Abstract

We report a new differential absorption lidar technique for measuring simultaneously the concentrations of NO and NO2 in the atmosphere. The technique is based on the correlation of the 450-nm absorption band of NO2 and 227-nm absorption band of NO by frequency doubling. This performance has been allowed by the advent of a new and highly efficient frequency doubling crystal: the β-BaB2O4. A test experiment on a NO/NO2 emitter has been performed, demonstrating the efficiency of the technique. The detection limit is estimated to be ~1 ppm · m for NO2 and 100 pp · m for NO. The range of measurement is limited to 1 km, due to the strong UV Rayleigh scattering and O2 absorption.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. E. Billings, “Technological Sources of Air Pollution,” in Industrial Pollution, I. Sax, Ed. (Van Nostrand, New York, 1974), pp. 350–409.
  2. R. Guderian, Air Pollution by Photochemical Oxidants (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985).
  3. J. H. Seinfeld, Air Pollution (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1975).
  4. A. J. Eishout, S. Beilke, “Die Oxidation von NO zu NO2 in Abgasfahnen von Kraftwerken,” VGB Kraftwerkstechnik 64, 648 (1984).
  5. K. W. Rothe, U. Brinkman, H. Walther, “Remote Sensing of NO2 Emission from a Chemical Factory by the Differential Absorption Technique,” Appl. Phys. 4, 181 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. B. Grant, R. D. Hake, E. M. Liston, R. C. Robbins, E. K. Proctor, “Calibrated Remote Measurements of NO2 Using Differential Absorption Backscatter Technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 550 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Fredriksson, B. Galle, K. Nystrom, S. Svanberg, “Lidar System Applied in Atmospheric Pollution Monitoring,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2998–3003 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. Staehr, W. Lahman, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Differential Absorption Lidar System for NO2 and SO2 Monitoring,” in Proceedings, Twelfth ILRC Conference, Aix-en-Provence (1984).
  9. B. W. Jolliffe, R. C. Felton, N. R. Swann, P. T. Woods, “Field Measurement Studies Using a Differential Absorption Lidar System,” in Proceedings, Twelfth ILRC Conference, Aix-en-Provence (1984).
  10. J. P. Wolf, L. Woste, “Detection Selective et a Distance de la Pollution Atmospherique par LIDAR,” Helv. Phys. Acta 60, 161 (1987).
  11. N. Menyuk, D. K. Killinger, W. E. DeFeo, “Remote Sensing of NO Using a Differential Absorption Lidar,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3282–3286 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Alden, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, “Laser Monitoring of Atmospheric NO Using Ultraviolet Differential Absorption Techniques,” Opt. Lett. 7, 543–545 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. K. Miyazaki, H. Sakai, T. Sato, “Efficient Deep-UV Generation by Frequency Doubling in β-BaB2O4 Crystals,” Opt. lett. 12, 797–799 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. D. Hinkley, Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976).
  15. R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing (Wiley, New York, 1984).
  16. R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Chemical Analysis (Wiley, New York, 1988).
  17. J. P. Wolf, “Applications de la Spectroscopie Laser a la Pollution Atmospherique,” These de Doctorat 683, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Switzerland (1987).
  18. H. J. Kölsch, P. Rairoux, J. P. Wolf, L. Wöste, “New Perspectives in Remote Sensing Using Excimer-Pumped Dye Lasers and BBO Crystals,” in Proceedings, Fourteenth ILRC Conference, San Candido (1988).
  19. R. Von Trebba, T. H. Koch, “DABCO Stabilization of Cou-marin Dyes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 93, 315 (1982).
  20. M. Ogawa, “Absorption Cross-Sections of O2 and CO2 Continua in the Schumann and Far-uv Regions,” J. Chem. Phys. 54, 2550 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  21. V. Hasson, R. W. Nicholls, “Absolute Spectral Absorption Measurements on Molecular Oxygen from 2640-1920 A,” J. Phys. B 4, 1789 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. M. Bass, A. E. Ledford, A. H. Laufer, “Extinction Coefficients of NO2 and N2O4,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 80, 143 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Heicklen, N. Kelly, K. Partymiller, “The Photophysics and Photochemistry of SO2,” Rev. Chem. Interm. 3, 315 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Griggs, “Absorption Coefficients of Ozone in the Ultraviolet and Visible Regions,” J. Chem. Phys. 49, 857 (1968).
    [CrossRef]

