Abstract

We report a simple technique for patterning channelized optical waveguides on standard electronic printed circuit card material. The technique exploits the abundance of transparent, radiant-curing polymer adhesives in the fiber optics and the dental industries. The process is compatible with standard printed circuit card fabrication processes; hence its applicability to optical interconnection scenarios. We report typical guide losses in the 0.4–0.6-dB/cm range. Measurements were made using an automated noninvasive, nondestructive technique, also briefly described here. Simple structures, such as splitters, bus lines, and 90° bends were fabricated and are described. Optical coupling to the waveguides from packaged devices is also discussed.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. R. Haugen, S. Rychnovsky, A. Husain, L. D. Hutcheson, “Optical Interconnects for High Speed Computing,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1076 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. K. Kilcoyne, S. Beccue, K. D. Pedrotti, R. Asotourian, R. Anderson, “Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits for High Speed Signal Processing,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1119 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. H. Hartman, “Digital High Speed Interconnects: a Study of the Optical Alternative,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1086 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. A. Sawchuck, “Optical Interconnection Systems for Digital Parallel Processors,” in Proceedings, Fall Computer Conference, Cat. No. 86CH2345-7 (1986).
  5. J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, T. Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical Interconnections for VLSI Systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. W. Shumate, “Reliability Considerations for Optical Interconnections,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 703, 96 (1986).
  7. H. M. Presby, N. Amitay, F. V. DiMarcello, K. T. Nelson, “Optical Fiber Tapers at 1.3 μm for Self-Aligned Beam Expansion and Single-Mode Hardware,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 1123 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Miura, I. Sawaki, H. Nakajima, “Low-Loss Single-Mode Plastic Waveguide Fabricated by Photopolymerization,” in Technical Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided Wave Optics, (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), pp. 58–61.
  9. R. R. Krchnavek, D. H. Hartman, J. W. Howse, “Laser Direct Writing of Optical Waveguide Structures,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), paper THI4.
  10. G. R. Lalk, D. H. Hartman, R. R. Krchnavek, “An Automated, Non-Destructive Technique for Measuring Optical Attenuation in Waveguides,” to be published.
  11. M. H. Reeve, M. C. Brierley, J. E. Midwinter, K. I. White, Opt. Quantum Electron. 8, 39 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  12. N. Nourshargy, E. M. Starr, N. I. Fox, S. G. Jone, “Simple Technique for Measuring Attenuation of Integrated Optical Waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 21, 818 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Wilson, J. Frich, J. Kwiat, J. Lo, J. Churchill, J. Barrera, “Package Study for High Speed (Ghz) Commercial GaAs Products,” in Technical Digest, GaAs I.C. Symposium (1982), pp. 13–16.
  14. D. H. Hartman, I. Ladany, G. R. Lalk, L. P. Quick, “Board Level High Speed Photonic Interconnections; Recent Technology Developments,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1988).

1988 (1)

D. H. Hartman, I. Ladany, G. R. Lalk, L. P. Quick, “Board Level High Speed Photonic Interconnections; Recent Technology Developments,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1988).

1987 (1)

H. M. Presby, N. Amitay, F. V. DiMarcello, K. T. Nelson, “Optical Fiber Tapers at 1.3 μm for Self-Aligned Beam Expansion and Single-Mode Hardware,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 1123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (5)

P. R. Haugen, S. Rychnovsky, A. Husain, L. D. Hutcheson, “Optical Interconnects for High Speed Computing,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1076 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Kilcoyne, S. Beccue, K. D. Pedrotti, R. Asotourian, R. Anderson, “Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits for High Speed Signal Processing,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1119 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Hartman, “Digital High Speed Interconnects: a Study of the Optical Alternative,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1086 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Sawchuck, “Optical Interconnection Systems for Digital Parallel Processors,” in Proceedings, Fall Computer Conference, Cat. No. 86CH2345-7 (1986).

P. W. Shumate, “Reliability Considerations for Optical Interconnections,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 703, 96 (1986).

1985 (1)

N. Nourshargy, E. M. Starr, N. I. Fox, S. G. Jone, “Simple Technique for Measuring Attenuation of Integrated Optical Waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 21, 818 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, T. Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical Interconnections for VLSI Systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

D. Wilson, J. Frich, J. Kwiat, J. Lo, J. Churchill, J. Barrera, “Package Study for High Speed (Ghz) Commercial GaAs Products,” in Technical Digest, GaAs I.C. Symposium (1982), pp. 13–16.

