Abstract

The influence of drawing induced stress on the light-guiding properties of dispersion-flattened single-mode (DFSM) fibers has been investigated. The measured differences of the refractive index profiles of fibers drawn with different drawing forces can be explained by the stress induced index change of the elastooptical effect. For DFSM fibers the influence of the drawing force on the light-guiding properties such as spot size and cutoff wavelength was found to be negligible. In contrast, calculations performed for pure silica core fibers predict a strong dependence of the optical properties on the drawing force.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. K. Bachmann, W. Hermann, H. Wehr, D. U. Wiechert, “Stress in Optical Waveguides. 1: Preforms,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1093–1098 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. K. Bachmann, W. Hermann, H. Wehr, D. U. Wiechert, “Stress in Optical Waveguides. 2: Fibers,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1175–1182 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. Nagano, S. Kawakami, S. Nishida, “Change of the Refractive Index in an Optical Fiber due to External Forces,” Appl. Opt. 17, 2080–2085 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. W. Scherer, “Stress-Induced Index Profile Distortion in Optical Waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 19, 2000–2006 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. F. Hanawa, Y. Hibino, M. Shimizu, H. Suda, M. Horiguchi, “Influences of the Drawing Conditions on Optical Characteristics in Undoped-Silica-Core Single-Mode Fibers,” Opt. Lett. 12, 617–618 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. L. Chu, T. Whitbread, “Measurement of Stresses in Optical Fiber and Preforms,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4241–4245 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. W. Primak, D. Post, “Photoelastic Constants of Vitreous Silica and Its Elastic Coefficient of Refractive Index,” J. Appl. Phys. 30, 779–788 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. K. Bachmann, P. Geittner, H. Lydtin, “Progress in the PCVD Process,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1986), paper WA1.
  9. P. Geittner, H. Lydtin, “Dispersion Modified Single-Mode Fibers,” in Technical Digest, Optical Fiber Communications Conference, (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), paper WI1.
  10. P. K. Bachmann, D. Leers, H. Wehr, D. U. Wiechert, J. A. van Steenwijk, D. L. A. Tjaden, E. R. Wehrhahn, “Dispersion-Flattened Single-Mode Fibers Prepared with PCVD: Performance, Limitation, Design Optimization,” IEEE/OSA L. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 858–863 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. Costa, D. Mazzoni, M. Puleo, E. Vezzoni, “Phase Shift Technique for the Measurement of Chromatic Dispersion in Optical Fibers Using LEDs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, No. 10, 1509—1515 (1982).
    [CrossRef]

1987 (2)

1986 (2)

P. K. Bachmann, D. Leers, H. Wehr, D. U. Wiechert, J. A. van Steenwijk, D. L. A. Tjaden, E. R. Wehrhahn, “Dispersion-Flattened Single-Mode Fibers Prepared with PCVD: Performance, Limitation, Design Optimization,” IEEE/OSA L. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 858–863 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Bachmann, W. Hermann, H. Wehr, D. U. Wiechert, “Stress in Optical Waveguides. 1: Preforms,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1093–1098 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (2)

P. L. Chu, T. Whitbread, “Measurement of Stresses in Optical Fiber and Preforms,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4241–4245 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Costa, D. Mazzoni, M. Puleo, E. Vezzoni, “Phase Shift Technique for the Measurement of Chromatic Dispersion in Optical Fibers Using LEDs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, No. 10, 1509—1515 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

1978 (1)

1959 (1)

W. Primak, D. Post, “Photoelastic Constants of Vitreous Silica and Its Elastic Coefficient of Refractive Index,” J. Appl. Phys. 30, 779–788 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Bachmann, P. K.

