Abstract

An efficient and practical laser diode module is demonstrated for single-mode fiber applications. The module is developed through use of an earlier proposed combination lens method, where a hemispherical ended graded index rod lens and virtual fiber are employed. Since lens and virtual fiber misalignment tolerances are large in this coupling method, the YAG laser welding technique is easily applicable. This laser diode module has not only a simple structure but also high coupling efficiency, excellent reproducibility, and extremely high reliability.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. Weidel, “New Coupling Method for GaAs-Laser-Fiber Coupling,” Electron. Lett. 11, 436–437, (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Odagiri, M. Shikada, K. Kobayashi, “High-Efficiency Laser-to-Fiber Coupling Circuit Using a Combination of a Cylindrical Lens and a Selfoc Lens,” Electron. Lett. 13, 395–396 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Kuwahara, M. Sasaki, N. Tokoyo, “Efficient Coupling from Semiconductor Lasers into Single-Mode Fibers with Tapered Hemispherical Ends,” Appl. Opt. 19, 2578–2583 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. L. G. Cohen, M. V. Schneider, “Microlenses for Coupling Junction Lasers to Optical Fibers,” Appl. Opt. 13, 89–94 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Yamada, Y. Murakami, J. Sakai, T. Kimura, “Characteristics of a Hemispherical Microlens for Coupling Between a Semiconductor Laser and Single-Mode Fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1067–1072 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Sakaguchi, N. Seki, S. Yamamoto, “High Efficiency Coupling for Laser Diodes into Single-Mode Fibers with Quadrangular Pyramid-Shaped Hemielliptical Ends,” in Technical Digest of Third International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1981), paper TUL1.
  7. E. Weidel, “Light Coupling from a Junction Laser into a Mono-mode Fiber with a Glass Cylindrical Lens on the Fiber Ends,” Opt. Commun. 12, 93–97 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Eisenstein, D. Vitello, “Chemically Etched Conical Microlenses for Coupling Single-Mode Lasers into Single-Mode Fibers,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3470–3474 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. D. Khoe, J. Poulissen, H. M. de Vrieze, “Efficient Coupling of Laser Diodes to Tapered Monomode Fibers with High Index End,” Electron. Lett. 19, 205–206 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Saruwatari, K. Nawata, “Semiconductor Laser to Single-Mode Fiber Coupler,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1847–1859 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Odagiri, K. Kobayashi, “LD-Fiber Coupling Circuit Using Hemispherical Ended Graded Index Rod Lens,” in Technical Digest, Annual Meeting of IECE Japan (1980), paper 891.
  12. M. Saruwatari, T. Sugie, “Efficient Laser Diode to Single-Mode Fiber Coupling Using a Combination of Two Lenses in Confocal Condition,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1021–1027 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Sugie, M. Saruwatari, “Semiconductor Laser Module for Single-Mode Fiber Transmission System Using a Combination of Confocal Two Lenses,” Trans. IECE Jpn. J65-B, 374–381 (1982), in Japanese.
  14. K. Kawano, O. Mitomi, M. Saruwatari, “Combination Lens Method for Coupling a Laser Diode to a Single-Mode Fiber,” Appl. Opt. 24, 984–989 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. K. Kawano, M. Saruwatari, O. Mitomi, “A New Confocal Combination Lens Method for a Laser-Diode Module Using a Single-Mode Fiber,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 739–745 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. Kawano, “Coupling Characteristics of Lens Systems for Laser Diode Modules Using Single-Mode Fiber,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2600–2605 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. K. Kawano, O. Mitomi, M. Saruwatari, “Laser Diode Module for Single-Mode Fiber Based on New Confocal Combination Lens Method,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1407–1413 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  18. K. Kawano, T. Mukai, O. Mitomi, “Optical Output Power Fluctuation Due to Reflected Lightwaves in Laser Diode Modules,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1669–1677 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  19. O. Mitomi, T. Nozawa, K. Kawano, “Effect of Solder Creeps on Optical Component Reliability,” IEEE Trans. Components, Hybrids, Manuf. Technol. CHMT-8, 265–271 (1986).
    [CrossRef]

1986 (4)

K. Kawano, “Coupling Characteristics of Lens Systems for Laser Diode Modules Using Single-Mode Fiber,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2600–2605 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kawano, O. Mitomi, M. Saruwatari, “Laser Diode Module for Single-Mode Fiber Based on New Confocal Combination Lens Method,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1407–1413 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawano, T. Mukai, O. Mitomi, “Optical Output Power Fluctuation Due to Reflected Lightwaves in Laser Diode Modules,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1669–1677 (1986).
[CrossRef]

O. Mitomi, T. Nozawa, K. Kawano, “Effect of Solder Creeps on Optical Component Reliability,” IEEE Trans. Components, Hybrids, Manuf. Technol. CHMT-8, 265–271 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

