Abstract

We describe here the design and operation of voltage tunable wavelength filters fabricated in titanium diffused LiNbO3. The devices, based on the nonsymmetric interferometer, have channel separations of 11–31 nm at λ = 1300 nm, and tuning rates of 3–10 nm/V. The periodic wavelength response of these filters allows them to be cascaded to combine or separate 2N channels in N stages.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. D. Fitchew, H. Toba, K. Oda, N. Takato, “Frequency Response of Thermo-Optic Tuning Mechanism of Planar Silica Optical Multiplexer,” Opt. Lett. 12, 781–783 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. C. H. Henry, B. H. Verbeek, N. A. Olsson, K. J. Orlowsky, R. F. Kazarinov, B. H. Johnson, “Integrated Four-Channel Mach-Zehnder Multiplexer Fabricated with Phosphorous Doped SiO2 Waveguides on Si,” in Technical Digest Conference on Integrated and Guided Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), pp. 66–69.
  3. J. L. Jackel, F J. Favire, J. J. Johnson, “Nonsymmetric Mach-Zehnder Interferometers Used as Low-Drive-Voltage Modulators,” in Technical Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1986), paper FAA3; IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-6, 1348–1351 (1988).
  4. J. L. Jackel, P. Perlmutter, J. J. Johnson, “High-Speed, Low-Voltage Modulation with a Non-Symmetric Mach-Zehnder Interferometer,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.LT-X, in press.
  5. J. E. Baran, Y. Silberberg, P. Perlmutter, “White-Light Characterization of Integrated-Optic Waveguides and Devices,” in Technical Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference-Sixth International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1987), paper TU02.
  6. W. K. Burns, A. F. Milton, “An Analytic Solution for Mode Coupling in Optical Waveguide Branches,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 446 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Silberberg, P. Perlmutter, J. E. Baran, “Digital Optical Switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1230–1232 (1987).
    [CrossRef]

1987 (2)

1980 (1)

W. K. Burns, A. F. Milton, “An Analytic Solution for Mode Coupling in Optical Waveguide Branches,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 446 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Baran, J. E.

Y. Silberberg, P. Perlmutter, J. E. Baran, “Digital Optical Switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1230–1232 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Baran, Y. Silberberg, P. Perlmutter, “White-Light Characterization of Integrated-Optic Waveguides and Devices,” in Technical Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference-Sixth International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1987), paper TU02.

Burns, W. K.

W. K. Burns, A. F. Milton, “An Analytic Solution for Mode Coupling in Optical Waveguide Branches,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 446 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Favire, F J.

J. L. Jackel, F J. Favire, J. J. Johnson, “Nonsymmetric Mach-Zehnder Interferometers Used as Low-Drive-Voltage Modulators,” in Technical Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1986), paper FAA3; IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-6, 1348–1351 (1988).

Fitchew, K. D.

Henry, C. H.

C. H. Henry, B. H. Verbeek, N. A. Olsson, K. J. Orlowsky, R. F. Kazarinov, B. H. Johnson, “Integrated Four-Channel Mach-Zehnder Multiplexer Fabricated with Phosphorous Doped SiO2 Waveguides on Si,” in Technical Digest Conference on Integrated and Guided Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), pp. 66–69.

Jackel, J. L.

J. L. Jackel, P. Perlmutter, J. J. Johnson, “High-Speed, Low-Voltage Modulation with a Non-Symmetric Mach-Zehnder Interferometer,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.LT-X, in press.

J. L. Jackel, F J. Favire, J. J. Johnson, “Nonsymmetric Mach-Zehnder Interferometers Used as Low-Drive-Voltage Modulators,” in Technical Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1986), paper FAA3; IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-6, 1348–1351 (1988).

Johnson, B. H.

C. H. Henry, B. H. Verbeek, N. A. Olsson, K. J. Orlowsky, R. F. Kazarinov, B. H. Johnson, “Integrated Four-Channel Mach-Zehnder Multiplexer Fabricated with Phosphorous Doped SiO2 Waveguides on Si,” in Technical Digest Conference on Integrated and Guided Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), pp. 66–69.

Johnson, J. J.

J. L. Jackel, F J. Favire, J. J. Johnson, “Nonsymmetric Mach-Zehnder Interferometers Used as Low-Drive-Voltage Modulators,” in Technical Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1986), paper FAA3; IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-6, 1348–1351 (1988).

J. L. Jackel, P. Perlmutter, J. J. Johnson, “High-Speed, Low-Voltage Modulation with a Non-Symmetric Mach-Zehnder Interferometer,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.LT-X, in press.

Kazarinov, R. F.