P. K. Bachmann, W. Hermann, H. Wehr, D. U. Wiechert, “Stress in Optical Waveguides. 2: Fibers,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1175–1182 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Bachmann, W. Hermann, H. Wehr, D. U. Wiechert, “Stress in Optical Waveguides. 1: Preforms,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1093–1098 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Bachmann, D. Leers, H. Wehr, D. U. Wiechert, J. A. van Steenwijk, D. L. A. Tjaden, E. R. Wehrhahn, “Dispersion-Flattened Single-Mode Fibers Prepared with PCVD: Performance, Limitation, Design Optimization,” IEEE/OSA L. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 858–863 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Bachmann, P. Geittner, H. Lydtin, “Progress in the PCVD Process,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1986), paper WA1.

Chu, P. L.

Costa, B.

B. Costa, D. Mazzoni, M. Puleo, E. Vezzoni, “Phase Shift Technique for the Measurement of Chromatic Dispersion in Optical Fibers Using LEDs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, No. 10, 1509—1515 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Geittner, P.

P. Geittner, H. Lydtin, “Dispersion Modified Single-Mode Fibers,” in Technical Digest, Optical Fiber Communications Conference, (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), paper WI1.

P. K. Bachmann, P. Geittner, H. Lydtin, “Progress in the PCVD Process,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1986), paper WA1.

Hanawa, F.

Hermann, W.

Hibino, Y.

Horiguchi, M.

Kawakami, S.

Leers, D.

P. K. Bachmann, D. Leers, H. Wehr, D. U. Wiechert, J. A. van Steenwijk, D. L. A. Tjaden, E. R. Wehrhahn, “Dispersion-Flattened Single-Mode Fibers Prepared with PCVD: Performance, Limitation, Design Optimization,” IEEE/OSA L. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 858–863 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lydtin, H.

P. K. Bachmann, P. Geittner, H. Lydtin, “Progress in the PCVD Process,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1986), paper WA1.

P. Geittner, H. Lydtin, “Dispersion Modified Single-Mode Fibers,” in Technical Digest, Optical Fiber Communications Conference, (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), paper WI1.

Mazzoni, D.

B. Costa, D. Mazzoni, M. Puleo, E. Vezzoni, “Phase Shift Technique for the Measurement of Chromatic Dispersion in Optical Fibers Using LEDs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, No. 10, 1509—1515 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Nagano, K.

Nishida, S.

Post, D.

W. Primak, D. Post, “Photoelastic Constants of Vitreous Silica and Its Elastic Coefficient of Refractive Index,” J. Appl. Phys. 30, 779–788 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Primak, W.

W. Primak, D. Post, “Photoelastic Constants of Vitreous Silica and Its Elastic Coefficient of Refractive Index,” J. Appl. Phys. 30, 779–788 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Puleo, M.

B. Costa, D. Mazzoni, M. Puleo, E. Vezzoni, “Phase Shift Technique for the Measurement of Chromatic Dispersion in Optical Fibers Using LEDs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, No. 10, 1509—1515 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, G. W.

Shimizu, M.

Suda, H.

Tjaden, D. L. A.

P. K. Bachmann, D. Leers, H. Wehr, D. U. Wiechert, J. A. van Steenwijk, D. L. A. Tjaden, E. R. Wehrhahn, “Dispersion-Flattened Single-Mode Fibers Prepared with PCVD: Performance, Limitation, Design Optimization,” IEEE/OSA L. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 858–863 (1986).
[CrossRef]

van Steenwijk, J. A.

P. K. Bachmann, D. Leers, H. Wehr, D. U. Wiechert, J. A. van Steenwijk, D. L. A. Tjaden, E. R. Wehrhahn, “Dispersion-Flattened Single-Mode Fibers Prepared with PCVD: Performance, Limitation, Design Optimization,” IEEE/OSA L. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 858–863 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Vezzoni, E.

B. Costa, D. Mazzoni, M. Puleo, E. Vezzoni, “Phase Shift Technique for the Measurement of Chromatic Dispersion in Optical Fibers Using LEDs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, No. 10, 1509—1515 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Wehr, H.