K. Kawano, O. Mitomi, M. Saruwatari, “Combination Lens Method for Coupling a Laser Diode to a Single-Mode Fiber,” Appl. Opt. 24, 984–989 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kawano, M. Saruwatari, O. Mitomi, “A New Confocal Combination Lens Method for a Laser-Diode Module Using a Single-Mode Fiber,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 739–745 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

G. D. Khoe, J. Poulissen, H. M. de Vrieze, “Efficient Coupling of Laser Diodes to Tapered Monomode Fibers with High Index End,” Electron. Lett. 19, 205–206 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

G. Eisenstein, D. Vitello, “Chemically Etched Conical Microlenses for Coupling Single-Mode Lasers into Single-Mode Fibers,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3470–3474 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sugie, M. Saruwatari, “Semiconductor Laser Module for Single-Mode Fiber Transmission System Using a Combination of Confocal Two Lenses,” Trans. IECE Jpn. J65-B, 374–381 (1982), in Japanese.

1981 (1)

M. Saruwatari, T. Sugie, “Efficient Laser Diode to Single-Mode Fiber Coupling Using a Combination of Two Lenses in Confocal Condition,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1021–1027 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (2)

J. Yamada, Y. Murakami, J. Sakai, T. Kimura, “Characteristics of a Hemispherical Microlens for Coupling Between a Semiconductor Laser and Single-Mode Fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1067–1072 (1980).
[CrossRef]

H. Kuwahara, M. Sasaki, N. Tokoyo, “Efficient Coupling from Semiconductor Lasers into Single-Mode Fibers with Tapered Hemispherical Ends,” Appl. Opt. 19, 2578–2583 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

1977 (1)

Y. Odagiri, M. Shikada, K. Kobayashi, “High-Efficiency Laser-to-Fiber Coupling Circuit Using a Combination of a Cylindrical Lens and a Selfoc Lens,” Electron. Lett. 13, 395–396 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

E. Weidel, “New Coupling Method for GaAs-Laser-Fiber Coupling,” Electron. Lett. 11, 436–437, (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (2)

L. G. Cohen, M. V. Schneider, “Microlenses for Coupling Junction Lasers to Optical Fibers,” Appl. Opt. 13, 89–94 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Weidel, “Light Coupling from a Junction Laser into a Mono-mode Fiber with a Glass Cylindrical Lens on the Fiber Ends,” Opt. Commun. 12, 93–97 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, L. G.

de Vrieze, H. M.

G. D. Khoe, J. Poulissen, H. M. de Vrieze, “Efficient Coupling of Laser Diodes to Tapered Monomode Fibers with High Index End,” Electron. Lett. 19, 205–206 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Eisenstein, G.

Kawano, K.

K. Kawano, “Coupling Characteristics of Lens Systems for Laser Diode Modules Using Single-Mode Fiber,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2600–2605 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kawano, O. Mitomi, M. Saruwatari, “Laser Diode Module for Single-Mode Fiber Based on New Confocal Combination Lens Method,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1407–1413 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawano, T. Mukai, O. Mitomi, “Optical Output Power Fluctuation Due to Reflected Lightwaves in Laser Diode Modules,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1669–1677 (1986).
[CrossRef]

O. Mitomi, T. Nozawa, K. Kawano, “Effect of Solder Creeps on Optical Component Reliability,” IEEE Trans. Components, Hybrids, Manuf. Technol. CHMT-8, 265–271 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawano, O. Mitomi, M. Saruwatari, “Combination Lens Method for Coupling a Laser Diode to a Single-Mode Fiber,” Appl. Opt. 24, 984–989 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kawano, M. Saruwatari, O. Mitomi, “A New Confocal Combination Lens Method for a Laser-Diode Module Using a Single-Mode Fiber,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 739–745 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Khoe, G. D.

G. D. Khoe, J. Poulissen, H. M. de Vrieze, “Efficient Coupling of Laser Diodes to Tapered Monomode Fibers with High Index End,” Electron. Lett. 19, 205–206 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, T.

J. Yamada, Y. Murakami, J. Sakai, T. Kimura, “Characteristics of a Hemispherical Microlens for Coupling Between a Semiconductor Laser and Single-Mode Fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1067–1072 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, K.

Y. Odagiri, M. Shikada, K. Kobayashi, “High-Efficiency Laser-to-Fiber Coupling Circuit Using a Combination of a Cylindrical Lens and a Selfoc Lens,” Electron. Lett. 13, 395–396 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Y. Odagiri, K. Kobayashi, “LD-Fiber Coupling Circuit Using Hemispherical Ended Graded Index Rod Lens,” in Technical Digest, Annual Meeting of IECE Japan (1980), paper 891.

Kuwahara, H.

Mitomi, O.

