Abstract

A self-filtering unstable resonator with magnification |M| = 5 has been applied to a pulsed UV-preionized XeCl excimer laser. In agreement with numerical results it is experimentally shown that less than two cavity round trips are needed to establish a steady state lowest-order mode. A diffraction-limited laser beam with a brightness of 1.5 × 1013 W cm−2 sr−1 has been obtained.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. G. Gobbi, G. C. Reali, “A Novel Unstable Resonator Configuration with a Self Filtering Aperture,” Opt. Commun. 52, 195 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. G. Gobbi, S. Morosi, G. C. Reali, A. S. Zarkasi, “Novel Unstable Resonator Configuration with a Self-Filtering Aperture: Experimental Characterization of the Nd:YAG Loaded Cavity,” Appl. Opt. 24, 26–33 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. Barbini, A. Ghigo, M. Giorgi, K. N. Iyer, A. Palucci, S. Ribezzo, “Injection-Locked Single-Mode High-Power Low-Divergence TEA CO2 Laser using SFUR Configuration,” Opt. Commun. 60, 239 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Di Lazzaro, G. P. Gallerano, G. Giordano, T. Letardi, C. E. Zheng, V. Boffa, T. Hermsen, “Self-Filtering Unstable Resonator Operation of XeCl Excimer Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1241 (1987).
  5. E. Armandillo, A. Luches, V. Nassisi, M. R. Perrone, “Improved Lasing Performance of KrCl Excimer Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 860 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Di Lazzaro, T. Letardi, T. Hermsen, C. E. Zheng, “Self-Filtering Unstable Resonator: An Approximate Analytical Model with Comparison to Computed and XeCl Laser Experimental Results,” Opt. Commun. 61, 393 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. G. Gobbi, G. C. Reali, “Numerical Study of a Self-Filtering Unstable Resonator,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 540, 119 (1985).
  8. A. E. Siegman, “Unstable Optical Resonators,” Appl. Opt. 13, 353–367 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. K. I. Zemskov, A. A. Isaev, M. A. Kazaryan, G. G. Petrash, S. G. Rautian, “Use of Unstable Resonators in Achieving the Diffraction Divergence of the Radiation Emitted from High-Gain Pulsed Gas Laser,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 4, 474 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Izawa, A. Suda, M. Obara, “Experimental Observation of Unstable Resonator Mode Evolution in a High-Power KrF Laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 3987 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. A. Isaev, M. A. Kazaryan, G. G. Petrash, S. G. Rautian, A. M. Shalagin, “Shaping of the Output Beam in a Pulsed Gas Laser with an Unstable Resonator,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 746 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Chen, A. Luches, V. Nassisi, M. R. Perrone, “Experimental Study of Positive and Negative Branch Unstable Resonators Applied to a XeCl Laser,” submitted to J. Modern Optics (1989).

1987

P. Di Lazzaro, T. Letardi, T. Hermsen, C. E. Zheng, “Self-Filtering Unstable Resonator: An Approximate Analytical Model with Comparison to Computed and XeCl Laser Experimental Results,” Opt. Commun. 61, 393 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. Di Lazzaro, G. P. Gallerano, G. Giordano, T. Letardi, C. E. Zheng, V. Boffa, T. Hermsen, “Self-Filtering Unstable Resonator Operation of XeCl Excimer Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1241 (1987).

1986

R. Barbini, A. Ghigo, M. Giorgi, K. N. Iyer, A. Palucci, S. Ribezzo, “Injection-Locked Single-Mode High-Power Low-Divergence TEA CO2 Laser using SFUR Configuration,” Opt. Commun. 60, 239 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

P. G. Gobbi, S. Morosi, G. C. Reali, A. S. Zarkasi, “Novel Unstable Resonator Configuration with a Self-Filtering Aperture: Experimental Characterization of the Nd:YAG Loaded Cavity,” Appl. Opt. 24, 26–33 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Izawa, A. Suda, M. Obara, “Experimental Observation of Unstable Resonator Mode Evolution in a High-Power KrF Laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 3987 (1985).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Gobbi, G. C. Reali, “Numerical Study of a Self-Filtering Unstable Resonator,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 540, 119 (1985).

1984

P. G. Gobbi, G. C. Reali, “A Novel Unstable Resonator Configuration with a Self Filtering Aperture,” Opt. Commun. 52, 195 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

E. Armandillo, A. Luches, V. Nassisi, M. R. Perrone, “Improved Lasing Performance of KrCl Excimer Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 860 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1977

A. A. Isaev, M. A. Kazaryan, G. G. Petrash, S. G. Rautian, A. M. Shalagin, “Shaping of the Output Beam in a Pulsed Gas Laser with an Unstable Resonator,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 746 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1974

A. E. Siegman, “Unstable Optical Resonators,” Appl. Opt. 13, 353–367 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. I. Zemskov, A. A. Isaev, M. A. Kazaryan, G. G. Petrash, S. G. Rautian, “Use of Unstable Resonators in Achieving the Diffraction Divergence of the Radiation Emitted from High-Gain Pulsed Gas Laser,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 4, 474 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Armandillo, E.