1987 (1)

J. P. Wolf, L. Woste, “Detection Selective et a Distance de la Pollution Atmospherique par LIDAR,” Helv. Phys. Acta 60, 161 (1987).

1986 (1)

K. Miyazaki, H. Sakai, T. Sato, “Efficient Deep-UV Generation by Frequency Doubling in β-BaB2O4 Crystals,” Opt. lett. 12, 797–799 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

A. J. Eishout, S. Beilke, “Die Oxidation von NO zu NO2 in Abgasfahnen von Kraftwerken,” VGB Kraftwerkstechnik 64, 648 (1984).

1982 (2)

1980 (2)

N. Menyuk, D. K. Killinger, W. E. DeFeo, “Remote Sensing of NO Using a Differential Absorption Lidar,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3282–3286 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Heicklen, N. Kelly, K. Partymiller, “The Photophysics and Photochemistry of SO2,” Rev. Chem. Interm. 3, 315 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

1976 (1)

A. M. Bass, A. E. Ledford, A. H. Laufer, “Extinction Coefficients of NO2 and N2O4,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 80, 143 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974 (2)

K. W. Rothe, U. Brinkman, H. Walther, “Remote Sensing of NO2 Emission from a Chemical Factory by the Differential Absorption Technique,” Appl. Phys. 4, 181 (1974).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Grant, R. D. Hake, E. M. Liston, R. C. Robbins, E. K. Proctor, “Calibrated Remote Measurements of NO2 Using Differential Absorption Backscatter Technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 550 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1971 (2)

M. Ogawa, “Absorption Cross-Sections of O2 and CO2 Continua in the Schumann and Far-uv Regions,” J. Chem. Phys. 54, 2550 (1971).
[CrossRef]

V. Hasson, R. W. Nicholls, “Absolute Spectral Absorption Measurements on Molecular Oxygen from 2640-1920 A,” J. Phys. B 4, 1789 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

M. Griggs, “Absorption Coefficients of Ozone in the Ultraviolet and Visible Regions,” J. Chem. Phys. 49, 857 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Alden, M.

Bass, A. M.

A. M. Bass, A. E. Ledford, A. H. Laufer, “Extinction Coefficients of NO2 and N2O4,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 80, 143 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Beilke, S.

A. J. Eishout, S. Beilke, “Die Oxidation von NO zu NO2 in Abgasfahnen von Kraftwerken,” VGB Kraftwerkstechnik 64, 648 (1984).

Billings, C. E.

C. E. Billings, “Technological Sources of Air Pollution,” in Industrial Pollution, I. Sax, Ed. (Van Nostrand, New York, 1974), pp. 350–409.

Brinkman, U.

K. W. Rothe, U. Brinkman, H. Walther, “Remote Sensing of NO2 Emission from a Chemical Factory by the Differential Absorption Technique,” Appl. Phys. 4, 181 (1974).
[CrossRef]

DeFeo, W. E.

Edner, H.

Eishout, A. J.

A. J. Eishout, S. Beilke, “Die Oxidation von NO zu NO2 in Abgasfahnen von Kraftwerken,” VGB Kraftwerkstechnik 64, 648 (1984).

Felton, R. C.

B. W. Jolliffe, R. C. Felton, N. R. Swann, P. T. Woods, “Field Measurement Studies Using a Differential Absorption Lidar System,” in Proceedings, Twelfth ILRC Conference, Aix-en-Provence (1984).

