Abstract

We report a simple technique for patterning channelized optical waveguides on standard electronic printed circuit card material. The technique exploits the abundance of transparent, radiant-curing polymer adhesives in the fiber optics and the dental industries. The process is compatible with standard printed circuit card fabrication processes; hence its applicability to optical interconnection scenarios. We report typical guide losses in the 0.4–0.6-dB/cm range. Measurements were made using an automated noninvasive, nondestructive technique, also briefly described here. Simple structures, such as splitters, bus lines, and 90° bends were fabricated and are described. Optical coupling to the waveguides from packaged devices is also discussed.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. P. R. Haugen, S. Rychnovsky, A. Husain, L. D. Hutcheson, “Optical Interconnects for High Speed Computing,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1076 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. K. Kilcoyne, S. Beccue, K. D. Pedrotti, R. Asotourian, R. Anderson, “Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits for High Speed Signal Processing,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1119 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. H. Hartman, “Digital High Speed Interconnects: a Study of the Optical Alternative,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1086 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. A. Sawchuck, “Optical Interconnection Systems for Digital Parallel Processors,” in Proceedings, Fall Computer Conference, Cat. No. 86CH2345-7 (1986).
  5. J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, T. Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical Interconnections for VLSI Systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. W. Shumate, “Reliability Considerations for Optical Interconnections,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 703, 96 (1986).
  7. H. M. Presby, N. Amitay, F. V. DiMarcello, K. T. Nelson, “Optical Fiber Tapers at 1.3 μm for Self-Aligned Beam Expansion and Single-Mode Hardware,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 1123 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Miura, I. Sawaki, H. Nakajima, “Low-Loss Single-Mode Plastic Waveguide Fabricated by Photopolymerization,” in Technical Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided Wave Optics, (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), pp. 58–61.
  9. R. R. Krchnavek, D. H. Hartman, J. W. Howse, “Laser Direct Writing of Optical Waveguide Structures,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), paper THI4.
  10. G. R. Lalk, D. H. Hartman, R. R. Krchnavek, “An Automated, Non-Destructive Technique for Measuring Optical Attenuation in Waveguides,” to be published.
  11. M. H. Reeve, M. C. Brierley, J. E. Midwinter, K. I. White, Opt. Quantum Electron. 8, 39 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  12. N. Nourshargy, E. M. Starr, N. I. Fox, S. G. Jone, “Simple Technique for Measuring Attenuation of Integrated Optical Waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 21, 818 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Wilson, J. Frich, J. Kwiat, J. Lo, J. Churchill, J. Barrera, “Package Study for High Speed (Ghz) Commercial GaAs Products,” in Technical Digest, GaAs I.C. Symposium (1982), pp. 13–16.
  14. D. H. Hartman, I. Ladany, G. R. Lalk, L. P. Quick, “Board Level High Speed Photonic Interconnections; Recent Technology Developments,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1988).

1988 (1)

D. H. Hartman, I. Ladany, G. R. Lalk, L. P. Quick, “Board Level High Speed Photonic Interconnections; Recent Technology Developments,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1988).

1987 (1)

H. M. Presby, N. Amitay, F. V. DiMarcello, K. T. Nelson, “Optical Fiber Tapers at 1.3 μm for Self-Aligned Beam Expansion and Single-Mode Hardware,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 1123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (5)

P. R. Haugen, S. Rychnovsky, A. Husain, L. D. Hutcheson, “Optical Interconnects for High Speed Computing,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1076 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Kilcoyne, S. Beccue, K. D. Pedrotti, R. Asotourian, R. Anderson, “Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits for High Speed Signal Processing,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1119 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Hartman, “Digital High Speed Interconnects: a Study of the Optical Alternative,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1086 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Sawchuck, “Optical Interconnection Systems for Digital Parallel Processors,” in Proceedings, Fall Computer Conference, Cat. No. 86CH2345-7 (1986).

P. W. Shumate, “Reliability Considerations for Optical Interconnections,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 703, 96 (1986).