E. Armandillo, A. Luches, V. Nassisi, M. R. Perrone, “Improved Lasing Performance of KrCl Excimer Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 860 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Barbini, R.

R. Barbini, A. Ghigo, M. Giorgi, K. N. Iyer, A. Palucci, S. Ribezzo, “Injection-Locked Single-Mode High-Power Low-Divergence TEA CO2 Laser using SFUR Configuration,” Opt. Commun. 60, 239 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Boffa, V.

P. Di Lazzaro, G. P. Gallerano, G. Giordano, T. Letardi, C. E. Zheng, V. Boffa, T. Hermsen, “Self-Filtering Unstable Resonator Operation of XeCl Excimer Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1241 (1987).

Chen, J.

J. Chen, A. Luches, V. Nassisi, M. R. Perrone, “Experimental Study of Positive and Negative Branch Unstable Resonators Applied to a XeCl Laser,” submitted to J. Modern Optics (1989).

Di Lazzaro, P.

P. Di Lazzaro, G. P. Gallerano, G. Giordano, T. Letardi, C. E. Zheng, V. Boffa, T. Hermsen, “Self-Filtering Unstable Resonator Operation of XeCl Excimer Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1241 (1987).

P. Di Lazzaro, T. Letardi, T. Hermsen, C. E. Zheng, “Self-Filtering Unstable Resonator: An Approximate Analytical Model with Comparison to Computed and XeCl Laser Experimental Results,” Opt. Commun. 61, 393 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gallerano, G. P.

P. Di Lazzaro, G. P. Gallerano, G. Giordano, T. Letardi, C. E. Zheng, V. Boffa, T. Hermsen, “Self-Filtering Unstable Resonator Operation of XeCl Excimer Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1241 (1987).

Ghigo, A.

R. Barbini, A. Ghigo, M. Giorgi, K. N. Iyer, A. Palucci, S. Ribezzo, “Injection-Locked Single-Mode High-Power Low-Divergence TEA CO2 Laser using SFUR Configuration,” Opt. Commun. 60, 239 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Giordano, G.

P. Di Lazzaro, G. P. Gallerano, G. Giordano, T. Letardi, C. E. Zheng, V. Boffa, T. Hermsen, “Self-Filtering Unstable Resonator Operation of XeCl Excimer Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1241 (1987).

Giorgi, M.

R. Barbini, A. Ghigo, M. Giorgi, K. N. Iyer, A. Palucci, S. Ribezzo, “Injection-Locked Single-Mode High-Power Low-Divergence TEA CO2 Laser using SFUR Configuration,” Opt. Commun. 60, 239 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Gobbi, P. G.

P. G. Gobbi, G. C. Reali, “Numerical Study of a Self-Filtering Unstable Resonator,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 540, 119 (1985).

P. G. Gobbi, S. Morosi, G. C. Reali, A. S. Zarkasi, “Novel Unstable Resonator Configuration with a Self-Filtering Aperture: Experimental Characterization of the Nd:YAG Loaded Cavity,” Appl. Opt. 24, 26–33 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. Gobbi, G. C. Reali, “A Novel Unstable Resonator Configuration with a Self Filtering Aperture,” Opt. Commun. 52, 195 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Hermsen, T.

P. Di Lazzaro, G. P. Gallerano, G. Giordano, T. Letardi, C. E. Zheng, V. Boffa, T. Hermsen, “Self-Filtering Unstable Resonator Operation of XeCl Excimer Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1241 (1987).

P. Di Lazzaro, T. Letardi, T. Hermsen, C. E. Zheng, “Self-Filtering Unstable Resonator: An Approximate Analytical Model with Comparison to Computed and XeCl Laser Experimental Results,” Opt. Commun. 61, 393 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Isaev, A. A.

A. A. Isaev, M. A. Kazaryan, G. G. Petrash, S. G. Rautian, A. M. Shalagin, “Shaping of the Output Beam in a Pulsed Gas Laser with an Unstable Resonator,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 746 (1977).
[CrossRef]

K. I. Zemskov, A. A. Isaev, M. A. Kazaryan, G. G. Petrash, S. G. Rautian, “Use of Unstable Resonators in Achieving the Diffraction Divergence of the Radiation Emitted from High-Gain Pulsed Gas Laser,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 4, 474 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Iyer, K. N.

R. Barbini, A. Ghigo, M. Giorgi, K. N. Iyer, A. Palucci, S. Ribezzo, “Injection-Locked Single-Mode High-Power Low-Divergence TEA CO2 Laser using SFUR Configuration,” Opt. Commun. 60, 239 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Izawa, S.