Fredriksson, K.

Galle, B.

Grant, W. B.

W. B. Grant, R. D. Hake, E. M. Liston, R. C. Robbins, E. K. Proctor, “Calibrated Remote Measurements of NO2 Using Differential Absorption Backscatter Technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 550 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Griggs, M.

M. Griggs, “Absorption Coefficients of Ozone in the Ultraviolet and Visible Regions,” J. Chem. Phys. 49, 857 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Guderian, R.

R. Guderian, Air Pollution by Photochemical Oxidants (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985).

Hake, R. D.

W. B. Grant, R. D. Hake, E. M. Liston, R. C. Robbins, E. K. Proctor, “Calibrated Remote Measurements of NO2 Using Differential Absorption Backscatter Technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 550 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Hasson, V.

V. Hasson, R. W. Nicholls, “Absolute Spectral Absorption Measurements on Molecular Oxygen from 2640-1920 A,” J. Phys. B 4, 1789 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Heicklen, J.

J. Heicklen, N. Kelly, K. Partymiller, “The Photophysics and Photochemistry of SO2,” Rev. Chem. Interm. 3, 315 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hinkley, E. D.

E. D. Hinkley, Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976).

Jolliffe, B. W.

B. W. Jolliffe, R. C. Felton, N. R. Swann, P. T. Woods, “Field Measurement Studies Using a Differential Absorption Lidar System,” in Proceedings, Twelfth ILRC Conference, Aix-en-Provence (1984).

Kelly, N.

J. Heicklen, N. Kelly, K. Partymiller, “The Photophysics and Photochemistry of SO2,” Rev. Chem. Interm. 3, 315 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Killinger, D. K.

Koch, T. H.

R. Von Trebba, T. H. Koch, “DABCO Stabilization of Cou-marin Dyes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 93, 315 (1982).

Kölsch, H. J.

H. J. Kölsch, P. Rairoux, J. P. Wolf, L. Wöste, “New Perspectives in Remote Sensing Using Excimer-Pumped Dye Lasers and BBO Crystals,” in Proceedings, Fourteenth ILRC Conference, San Candido (1988).

Lahman, W.

W. Staehr, W. Lahman, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Differential Absorption Lidar System for NO2 and SO2 Monitoring,” in Proceedings, Twelfth ILRC Conference, Aix-en-Provence (1984).

Laufer, A. H.

A. M. Bass, A. E. Ledford, A. H. Laufer, “Extinction Coefficients of NO2 and N2O4,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 80, 143 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Ledford, A. E.

A. M. Bass, A. E. Ledford, A. H. Laufer, “Extinction Coefficients of NO2 and N2O4,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 80, 143 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Liston, E. M.

W. B. Grant, R. D. Hake, E. M. Liston, R. C. Robbins, E. K. Proctor, “Calibrated Remote Measurements of NO2 Using Differential Absorption Backscatter Technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 550 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Measures, R. M.

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Chemical Analysis (Wiley, New York, 1988).

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing (Wiley, New York, 1984).

Menyuk, N.

Michaelis, W.

W. Staehr, W. Lahman, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Differential Absorption Lidar System for NO2 and SO2 Monitoring,” in Proceedings, Twelfth ILRC Conference, Aix-en-Provence (1984).

Miyazaki, K.

K. Miyazaki, H. Sakai, T. Sato, “Efficient Deep-UV Generation by Frequency Doubling in β-BaB2O4 Crystals,” Opt. lett. 12, 797–799 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Nicholls, R. W.

V. Hasson, R. W. Nicholls, “Absolute Spectral Absorption Measurements on Molecular Oxygen from 2640-1920 A,” J. Phys. B 4, 1789 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Nystrom, K.

Ogawa, M.

M. Ogawa, “Absorption Cross-Sections of O2 and CO2 Continua in the Schumann and Far-uv Regions,” J. Chem. Phys. 54, 2550 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Partymiller, K.