C. H. Henry, B. H. Verbeek, N. A. Olsson, K. J. Orlowsky, R. F. Kazarinov, B. H. Johnson, “Integrated Four-Channel Mach-Zehnder Multiplexer Fabricated with Phosphorous Doped SiO2 Waveguides on Si,” in Technical Digest Conference on Integrated and Guided Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), pp. 66–69.

Milton, A. F.

W. K. Burns, A. F. Milton, “An Analytic Solution for Mode Coupling in Optical Waveguide Branches,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 446 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Oda, K.

Olsson, N. A.

C. H. Henry, B. H. Verbeek, N. A. Olsson, K. J. Orlowsky, R. F. Kazarinov, B. H. Johnson, “Integrated Four-Channel Mach-Zehnder Multiplexer Fabricated with Phosphorous Doped SiO2 Waveguides on Si,” in Technical Digest Conference on Integrated and Guided Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), pp. 66–69.

Orlowsky, K. J.

C. H. Henry, B. H. Verbeek, N. A. Olsson, K. J. Orlowsky, R. F. Kazarinov, B. H. Johnson, “Integrated Four-Channel Mach-Zehnder Multiplexer Fabricated with Phosphorous Doped SiO2 Waveguides on Si,” in Technical Digest Conference on Integrated and Guided Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), pp. 66–69.

Perlmutter, P.

Y. Silberberg, P. Perlmutter, J. E. Baran, “Digital Optical Switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1230–1232 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Baran, Y. Silberberg, P. Perlmutter, “White-Light Characterization of Integrated-Optic Waveguides and Devices,” in Technical Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference-Sixth International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1987), paper TU02.

J. L. Jackel, P. Perlmutter, J. J. Johnson, “High-Speed, Low-Voltage Modulation with a Non-Symmetric Mach-Zehnder Interferometer,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.LT-X, in press.

Silberberg, Y.

Y. Silberberg, P. Perlmutter, J. E. Baran, “Digital Optical Switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1230–1232 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Baran, Y. Silberberg, P. Perlmutter, “White-Light Characterization of Integrated-Optic Waveguides and Devices,” in Technical Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference-Sixth International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1987), paper TU02.

Takato, N.

Toba, H.

Verbeek, B. H.

C. H. Henry, B. H. Verbeek, N. A. Olsson, K. J. Orlowsky, R. F. Kazarinov, B. H. Johnson, “Integrated Four-Channel Mach-Zehnder Multiplexer Fabricated with Phosphorous Doped SiO2 Waveguides on Si,” in Technical Digest Conference on Integrated and Guided Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), pp. 66–69.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Silberberg, P. Perlmutter, J. E. Baran, “Digital Optical Switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1230–1232 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. K. Burns, A. F. Milton, “An Analytic Solution for Mode Coupling in Optical Waveguide Branches,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 446 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (4)

C. H. Henry, B. H. Verbeek, N. A. Olsson, K. J. Orlowsky, R. F. Kazarinov, B. H. Johnson, “Integrated Four-Channel Mach-Zehnder Multiplexer Fabricated with Phosphorous Doped SiO2 Waveguides on Si,” in Technical Digest Conference on Integrated and Guided Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), pp. 66–69.

J. L. Jackel, F J. Favire, J. J. Johnson, “Nonsymmetric Mach-Zehnder Interferometers Used as Low-Drive-Voltage Modulators,” in Technical Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1986), paper FAA3; IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-6, 1348–1351 (1988).

J. L. Jackel, P. Perlmutter, J. J. Johnson, “High-Speed, Low-Voltage Modulation with a Non-Symmetric Mach-Zehnder Interferometer,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.LT-X, in press.

J. E. Baran, Y. Silberberg, P. Perlmutter, “White-Light Characterization of Integrated-Optic Waveguides and Devices,” in Technical Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference-Sixth International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1987), paper TU02.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Interferometers with arms of unequal optical length: (a) different physical length and (b) equal physical length, but different β.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated response for a 2-cm long device with Δn = 0.0022 (dotted line) and Δn = 0.0023 (dashed line).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

V π vs λ, average for three devices.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Positions of maximum (○) and minimum (+) output plotted vs wavelength and voltage.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured response of device MZ1.3 and calculated wavelength response.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Difference in effective indices of the two arms of the interferometer vs wavelength for three devices: +, Δw = 1 μm, ×, Δw = 1 μm, □, Δw = 2 μm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Filter with a mode selecting output branch acting as a two-wavelength demultiplexer; (b) such filters cascaded to separate four channels.

Tables (1)

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Table I Characteristics of Filters for λ = 1300 nm

Equations (1)

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I out = cos 2 [ π Δ n ( λ ) L ] / λ ,

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