1976 (1)

M. H. Reeve, M. C. Brierley, J. E. Midwinter, K. I. White, Opt. Quantum Electron. 8, 39 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Amitay, N.

H. M. Presby, N. Amitay, F. V. DiMarcello, K. T. Nelson, “Optical Fiber Tapers at 1.3 μm for Self-Aligned Beam Expansion and Single-Mode Hardware,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 1123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, R.

M. K. Kilcoyne, S. Beccue, K. D. Pedrotti, R. Asotourian, R. Anderson, “Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits for High Speed Signal Processing,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1119 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Asotourian, R.

M. K. Kilcoyne, S. Beccue, K. D. Pedrotti, R. Asotourian, R. Anderson, “Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits for High Speed Signal Processing,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1119 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Athale, R. A.

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, T. Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical Interconnections for VLSI Systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Barrera, J.

D. Wilson, J. Frich, J. Kwiat, J. Lo, J. Churchill, J. Barrera, “Package Study for High Speed (Ghz) Commercial GaAs Products,” in Technical Digest, GaAs I.C. Symposium (1982), pp. 13–16.

Beccue, S.

M. K. Kilcoyne, S. Beccue, K. D. Pedrotti, R. Asotourian, R. Anderson, “Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits for High Speed Signal Processing,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1119 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Brierley, M. C.

M. H. Reeve, M. C. Brierley, J. E. Midwinter, K. I. White, Opt. Quantum Electron. 8, 39 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Churchill, J.

D. Wilson, J. Frich, J. Kwiat, J. Lo, J. Churchill, J. Barrera, “Package Study for High Speed (Ghz) Commercial GaAs Products,” in Technical Digest, GaAs I.C. Symposium (1982), pp. 13–16.

DiMarcello, F. V.

H. M. Presby, N. Amitay, F. V. DiMarcello, K. T. Nelson, “Optical Fiber Tapers at 1.3 μm for Self-Aligned Beam Expansion and Single-Mode Hardware,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 1123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Fox, N. I.

N. Nourshargy, E. M. Starr, N. I. Fox, S. G. Jone, “Simple Technique for Measuring Attenuation of Integrated Optical Waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 21, 818 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Frich, J.

D. Wilson, J. Frich, J. Kwiat, J. Lo, J. Churchill, J. Barrera, “Package Study for High Speed (Ghz) Commercial GaAs Products,” in Technical Digest, GaAs I.C. Symposium (1982), pp. 13–16.

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, T. Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical Interconnections for VLSI Systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Hartman, D. H.

D. H. Hartman, I. Ladany, G. R. Lalk, L. P. Quick, “Board Level High Speed Photonic Interconnections; Recent Technology Developments,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1988).

D. H. Hartman, “Digital High Speed Interconnects: a Study of the Optical Alternative,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1086 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Krchnavek, D. H. Hartman, J. W. Howse, “Laser Direct Writing of Optical Waveguide Structures,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), paper THI4.

G. R. Lalk, D. H. Hartman, R. R. Krchnavek, “An Automated, Non-Destructive Technique for Measuring Optical Attenuation in Waveguides,” to be published.

Haugen, P. R.

P. R. Haugen, S. Rychnovsky, A. Husain, L. D. Hutcheson, “Optical Interconnects for High Speed Computing,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1076 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Howse, J. W.

R. R. Krchnavek, D. H. Hartman, J. W. Howse, “Laser Direct Writing of Optical Waveguide Structures,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), paper THI4.

Husain, A.

P. R. Haugen, S. Rychnovsky, A. Husain, L. D. Hutcheson, “Optical Interconnects for High Speed Computing,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1076 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hutcheson, L. D.

P. R. Haugen, S. Rychnovsky, A. Husain, L. D. Hutcheson, “Optical Interconnects for High Speed Computing,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1076 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Jone, S. G.

N. Nourshargy, E. M. Starr, N. I. Fox, S. G. Jone, “Simple Technique for Measuring Attenuation of Integrated Optical Waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 21, 818 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kilcoyne, M. K.

M. K. Kilcoyne, S. Beccue, K. D. Pedrotti, R. Asotourian, R. Anderson, “Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits for High Speed Signal Processing,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1119 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Krchnavek, R. R.

G. R. Lalk, D. H. Hartman, R. R. Krchnavek, “An Automated, Non-Destructive Technique for Measuring Optical Attenuation in Waveguides,” to be published.