K. Kawano, T. Mukai, O. Mitomi, “Optical Output Power Fluctuation Due to Reflected Lightwaves in Laser Diode Modules,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1669–1677 (1986).
[CrossRef]

O. Mitomi, T. Nozawa, K. Kawano, “Effect of Solder Creeps on Optical Component Reliability,” IEEE Trans. Components, Hybrids, Manuf. Technol. CHMT-8, 265–271 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawano, O. Mitomi, M. Saruwatari, “Laser Diode Module for Single-Mode Fiber Based on New Confocal Combination Lens Method,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1407–1413 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawano, M. Saruwatari, O. Mitomi, “A New Confocal Combination Lens Method for a Laser-Diode Module Using a Single-Mode Fiber,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 739–745 (1985).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawano, O. Mitomi, M. Saruwatari, “Combination Lens Method for Coupling a Laser Diode to a Single-Mode Fiber,” Appl. Opt. 24, 984–989 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mukai, T.

K. Kawano, T. Mukai, O. Mitomi, “Optical Output Power Fluctuation Due to Reflected Lightwaves in Laser Diode Modules,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1669–1677 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Murakami, Y.

J. Yamada, Y. Murakami, J. Sakai, T. Kimura, “Characteristics of a Hemispherical Microlens for Coupling Between a Semiconductor Laser and Single-Mode Fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1067–1072 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Nawata, K.

Nozawa, T.

O. Mitomi, T. Nozawa, K. Kawano, “Effect of Solder Creeps on Optical Component Reliability,” IEEE Trans. Components, Hybrids, Manuf. Technol. CHMT-8, 265–271 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Odagiri, Y.

Y. Odagiri, M. Shikada, K. Kobayashi, “High-Efficiency Laser-to-Fiber Coupling Circuit Using a Combination of a Cylindrical Lens and a Selfoc Lens,” Electron. Lett. 13, 395–396 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Y. Odagiri, K. Kobayashi, “LD-Fiber Coupling Circuit Using Hemispherical Ended Graded Index Rod Lens,” in Technical Digest, Annual Meeting of IECE Japan (1980), paper 891.

Poulissen, J.

G. D. Khoe, J. Poulissen, H. M. de Vrieze, “Efficient Coupling of Laser Diodes to Tapered Monomode Fibers with High Index End,” Electron. Lett. 19, 205–206 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sakaguchi, H.

H. Sakaguchi, N. Seki, S. Yamamoto, “High Efficiency Coupling for Laser Diodes into Single-Mode Fibers with Quadrangular Pyramid-Shaped Hemielliptical Ends,” in Technical Digest of Third International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1981), paper TUL1.

Sakai, J.

J. Yamada, Y. Murakami, J. Sakai, T. Kimura, “Characteristics of a Hemispherical Microlens for Coupling Between a Semiconductor Laser and Single-Mode Fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1067–1072 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Saruwatari, M.

K. Kawano, O. Mitomi, M. Saruwatari, “Laser Diode Module for Single-Mode Fiber Based on New Confocal Combination Lens Method,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1407–1413 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawano, O. Mitomi, M. Saruwatari, “Combination Lens Method for Coupling a Laser Diode to a Single-Mode Fiber,” Appl. Opt. 24, 984–989 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kawano, M. Saruwatari, O. Mitomi, “A New Confocal Combination Lens Method for a Laser-Diode Module Using a Single-Mode Fiber,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 739–745 (1985).
[CrossRef]

T. Sugie, M. Saruwatari, “Semiconductor Laser Module for Single-Mode Fiber Transmission System Using a Combination of Confocal Two Lenses,” Trans. IECE Jpn. J65-B, 374–381 (1982), in Japanese.

M. Saruwatari, T. Sugie, “Efficient Laser Diode to Single-Mode Fiber Coupling Using a Combination of Two Lenses in Confocal Condition,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1021–1027 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. Saruwatari, K. Nawata, “Semiconductor Laser to Single-Mode Fiber Coupler,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1847–1859 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sasaki, M.

Schneider, M. V.

Seki, N.

H. Sakaguchi, N. Seki, S. Yamamoto, “High Efficiency Coupling for Laser Diodes into Single-Mode Fibers with Quadrangular Pyramid-Shaped Hemielliptical Ends,” in Technical Digest of Third International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1981), paper TUL1.

Shikada, M.

Y. Odagiri, M. Shikada, K. Kobayashi, “High-Efficiency Laser-to-Fiber Coupling Circuit Using a Combination of a Cylindrical Lens and a Selfoc Lens,” Electron. Lett. 13, 395–396 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Sugie, T.

T. Sugie, M. Saruwatari, “Semiconductor Laser Module for Single-Mode Fiber Transmission System Using a Combination of Confocal Two Lenses,” Trans. IECE Jpn. J65-B, 374–381 (1982), in Japanese.

