This paper gives both theoretical and experimental proof of elliptical polarization and nonorthogonality of Zeeman laser output. It verifies that the polarized modes of the output have 4–7° orthogonal error which is induced by anisotropy in the laser cavity. A new formula for calculation of this orthogonal error has been derived which also provides a way to measure the anisotropy of the laser cavity. We also discuss the influence of nonorthogonality on the spectrum of the laser.
© 1989 Optical Society of America
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