S. Izawa, A. Suda, M. Obara, “Experimental Observation of Unstable Resonator Mode Evolution in a High-Power KrF Laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 3987 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kazaryan, M. A.

A. A. Isaev, M. A. Kazaryan, G. G. Petrash, S. G. Rautian, A. M. Shalagin, “Shaping of the Output Beam in a Pulsed Gas Laser with an Unstable Resonator,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 746 (1977).
[CrossRef]

K. I. Zemskov, A. A. Isaev, M. A. Kazaryan, G. G. Petrash, S. G. Rautian, “Use of Unstable Resonators in Achieving the Diffraction Divergence of the Radiation Emitted from High-Gain Pulsed Gas Laser,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 4, 474 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Letardi, T.

P. Di Lazzaro, T. Letardi, T. Hermsen, C. E. Zheng, “Self-Filtering Unstable Resonator: An Approximate Analytical Model with Comparison to Computed and XeCl Laser Experimental Results,” Opt. Commun. 61, 393 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. Di Lazzaro, G. P. Gallerano, G. Giordano, T. Letardi, C. E. Zheng, V. Boffa, T. Hermsen, “Self-Filtering Unstable Resonator Operation of XeCl Excimer Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1241 (1987).

Luches, A.

E. Armandillo, A. Luches, V. Nassisi, M. R. Perrone, “Improved Lasing Performance of KrCl Excimer Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 860 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, A. Luches, V. Nassisi, M. R. Perrone, “Experimental Study of Positive and Negative Branch Unstable Resonators Applied to a XeCl Laser,” submitted to J. Modern Optics (1989).

Morosi, S.

Nassisi, V.

E. Armandillo, A. Luches, V. Nassisi, M. R. Perrone, “Improved Lasing Performance of KrCl Excimer Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 860 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, A. Luches, V. Nassisi, M. R. Perrone, “Experimental Study of Positive and Negative Branch Unstable Resonators Applied to a XeCl Laser,” submitted to J. Modern Optics (1989).

Obara, M.

S. Izawa, A. Suda, M. Obara, “Experimental Observation of Unstable Resonator Mode Evolution in a High-Power KrF Laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 3987 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Palucci, A.

R. Barbini, A. Ghigo, M. Giorgi, K. N. Iyer, A. Palucci, S. Ribezzo, “Injection-Locked Single-Mode High-Power Low-Divergence TEA CO2 Laser using SFUR Configuration,” Opt. Commun. 60, 239 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Perrone, M. R.

E. Armandillo, A. Luches, V. Nassisi, M. R. Perrone, “Improved Lasing Performance of KrCl Excimer Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 860 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, A. Luches, V. Nassisi, M. R. Perrone, “Experimental Study of Positive and Negative Branch Unstable Resonators Applied to a XeCl Laser,” submitted to J. Modern Optics (1989).

Petrash, G. G.

A. A. Isaev, M. A. Kazaryan, G. G. Petrash, S. G. Rautian, A. M. Shalagin, “Shaping of the Output Beam in a Pulsed Gas Laser with an Unstable Resonator,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 746 (1977).
[CrossRef]

K. I. Zemskov, A. A. Isaev, M. A. Kazaryan, G. G. Petrash, S. G. Rautian, “Use of Unstable Resonators in Achieving the Diffraction Divergence of the Radiation Emitted from High-Gain Pulsed Gas Laser,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 4, 474 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Rautian, S. G.

A. A. Isaev, M. A. Kazaryan, G. G. Petrash, S. G. Rautian, A. M. Shalagin, “Shaping of the Output Beam in a Pulsed Gas Laser with an Unstable Resonator,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 746 (1977).
[CrossRef]

K. I. Zemskov, A. A. Isaev, M. A. Kazaryan, G. G. Petrash, S. G. Rautian, “Use of Unstable Resonators in Achieving the Diffraction Divergence of the Radiation Emitted from High-Gain Pulsed Gas Laser,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 4, 474 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Reali, G. C.

P. G. Gobbi, G. C. Reali, “Numerical Study of a Self-Filtering Unstable Resonator,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 540, 119 (1985).

P. G. Gobbi, S. Morosi, G. C. Reali, A. S. Zarkasi, “Novel Unstable Resonator Configuration with a Self-Filtering Aperture: Experimental Characterization of the Nd:YAG Loaded Cavity,” Appl. Opt. 24, 26–33 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. Gobbi, G. C. Reali, “A Novel Unstable Resonator Configuration with a Self Filtering Aperture,” Opt. Commun. 52, 195 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ribezzo, S.

R. Barbini, A. Ghigo, M. Giorgi, K. N. Iyer, A. Palucci, S. Ribezzo, “Injection-Locked Single-Mode High-Power Low-Divergence TEA CO2 Laser using SFUR Configuration,” Opt. Commun. 60, 239 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Shalagin, A. M.