R. R. Krchnavek, D. H. Hartman, J. W. Howse, “Laser Direct Writing of Optical Waveguide Structures,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), paper THI4.

Kung, T. Y.

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, T. Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical Interconnections for VLSI Systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kwiat, J.

D. Wilson, J. Frich, J. Kwiat, J. Lo, J. Churchill, J. Barrera, “Package Study for High Speed (Ghz) Commercial GaAs Products,” in Technical Digest, GaAs I.C. Symposium (1982), pp. 13–16.

Ladany, I.

D. H. Hartman, I. Ladany, G. R. Lalk, L. P. Quick, “Board Level High Speed Photonic Interconnections; Recent Technology Developments,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1988).

Lalk, G. R.

D. H. Hartman, I. Ladany, G. R. Lalk, L. P. Quick, “Board Level High Speed Photonic Interconnections; Recent Technology Developments,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1988).

G. R. Lalk, D. H. Hartman, R. R. Krchnavek, “An Automated, Non-Destructive Technique for Measuring Optical Attenuation in Waveguides,” to be published.

Leonberger, F. J.

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, T. Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical Interconnections for VLSI Systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lo, J.

D. Wilson, J. Frich, J. Kwiat, J. Lo, J. Churchill, J. Barrera, “Package Study for High Speed (Ghz) Commercial GaAs Products,” in Technical Digest, GaAs I.C. Symposium (1982), pp. 13–16.

Midwinter, J. E.

M. H. Reeve, M. C. Brierley, J. E. Midwinter, K. I. White, Opt. Quantum Electron. 8, 39 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

K. Miura, I. Sawaki, H. Nakajima, “Low-Loss Single-Mode Plastic Waveguide Fabricated by Photopolymerization,” in Technical Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided Wave Optics, (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), pp. 58–61.

Nakajima, H.

K. Miura, I. Sawaki, H. Nakajima, “Low-Loss Single-Mode Plastic Waveguide Fabricated by Photopolymerization,” in Technical Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided Wave Optics, (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), pp. 58–61.

Nelson, K. T.

H. M. Presby, N. Amitay, F. V. DiMarcello, K. T. Nelson, “Optical Fiber Tapers at 1.3 μm for Self-Aligned Beam Expansion and Single-Mode Hardware,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 1123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Nourshargy, N.

N. Nourshargy, E. M. Starr, N. I. Fox, S. G. Jone, “Simple Technique for Measuring Attenuation of Integrated Optical Waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 21, 818 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Pedrotti, K. D.

M. K. Kilcoyne, S. Beccue, K. D. Pedrotti, R. Asotourian, R. Anderson, “Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits for High Speed Signal Processing,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1119 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Presby, H. M.

H. M. Presby, N. Amitay, F. V. DiMarcello, K. T. Nelson, “Optical Fiber Tapers at 1.3 μm for Self-Aligned Beam Expansion and Single-Mode Hardware,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 1123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Quick, L. P.

D. H. Hartman, I. Ladany, G. R. Lalk, L. P. Quick, “Board Level High Speed Photonic Interconnections; Recent Technology Developments,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1988).

Reeve, M. H.

M. H. Reeve, M. C. Brierley, J. E. Midwinter, K. I. White, Opt. Quantum Electron. 8, 39 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Rychnovsky, S.

P. R. Haugen, S. Rychnovsky, A. Husain, L. D. Hutcheson, “Optical Interconnects for High Speed Computing,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1076 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sawaki, I.

K. Miura, I. Sawaki, H. Nakajima, “Low-Loss Single-Mode Plastic Waveguide Fabricated by Photopolymerization,” in Technical Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided Wave Optics, (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), pp. 58–61.

Sawchuck, A. A.

A. A. Sawchuck, “Optical Interconnection Systems for Digital Parallel Processors,” in Proceedings, Fall Computer Conference, Cat. No. 86CH2345-7 (1986).

Shumate, P. W.

P. W. Shumate, “Reliability Considerations for Optical Interconnections,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 703, 96 (1986).

Starr, E. M.

N. Nourshargy, E. M. Starr, N. I. Fox, S. G. Jone, “Simple Technique for Measuring Attenuation of Integrated Optical Waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 21, 818 (1985).
[CrossRef]

White, K. I.

M. H. Reeve, M. C. Brierley, J. E. Midwinter, K. I. White, Opt. Quantum Electron. 8, 39 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, D.