P. K. Bachmann, W. Hermann, H. Wehr, D. U. Wiechert, “Stress in Optical Waveguides. 2: Fibers,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1175–1182 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Bachmann, W. Hermann, H. Wehr, D. U. Wiechert, “Stress in Optical Waveguides. 1: Preforms,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1093–1098 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Bachmann, D. Leers, H. Wehr, D. U. Wiechert, J. A. van Steenwijk, D. L. A. Tjaden, E. R. Wehrhahn, “Dispersion-Flattened Single-Mode Fibers Prepared with PCVD: Performance, Limitation, Design Optimization,” IEEE/OSA L. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 858–863 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Wehrhahn, E. R.

P. K. Bachmann, D. Leers, H. Wehr, D. U. Wiechert, J. A. van Steenwijk, D. L. A. Tjaden, E. R. Wehrhahn, “Dispersion-Flattened Single-Mode Fibers Prepared with PCVD: Performance, Limitation, Design Optimization,” IEEE/OSA L. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 858–863 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Whitbread, T.

Wiechert, D. U.

P. K. Bachmann, W. Hermann, H. Wehr, D. U. Wiechert, “Stress in Optical Waveguides. 2: Fibers,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1175–1182 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Bachmann, W. Hermann, H. Wehr, D. U. Wiechert, “Stress in Optical Waveguides. 1: Preforms,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1093–1098 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Bachmann, D. Leers, H. Wehr, D. U. Wiechert, J. A. van Steenwijk, D. L. A. Tjaden, E. R. Wehrhahn, “Dispersion-Flattened Single-Mode Fibers Prepared with PCVD: Performance, Limitation, Design Optimization,” IEEE/OSA L. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 858–863 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. Costa, D. Mazzoni, M. Puleo, E. Vezzoni, “Phase Shift Technique for the Measurement of Chromatic Dispersion in Optical Fibers Using LEDs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, No. 10, 1509—1515 (1982).
[CrossRef]

IEEE/OSA L. Lightwave Technol. (1)

P. K. Bachmann, D. Leers, H. Wehr, D. U. Wiechert, J. A. van Steenwijk, D. L. A. Tjaden, E. R. Wehrhahn, “Dispersion-Flattened Single-Mode Fibers Prepared with PCVD: Performance, Limitation, Design Optimization,” IEEE/OSA L. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 858–863 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. Primak, D. Post, “Photoelastic Constants of Vitreous Silica and Its Elastic Coefficient of Refractive Index,” J. Appl. Phys. 30, 779–788 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (2)

P. K. Bachmann, P. Geittner, H. Lydtin, “Progress in the PCVD Process,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1986), paper WA1.

P. Geittner, H. Lydtin, “Dispersion Modified Single-Mode Fibers,” in Technical Digest, Optical Fiber Communications Conference, (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), paper WI1.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measured refractive index profile of the three DFSM fibers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured axial stress profiles of the three DFSM fibers.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated stress induced change of the radial component of the relative refractive index difference dΔr = dnr/n.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Measured and Calculated Values of the Relative Index Difference Between Cladding and Natural Fused Quartz

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n r = n C 1 σ r C 2 ( σ θ + σ z ) ,
n θ = n C 1 σ θ C 2 ( σ r + σ z ) ,
n z = n C 1 σ z C 2 ( σ r + σ θ ) ,
σ r ( r ) = 1 r 2 0 r σ z ( s ) s d s ,
σ r ( 0 ) = 1 2 σ z ( 0 ) ,
σ θ ( r ) = σ z ( r ) σ r ( r ) ,
σ z , core = + 71 . 8 × F / ( N ) ( kg / mm 2 ) ,
σ z , clad = 0 . 30 × F / ( N ) ( kg / mm 2 ) ,
d n r , core = 1 2 σ z , core ( C 1 + 3 C 2 ) = 4 . 8 × 10 3 × F / ( N ) .
d n r , clad = 1 2 σ z , clad ( C 1 + 3 C 2 ) = + 2 . 0 × 10 5 × F / ( N ) .

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