1985 (1)

N. Nourshargy, E. M. Starr, N. I. Fox, S. G. Jone, “Simple Technique for Measuring Attenuation of Integrated Optical Waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 21, 818 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, T. Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical Interconnections for VLSI Systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

D. Wilson, J. Frich, J. Kwiat, J. Lo, J. Churchill, J. Barrera, “Package Study for High Speed (Ghz) Commercial GaAs Products,” in Technical Digest, GaAs I.C. Symposium (1982), pp. 13–16.

1976 (1)

M. H. Reeve, M. C. Brierley, J. E. Midwinter, K. I. White, Opt. Quantum Electron. 8, 39 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Amitay, N.

H. M. Presby, N. Amitay, F. V. DiMarcello, K. T. Nelson, “Optical Fiber Tapers at 1.3 μm for Self-Aligned Beam Expansion and Single-Mode Hardware,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 1123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, R.

M. K. Kilcoyne, S. Beccue, K. D. Pedrotti, R. Asotourian, R. Anderson, “Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits for High Speed Signal Processing,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1119 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Asotourian, R.

M. K. Kilcoyne, S. Beccue, K. D. Pedrotti, R. Asotourian, R. Anderson, “Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits for High Speed Signal Processing,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1119 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Athale, R. A.

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, T. Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical Interconnections for VLSI Systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Barrera, J.

D. Wilson, J. Frich, J. Kwiat, J. Lo, J. Churchill, J. Barrera, “Package Study for High Speed (Ghz) Commercial GaAs Products,” in Technical Digest, GaAs I.C. Symposium (1982), pp. 13–16.

Beccue, S.

M. K. Kilcoyne, S. Beccue, K. D. Pedrotti, R. Asotourian, R. Anderson, “Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits for High Speed Signal Processing,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1119 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Brierley, M. C.

M. H. Reeve, M. C. Brierley, J. E. Midwinter, K. I. White, Opt. Quantum Electron. 8, 39 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Churchill, J.

D. Wilson, J. Frich, J. Kwiat, J. Lo, J. Churchill, J. Barrera, “Package Study for High Speed (Ghz) Commercial GaAs Products,” in Technical Digest, GaAs I.C. Symposium (1982), pp. 13–16.

DiMarcello, F. V.

H. M. Presby, N. Amitay, F. V. DiMarcello, K. T. Nelson, “Optical Fiber Tapers at 1.3 μm for Self-Aligned Beam Expansion and Single-Mode Hardware,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 1123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Fox, N. I.

N. Nourshargy, E. M. Starr, N. I. Fox, S. G. Jone, “Simple Technique for Measuring Attenuation of Integrated Optical Waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 21, 818 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Frich, J.

D. Wilson, J. Frich, J. Kwiat, J. Lo, J. Churchill, J. Barrera, “Package Study for High Speed (Ghz) Commercial GaAs Products,” in Technical Digest, GaAs I.C. Symposium (1982), pp. 13–16.

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, T. Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical Interconnections for VLSI Systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Hartman, D. H.

D. H. Hartman, I. Ladany, G. R. Lalk, L. P. Quick, “Board Level High Speed Photonic Interconnections; Recent Technology Developments,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1988).

D. H. Hartman, “Digital High Speed Interconnects: a Study of the Optical Alternative,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1086 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Krchnavek, D. H. Hartman, J. W. Howse, “Laser Direct Writing of Optical Waveguide Structures,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), paper THI4.

G. R. Lalk, D. H. Hartman, R. R. Krchnavek, “An Automated, Non-Destructive Technique for Measuring Optical Attenuation in Waveguides,” to be published.

Haugen, P. R.

P. R. Haugen, S. Rychnovsky, A. Husain, L. D. Hutcheson, “Optical Interconnects for High Speed Computing,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1076 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Howse, J. W.

R. R. Krchnavek, D. H. Hartman, J. W. Howse, “Laser Direct Writing of Optical Waveguide Structures,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), paper THI4.

Husain, A.