J. Heicklen, N. Kelly, K. Partymiller, “The Photophysics and Photochemistry of SO2,” Rev. Chem. Interm. 3, 315 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Proctor, E. K.

W. B. Grant, R. D. Hake, E. M. Liston, R. C. Robbins, E. K. Proctor, “Calibrated Remote Measurements of NO2 Using Differential Absorption Backscatter Technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 550 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Rairoux, P.

H. J. Kölsch, P. Rairoux, J. P. Wolf, L. Wöste, “New Perspectives in Remote Sensing Using Excimer-Pumped Dye Lasers and BBO Crystals,” in Proceedings, Fourteenth ILRC Conference, San Candido (1988).

Robbins, R. C.

W. B. Grant, R. D. Hake, E. M. Liston, R. C. Robbins, E. K. Proctor, “Calibrated Remote Measurements of NO2 Using Differential Absorption Backscatter Technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 550 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Rothe, K. W.

K. W. Rothe, U. Brinkman, H. Walther, “Remote Sensing of NO2 Emission from a Chemical Factory by the Differential Absorption Technique,” Appl. Phys. 4, 181 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, H.

K. Miyazaki, H. Sakai, T. Sato, “Efficient Deep-UV Generation by Frequency Doubling in β-BaB2O4 Crystals,” Opt. lett. 12, 797–799 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sato, T.

K. Miyazaki, H. Sakai, T. Sato, “Efficient Deep-UV Generation by Frequency Doubling in β-BaB2O4 Crystals,” Opt. lett. 12, 797–799 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Seinfeld, J. H.

J. H. Seinfeld, Air Pollution (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1975).

Staehr, W.

W. Staehr, W. Lahman, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Differential Absorption Lidar System for NO2 and SO2 Monitoring,” in Proceedings, Twelfth ILRC Conference, Aix-en-Provence (1984).

Svanberg, S.

Swann, N. R.

B. W. Jolliffe, R. C. Felton, N. R. Swann, P. T. Woods, “Field Measurement Studies Using a Differential Absorption Lidar System,” in Proceedings, Twelfth ILRC Conference, Aix-en-Provence (1984).

Von Trebba, R.

R. Von Trebba, T. H. Koch, “DABCO Stabilization of Cou-marin Dyes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 93, 315 (1982).

Walther, H.

K. W. Rothe, U. Brinkman, H. Walther, “Remote Sensing of NO2 Emission from a Chemical Factory by the Differential Absorption Technique,” Appl. Phys. 4, 181 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Weitkamp, C.

W. Staehr, W. Lahman, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Differential Absorption Lidar System for NO2 and SO2 Monitoring,” in Proceedings, Twelfth ILRC Conference, Aix-en-Provence (1984).

Wolf, J. P.

J. P. Wolf, L. Woste, “Detection Selective et a Distance de la Pollution Atmospherique par LIDAR,” Helv. Phys. Acta 60, 161 (1987).

H. J. Kölsch, P. Rairoux, J. P. Wolf, L. Wöste, “New Perspectives in Remote Sensing Using Excimer-Pumped Dye Lasers and BBO Crystals,” in Proceedings, Fourteenth ILRC Conference, San Candido (1988).

J. P. Wolf, “Applications de la Spectroscopie Laser a la Pollution Atmospherique,” These de Doctorat 683, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Switzerland (1987).

Woods, P. T.

B. W. Jolliffe, R. C. Felton, N. R. Swann, P. T. Woods, “Field Measurement Studies Using a Differential Absorption Lidar System,” in Proceedings, Twelfth ILRC Conference, Aix-en-Provence (1984).

Woste, L.

J. P. Wolf, L. Woste, “Detection Selective et a Distance de la Pollution Atmospherique par LIDAR,” Helv. Phys. Acta 60, 161 (1987).