M. Saruwatari, T. Sugie, “Efficient Laser Diode to Single-Mode Fiber Coupling Using a Combination of Two Lenses in Confocal Condition,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1021–1027 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Tokoyo, N.

Vitello, D.

Weidel, E.

E. Weidel, “New Coupling Method for GaAs-Laser-Fiber Coupling,” Electron. Lett. 11, 436–437, (1975).
[CrossRef]

E. Weidel, “Light Coupling from a Junction Laser into a Mono-mode Fiber with a Glass Cylindrical Lens on the Fiber Ends,” Opt. Commun. 12, 93–97 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, J.

J. Yamada, Y. Murakami, J. Sakai, T. Kimura, “Characteristics of a Hemispherical Microlens for Coupling Between a Semiconductor Laser and Single-Mode Fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1067–1072 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, S.

H. Sakaguchi, N. Seki, S. Yamamoto, “High Efficiency Coupling for Laser Diodes into Single-Mode Fibers with Quadrangular Pyramid-Shaped Hemielliptical Ends,” in Technical Digest of Third International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1981), paper TUL1.

Appl. Opt. (6)

Electron. Lett. (3)

G. D. Khoe, J. Poulissen, H. M. de Vrieze, “Efficient Coupling of Laser Diodes to Tapered Monomode Fibers with High Index End,” Electron. Lett. 19, 205–206 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. Weidel, “New Coupling Method for GaAs-Laser-Fiber Coupling,” Electron. Lett. 11, 436–437, (1975).
[CrossRef]

Y. Odagiri, M. Shikada, K. Kobayashi, “High-Efficiency Laser-to-Fiber Coupling Circuit Using a Combination of a Cylindrical Lens and a Selfoc Lens,” Electron. Lett. 13, 395–396 (1977).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

J. Yamada, Y. Murakami, J. Sakai, T. Kimura, “Characteristics of a Hemispherical Microlens for Coupling Between a Semiconductor Laser and Single-Mode Fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1067–1072 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. Saruwatari, T. Sugie, “Efficient Laser Diode to Single-Mode Fiber Coupling Using a Combination of Two Lenses in Confocal Condition,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1021–1027 (1981).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Components, Hybrids, Manuf. Technol. (1)

O. Mitomi, T. Nozawa, K. Kawano, “Effect of Solder Creeps on Optical Component Reliability,” IEEE Trans. Components, Hybrids, Manuf. Technol. CHMT-8, 265–271 (1986).
[CrossRef]

IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

K. Kawano, O. Mitomi, M. Saruwatari, “Laser Diode Module for Single-Mode Fiber Based on New Confocal Combination Lens Method,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1407–1413 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawano, T. Mukai, O. Mitomi, “Optical Output Power Fluctuation Due to Reflected Lightwaves in Laser Diode Modules,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1669–1677 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawano, M. Saruwatari, O. Mitomi, “A New Confocal Combination Lens Method for a Laser-Diode Module Using a Single-Mode Fiber,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 739–745 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

E. Weidel, “Light Coupling from a Junction Laser into a Mono-mode Fiber with a Glass Cylindrical Lens on the Fiber Ends,” Opt. Commun. 12, 93–97 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Trans. IECE Jpn. (1)

T. Sugie, M. Saruwatari, “Semiconductor Laser Module for Single-Mode Fiber Transmission System Using a Combination of Confocal Two Lenses,” Trans. IECE Jpn. J65-B, 374–381 (1982), in Japanese.

Other (2)

Y. Odagiri, K. Kobayashi, “LD-Fiber Coupling Circuit Using Hemispherical Ended Graded Index Rod Lens,” in Technical Digest, Annual Meeting of IECE Japan (1980), paper 891.

H. Sakaguchi, N. Seki, S. Yamamoto, “High Efficiency Coupling for Laser Diodes into Single-Mode Fibers with Quadrangular Pyramid-Shaped Hemielliptical Ends,” in Technical Digest of Third International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1981), paper TUL1.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Cross-sectional view of coupling method, (b) Coupling principle of proposed laser diode module; f1 and f2 designate focal lengths of lenses 1 and 2.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized calculated coupling efficiency as a function of (a) lateral offset, (b) angular misalignment, and (c) axial misalignment for virtual fiber.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized calculated coupling efficiency as a function of lens 1 lateral offset.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized calculated coupling efficiency as a function of (a) lateral offset and (b) axial misalignment for lens 1. Virtual fiber was assumed to be accompanied by virtual fiber adjustment.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Sectional view of produced laser diode module.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Coupling efficiency histogram for laser diode modules.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Histogram of maximum output power variation due to temperature change (5–50°C) in APC conditions.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Coupling efficiency variation for proposed laser diode modules shown as a function of heat cycle (−10–60°C) time.

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