P. R. Haugen, S. Rychnovsky, A. Husain, L. D. Hutcheson, “Optical Interconnects for High Speed Computing,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1076 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hutcheson, L. D.

P. R. Haugen, S. Rychnovsky, A. Husain, L. D. Hutcheson, “Optical Interconnects for High Speed Computing,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1076 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Jone, S. G.

N. Nourshargy, E. M. Starr, N. I. Fox, S. G. Jone, “Simple Technique for Measuring Attenuation of Integrated Optical Waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 21, 818 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kilcoyne, M. K.

M. K. Kilcoyne, S. Beccue, K. D. Pedrotti, R. Asotourian, R. Anderson, “Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits for High Speed Signal Processing,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1119 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Krchnavek, R. R.

R. R. Krchnavek, D. H. Hartman, J. W. Howse, “Laser Direct Writing of Optical Waveguide Structures,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), paper THI4.

G. R. Lalk, D. H. Hartman, R. R. Krchnavek, “An Automated, Non-Destructive Technique for Measuring Optical Attenuation in Waveguides,” to be published.

Kung, T. Y.

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, T. Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical Interconnections for VLSI Systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kwiat, J.

D. Wilson, J. Frich, J. Kwiat, J. Lo, J. Churchill, J. Barrera, “Package Study for High Speed (Ghz) Commercial GaAs Products,” in Technical Digest, GaAs I.C. Symposium (1982), pp. 13–16.

Ladany, I.

D. H. Hartman, I. Ladany, G. R. Lalk, L. P. Quick, “Board Level High Speed Photonic Interconnections; Recent Technology Developments,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1988).

Lalk, G. R.

D. H. Hartman, I. Ladany, G. R. Lalk, L. P. Quick, “Board Level High Speed Photonic Interconnections; Recent Technology Developments,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1988).

G. R. Lalk, D. H. Hartman, R. R. Krchnavek, “An Automated, Non-Destructive Technique for Measuring Optical Attenuation in Waveguides,” to be published.

Leonberger, F. J.

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, T. Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical Interconnections for VLSI Systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lo, J.

D. Wilson, J. Frich, J. Kwiat, J. Lo, J. Churchill, J. Barrera, “Package Study for High Speed (Ghz) Commercial GaAs Products,” in Technical Digest, GaAs I.C. Symposium (1982), pp. 13–16.

Midwinter, J. E.

M. H. Reeve, M. C. Brierley, J. E. Midwinter, K. I. White, Opt. Quantum Electron. 8, 39 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

K. Miura, I. Sawaki, H. Nakajima, “Low-Loss Single-Mode Plastic Waveguide Fabricated by Photopolymerization,” in Technical Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided Wave Optics, (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), pp. 58–61.

Nakajima, H.

K. Miura, I. Sawaki, H. Nakajima, “Low-Loss Single-Mode Plastic Waveguide Fabricated by Photopolymerization,” in Technical Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided Wave Optics, (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), pp. 58–61.

Nelson, K. T.

H. M. Presby, N. Amitay, F. V. DiMarcello, K. T. Nelson, “Optical Fiber Tapers at 1.3 μm for Self-Aligned Beam Expansion and Single-Mode Hardware,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 1123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Nourshargy, N.

N. Nourshargy, E. M. Starr, N. I. Fox, S. G. Jone, “Simple Technique for Measuring Attenuation of Integrated Optical Waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 21, 818 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Pedrotti, K. D.

M. K. Kilcoyne, S. Beccue, K. D. Pedrotti, R. Asotourian, R. Anderson, “Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits for High Speed Signal Processing,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1119 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Presby, H. M.

H. M. Presby, N. Amitay, F. V. DiMarcello, K. T. Nelson, “Optical Fiber Tapers at 1.3 μm for Self-Aligned Beam Expansion and Single-Mode Hardware,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 1123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Quick, L. P.

D. H. Hartman, I. Ladany, G. R. Lalk, L. P. Quick, “Board Level High Speed Photonic Interconnections; Recent Technology Developments,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1988).