Wöste, L.

H. J. Kölsch, P. Rairoux, J. P. Wolf, L. Wöste, “New Perspectives in Remote Sensing Using Excimer-Pumped Dye Lasers and BBO Crystals,” in Proceedings, Fourteenth ILRC Conference, San Candido (1988).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. (1)

K. W. Rothe, U. Brinkman, H. Walther, “Remote Sensing of NO2 Emission from a Chemical Factory by the Differential Absorption Technique,” Appl. Phys. 4, 181 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. B. Grant, R. D. Hake, E. M. Liston, R. C. Robbins, E. K. Proctor, “Calibrated Remote Measurements of NO2 Using Differential Absorption Backscatter Technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 550 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. Von Trebba, T. H. Koch, “DABCO Stabilization of Cou-marin Dyes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 93, 315 (1982).

Helv. Phys. Acta (1)

J. P. Wolf, L. Woste, “Detection Selective et a Distance de la Pollution Atmospherique par LIDAR,” Helv. Phys. Acta 60, 161 (1987).

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

M. Ogawa, “Absorption Cross-Sections of O2 and CO2 Continua in the Schumann and Far-uv Regions,” J. Chem. Phys. 54, 2550 (1971).
[CrossRef]

M. Griggs, “Absorption Coefficients of Ozone in the Ultraviolet and Visible Regions,” J. Chem. Phys. 49, 857 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B (1)

V. Hasson, R. W. Nicholls, “Absolute Spectral Absorption Measurements on Molecular Oxygen from 2640-1920 A,” J. Phys. B 4, 1789 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A (1)

A. M. Bass, A. E. Ledford, A. H. Laufer, “Extinction Coefficients of NO2 and N2O4,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 80, 143 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Opt. lett. (1)

K. Miyazaki, H. Sakai, T. Sato, “Efficient Deep-UV Generation by Frequency Doubling in β-BaB2O4 Crystals,” Opt. lett. 12, 797–799 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Alden, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, “Laser Monitoring of Atmospheric NO Using Ultraviolet Differential Absorption Techniques,” Opt. Lett. 7, 543–545 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Chem. Interm. (1)

J. Heicklen, N. Kelly, K. Partymiller, “The Photophysics and Photochemistry of SO2,” Rev. Chem. Interm. 3, 315 (1980).
[CrossRef]

VGB Kraftwerkstechnik (1)

A. J. Eishout, S. Beilke, “Die Oxidation von NO zu NO2 in Abgasfahnen von Kraftwerken,” VGB Kraftwerkstechnik 64, 648 (1984).

Other (10)

C. E. Billings, “Technological Sources of Air Pollution,” in Industrial Pollution, I. Sax, Ed. (Van Nostrand, New York, 1974), pp. 350–409.

R. Guderian, Air Pollution by Photochemical Oxidants (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985).

J. H. Seinfeld, Air Pollution (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1975).

E. D. Hinkley, Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976).

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing (Wiley, New York, 1984).

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Chemical Analysis (Wiley, New York, 1988).

J. P. Wolf, “Applications de la Spectroscopie Laser a la Pollution Atmospherique,” These de Doctorat 683, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Switzerland (1987).

H. J. Kölsch, P. Rairoux, J. P. Wolf, L. Wöste, “New Perspectives in Remote Sensing Using Excimer-Pumped Dye Lasers and BBO Crystals,” in Proceedings, Fourteenth ILRC Conference, San Candido (1988).

W. Staehr, W. Lahman, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Differential Absorption Lidar System for NO2 and SO2 Monitoring,” in Proceedings, Twelfth ILRC Conference, Aix-en-Provence (1984).

B. W. Jolliffe, R. C. Felton, N. R. Swann, P. T. Woods, “Field Measurement Studies Using a Differential Absorption Lidar System,” in Proceedings, Twelfth ILRC Conference, Aix-en-Provence (1984).

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