D. Wilson, J. Frich, J. Kwiat, J. Lo, J. Churchill, J. Barrera, “Package Study for High Speed (Ghz) Commercial GaAs Products,” in Technical Digest, GaAs I.C. Symposium (1982), pp. 13–16.

Electron. Lett. (1)

N. Nourshargy, E. M. Starr, N. I. Fox, S. G. Jone, “Simple Technique for Measuring Attenuation of Integrated Optical Waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 21, 818 (1985).
[CrossRef]

IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

H. M. Presby, N. Amitay, F. V. DiMarcello, K. T. Nelson, “Optical Fiber Tapers at 1.3 μm for Self-Aligned Beam Expansion and Single-Mode Hardware,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 1123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (3)

P. R. Haugen, S. Rychnovsky, A. Husain, L. D. Hutcheson, “Optical Interconnects for High Speed Computing,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1076 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Kilcoyne, S. Beccue, K. D. Pedrotti, R. Asotourian, R. Anderson, “Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits for High Speed Signal Processing,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1119 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Hartman, “Digital High Speed Interconnects: a Study of the Optical Alternative,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1086 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. H. Reeve, M. C. Brierley, J. E. Midwinter, K. I. White, Opt. Quantum Electron. 8, 39 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, T. Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical Interconnections for VLSI Systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (2)

P. W. Shumate, “Reliability Considerations for Optical Interconnections,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 703, 96 (1986).

D. H. Hartman, I. Ladany, G. R. Lalk, L. P. Quick, “Board Level High Speed Photonic Interconnections; Recent Technology Developments,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1988).

Proceedings, Fall Computer Conference (1)

A. A. Sawchuck, “Optical Interconnection Systems for Digital Parallel Processors,” in Proceedings, Fall Computer Conference, Cat. No. 86CH2345-7 (1986).

Technical Digest, GaAs I.C. Symposium (1)

D. Wilson, J. Frich, J. Kwiat, J. Lo, J. Churchill, J. Barrera, “Package Study for High Speed (Ghz) Commercial GaAs Products,” in Technical Digest, GaAs I.C. Symposium (1982), pp. 13–16.

Other (3)

K. Miura, I. Sawaki, H. Nakajima, “Low-Loss Single-Mode Plastic Waveguide Fabricated by Photopolymerization,” in Technical Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided Wave Optics, (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), pp. 58–61.

R. R. Krchnavek, D. H. Hartman, J. W. Howse, “Laser Direct Writing of Optical Waveguide Structures,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), paper THI4.

G. R. Lalk, D. H. Hartman, R. R. Krchnavek, “An Automated, Non-Destructive Technique for Measuring Optical Attenuation in Waveguides,” to be published.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simplified flow chart describing the process steps in patterning polymer channel waveguides on printed circuit cards along with standard copper interconnections.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cross-sectional description of the process flow for producing a channelized optical waveguide on printed circuit card material.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plot of measured film thickness vs spin rate for Norland 63 radiant curing material.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Microphotograph of a channel waveguide patterned over low index material on RT Duroid PC card material. In this photo, no top layer exists, showing clearly the waveguide definition.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Illustration of the experimental layout used in the automated guide loss measurements.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Plot of measured scattered power vs position on the waveguide axis for 250- × 125-μm polymer waveguides (n = 1.54) with a low index cladding (n = 1.48) on RT Duroid.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Microphotograph of a splitter structure fabricated with the radiant curing materials. Clearly evident in this photo are the pits and deformations on the waveguide surface, caused by phase separation of the additives in the commercial blends from the cured material.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Experimental setup used in thermal cycling tests of the channel waveguides.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Plot of waveguide loss throughput relative to measured loss at room temperature for the thermally cycled waveguides.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Photograph of an illuminated waveguide bus structure we have fabricated.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Schematic cross-sectional diagram of the packaged laser transmitter–channel waveguide coupling scheme.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Photograph of a board-level optical interconnect. This simple power split incorporates the channel waveguides discussed here, and optical coupling via devices packaged in microwave metal flatpacks.

Tables (1)

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Table I Channel Waveguide Requirements

Equations (3)

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P ( x ) = P 0 exp ( - α x ) ,
d P ( x ) = - α P 0 exp ( - α x ) d x .
P ( x 0 ) = P 0 ( 1 - cos θ 2 ) exp ( - α x 0 ) [ exp ( + α d ) - exp ( - α d ) ] .

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