Reeve, M. H.

M. H. Reeve, M. C. Brierley, J. E. Midwinter, K. I. White, Opt. Quantum Electron. 8, 39 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Rychnovsky, S.

P. R. Haugen, S. Rychnovsky, A. Husain, L. D. Hutcheson, “Optical Interconnects for High Speed Computing,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1076 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sawaki, I.

K. Miura, I. Sawaki, H. Nakajima, “Low-Loss Single-Mode Plastic Waveguide Fabricated by Photopolymerization,” in Technical Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided Wave Optics, (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), pp. 58–61.

Sawchuck, A. A.

A. A. Sawchuck, “Optical Interconnection Systems for Digital Parallel Processors,” in Proceedings, Fall Computer Conference, Cat. No. 86CH2345-7 (1986).

Shumate, P. W.

P. W. Shumate, “Reliability Considerations for Optical Interconnections,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 703, 96 (1986).

Starr, E. M.

N. Nourshargy, E. M. Starr, N. I. Fox, S. G. Jone, “Simple Technique for Measuring Attenuation of Integrated Optical Waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 21, 818 (1985).
[CrossRef]

White, K. I.

M. H. Reeve, M. C. Brierley, J. E. Midwinter, K. I. White, Opt. Quantum Electron. 8, 39 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, D.

D. Wilson, J. Frich, J. Kwiat, J. Lo, J. Churchill, J. Barrera, “Package Study for High Speed (Ghz) Commercial GaAs Products,” in Technical Digest, GaAs I.C. Symposium (1982), pp. 13–16.

Electron. Lett. (1)

N. Nourshargy, E. M. Starr, N. I. Fox, S. G. Jone, “Simple Technique for Measuring Attenuation of Integrated Optical Waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 21, 818 (1985).
[CrossRef]

IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

H. M. Presby, N. Amitay, F. V. DiMarcello, K. T. Nelson, “Optical Fiber Tapers at 1.3 μm for Self-Aligned Beam Expansion and Single-Mode Hardware,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 1123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (3)

P. R. Haugen, S. Rychnovsky, A. Husain, L. D. Hutcheson, “Optical Interconnects for High Speed Computing,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1076 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Kilcoyne, S. Beccue, K. D. Pedrotti, R. Asotourian, R. Anderson, “Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits for High Speed Signal Processing,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1119 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Hartman, “Digital High Speed Interconnects: a Study of the Optical Alternative,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1086 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. H. Reeve, M. C. Brierley, J. E. Midwinter, K. I. White, Opt. Quantum Electron. 8, 39 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, T. Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical Interconnections for VLSI Systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (2)

P. W. Shumate, “Reliability Considerations for Optical Interconnections,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 703, 96 (1986).

D. H. Hartman, I. Ladany, G. R. Lalk, L. P. Quick, “Board Level High Speed Photonic Interconnections; Recent Technology Developments,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1988).

Proceedings, Fall Computer Conference (1)

A. A. Sawchuck, “Optical Interconnection Systems for Digital Parallel Processors,” in Proceedings, Fall Computer Conference, Cat. No. 86CH2345-7 (1986).

Technical Digest, GaAs I.C. Symposium (1)

D. Wilson, J. Frich, J. Kwiat, J. Lo, J. Churchill, J. Barrera, “Package Study for High Speed (Ghz) Commercial GaAs Products,” in Technical Digest, GaAs I.C. Symposium (1982), pp. 13–16.

Other (3)

K. Miura, I. Sawaki, H. Nakajima, “Low-Loss Single-Mode Plastic Waveguide Fabricated by Photopolymerization,” in Technical Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided Wave Optics, (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), pp. 58–61.

R. R. Krchnavek, D. H. Hartman, J. W. Howse, “Laser Direct Writing of Optical Waveguide Structures,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), paper THI4.

G. R. Lalk, D. H. Hartman, R. R. Krchnavek, “An Automated, Non-Destructive Technique for Measuring Optical Attenuation in Waveguides,” to be published.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Metrics