A. A. Isaev, M. A. Kazaryan, G. G. Petrash, S. G. Rautian, A. M. Shalagin, “Shaping of the Output Beam in a Pulsed Gas Laser with an Unstable Resonator,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 746 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Siegman, A. E.

Suda, A.

S. Izawa, A. Suda, M. Obara, “Experimental Observation of Unstable Resonator Mode Evolution in a High-Power KrF Laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 3987 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Zarkasi, A. S.

Zemskov, K. I.

K. I. Zemskov, A. A. Isaev, M. A. Kazaryan, G. G. Petrash, S. G. Rautian, “Use of Unstable Resonators in Achieving the Diffraction Divergence of the Radiation Emitted from High-Gain Pulsed Gas Laser,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 4, 474 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, C. E.

P. Di Lazzaro, G. P. Gallerano, G. Giordano, T. Letardi, C. E. Zheng, V. Boffa, T. Hermsen, “Self-Filtering Unstable Resonator Operation of XeCl Excimer Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1241 (1987).

P. Di Lazzaro, T. Letardi, T. Hermsen, C. E. Zheng, “Self-Filtering Unstable Resonator: An Approximate Analytical Model with Comparison to Computed and XeCl Laser Experimental Results,” Opt. Commun. 61, 393 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

E. Armandillo, A. Luches, V. Nassisi, M. R. Perrone, “Improved Lasing Performance of KrCl Excimer Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 860 (1983).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

P. Di Lazzaro, G. P. Gallerano, G. Giordano, T. Letardi, C. E. Zheng, V. Boffa, T. Hermsen, “Self-Filtering Unstable Resonator Operation of XeCl Excimer Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1241 (1987).

J. Appl. Phys.

S. Izawa, A. Suda, M. Obara, “Experimental Observation of Unstable Resonator Mode Evolution in a High-Power KrF Laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 3987 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

R. Barbini, A. Ghigo, M. Giorgi, K. N. Iyer, A. Palucci, S. Ribezzo, “Injection-Locked Single-Mode High-Power Low-Divergence TEA CO2 Laser using SFUR Configuration,” Opt. Commun. 60, 239 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. Di Lazzaro, T. Letardi, T. Hermsen, C. E. Zheng, “Self-Filtering Unstable Resonator: An Approximate Analytical Model with Comparison to Computed and XeCl Laser Experimental Results,” Opt. Commun. 61, 393 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Gobbi, G. C. Reali, “A Novel Unstable Resonator Configuration with a Self Filtering Aperture,” Opt. Commun. 52, 195 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.

P. G. Gobbi, G. C. Reali, “Numerical Study of a Self-Filtering Unstable Resonator,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 540, 119 (1985).

Sov. J. Quantum Electron.

K. I. Zemskov, A. A. Isaev, M. A. Kazaryan, G. G. Petrash, S. G. Rautian, “Use of Unstable Resonators in Achieving the Diffraction Divergence of the Radiation Emitted from High-Gain Pulsed Gas Laser,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 4, 474 (1974).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Isaev, M. A. Kazaryan, G. G. Petrash, S. G. Rautian, A. M. Shalagin, “Shaping of the Output Beam in a Pulsed Gas Laser with an Unstable Resonator,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 746 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. Chen, A. Luches, V. Nassisi, M. R. Perrone, “Experimental Study of Positive and Negative Branch Unstable Resonators Applied to a XeCl Laser,” submitted to J. Modern Optics (1989).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Layout of the experimental apparatus: M1, M2, aluminized concave mirrors of focal lengths f1, f2; OC, output coupler; FA, filtering aperture; La, active length; L, resonator length.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Burn spots of the laser output beam at (a) 0.1 m, (b) 2 m, (c) 5 m.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Intensity beam profile vs radial distance: dots, experimental measurements; solid line, analytical solution.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Percentage of energy transmitted through calibrated apertures at the focus of a 5-m lens.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Laser beam divergence vs the filtering aperture diameter placed at the common focal plane of M1 and M2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Time history of the laser beam focused by a 5-m lens (a) on the optical axis (higher pulse) and at 0.5 mm from it; (b) on the optical axis (higher pulse) and at 1 mm from it.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

a = 0 . 61 λ f 2 ,
I ( r ) = I o exp [ 2 . 108 r 2 / ( M a ) 2 + 0 ( 1 / M 4 ) ] ,
m = 1 + ln [ a 2 / ( 0 . 61 λ f 2 ) ] ln | M | .
D 1 . 5 | M | 2 a 1 . 5 | f 1 / f 2 | 2 0 . 61 λ f 2
τ = 2 L c < τ g ,
exp ( 2 α t L a ) = M 2 ,
α t = 1 L a ln | M | < α

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