliers (Philips, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, Apr.1970).

B. Maddoux, EG&G reticon; private communication (25Mar.1987).

CSIRO, Division of Applied Physics, “Report on One Tungsten-Filament Lamp,” 31May1982.

EG&G reticon, Image Sensing Products, 345 Potrero Ave., Sunnyvale, CA 94086 (1985).

P. Horowitz, W. Hill, The Art of Electronics (Cambridge U.P., London, 1985), p. 601.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Block diagram of the 1-D electronic camera. The diagram outlines the layout of a signal timing circuit to drive the array and synchronize data acquisition (top) and a signal processing circuit to prepare video pulses for a subsequent analysis and interface (bottom). Computer control is outlined at right.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Auxiliary coldbox facility for chilling the IDA.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Image of drill bit shadows recorded using the MED circuit. The diode array was operated with chilling or intensification, and a 10,000 scan reference exposure corrected pixel to pixel variations in sensitivity, measured to be as much as 4.8%. This compares with ≃2.2% for the size of scatter associated with scanning the array 2000 times.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

In this array emulation experiment, the reticon 1024S was interrogated at some 1.2 MSPS (detector clk = 4.8 MHz), four times the maximum data acquisition rate determined by software. Thus every fourth diode was sampled every 1 ms, emulating an array of some 256 photodiodes spaced 100 μm apart, and spanning the same physical length of a completely sampled array. The three phased image of a single drill bit shadow results from the dead time between scans and the fixed length of the data acquisition routine’s serial file of 1024 read, add, and store cycles.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Block diagram of the 3-m Czerny-Turner monochromator apparatus including the Heath premonochromator.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Three mercury vapor lines recorded at ≃λ4358 Å with the deeply chilled IDA installed in the 3-m monochromator. The integration time was 52 s for this eight-scan spectrum corrected by a five-scan exposure on background and a five-scan exposure on a tungsten standard lamp. The two brightest peaks are at supersaturation intensity levels, well beyond the detector’s saturation level. The scatter associated with performing only eight scans in the MED mode of analysis is ≃±11%, this error further increasing after data processing.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Initial investigation of the system’s linearity shown with a least-squares best fit. The largest source of error in the measurement is due to uncertainty in the transmittance of neutral density filters controlling the relative intensity. Nevertheless, these data indicate that system linearity is quite sufficient for primitive SPC and MED analysis.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Peak sensitivity of the photodiode array with a fiber optic window measured using the 3-m monochromator. Deep chilling was required to record the tungsten lamp source without an intensifier.

Equations (19)

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S A i = ( RQE R i N P i + N L i ) Δ T G j + FPS i ,
S A i = ( RQE R i G MCP i RQE MCP i N P i + N L i ) Δ T G j + FPS i ,
RQE R i G MCP i RQE MCP i N P i N L i ,
RQE R i G MCP i RQE MCP i N P i Δ T G j FPS i ,
S A = RQE R G MCP RQE MCP N P G / integration ,
S e h = RQE R G MCP .
S e h = RQE R G MCP n RQE MCP ( n 1 ) .
i k n 2 ¯ = 2 e I k Δ B ,
I a = I k δ n ,
i an 2 ¯ = 2 e I k Δ B δ 2 n .
i 1 2 ¯ = 2 e I k Δ B δ .
i an 2 ¯ = 2 e I k Δ B ( δ 2 n + δ ) .
θ ( n , δ ) = ( δ 2 n + δ ) / δ 2 n .
DQE = ( S / N ) o 2 / ( S / N ) i 2 ,
DQE R = RQE R 1 + [ ( 2 σ 2 ) / ( RQE R N P Δ T ) ] 1 / 2 ,
DQE R RQE R = 70 % at λ 7500 Å .
DQE R 10 5 % at λ 7500 Å .
DQE MCP = RQE MCP = 25 % .
λ 5460 . 742 Å λ 5769 . 598 Å = 6 . 8 ; λ 5460 . 742 Å λ 5790 . 659 Å = 6 . 0 ; λ 5460 . 742 Å λ 4358 . 343 Å = 2 . 0 .

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