Abstract

Sorting is central to the solution of many knowledge-based and switching problems in advanced computation and communication systems. Parallel-pipelined sorting algorithms are appropriate for applications that demand high throughput, low delay, and many data channels. One such algorithm, the bitonic sort, can be implemented with passive perfect shuffle interconnects between active stages of compare-and-exchange (C&E) elements. In this paper we focus on optical hardware to implement the C&E operation and show that, by taking advantage of a distinctive feature of optical logic, namely, bistability, comparison circuits of remarkable simplicity are attainable. We describe implementations of C&E in a variety of optical device technologies capable of performing latching and nonlatching logic. Based on the device characteristics we outline potential application areas for each technology.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. E. Knuth, The Art of Computer Programming, Vol. 3, Sorting and Searching (Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1973).
  2. J. T. Schwartz, “Ultracomputers,” ACM Trans. Program Lang. Syst. 2, 484 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. E. Batcher, “Sorting Networks and Their Applications,” in Proceedings, 1968 Spring Joint Computer Conference, Vol. 32 (AFIPS Press, Reston, VA, 1968), pp. 307–314.
  4. H. P. Moravec, “Fully Interconnecting Multiple Computers with Pipelined Sorting Nets,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-28, 795 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Huang, S. Knauer, “Starlite: A Wideband Digital Switch,” in Proceedings, IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference, Atlanta, GA, Vol. 1, p. 121 (Nov.1984).
  6. J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S. Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical Interconnections for VLSI Systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. E. Midwinter, “Light Electronics, Myth or Reality?,” IEE Proc. 132, Pt. J, No. 6, 371 (1985).
  8. A. Huang, “The Relationship Between STARLITE, a Wideband Digital Switch and Optics,” in Proceedings, International Conference on Communications, Toronto (22June1986).
  9. A. W. Lohmann, “What Classical Optics Can Do for the Digital Optical Computer,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1543 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. S. Hinton, “Applications of the Photonic Switching Technology for Telecommunications Switching,” in Proceedings, International Conference on Communications (7–10 June 1987), to be published.
  11. J. E. Midwinter, “Novel Approach to the Design of Optically Activated Wideband Switching Matrices,” IEE Proc. 134, Pt. J, No. 5, 261 (1985).
  12. C. D. Thompson, “The VLSI Complexity of Sorting,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-32, 1171 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. S. Stone, “Parallel Processing with the Perfect Shuffle,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-20, 153 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Lohmann, W. Stork, G. Stucke, “Optical Implementation of the Perfect Shuffle,” in Technical Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Computing (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1985), paper WA3.
  15. C. W. Stirk, R. A. Athale, M. W. Haney, “Folded Perfect Shuffle Optical Processor,” Appl. Opt. 27, 202 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. R. Lippmann, “An Introduction to Computing with Neural Networks,” IEEE ASSP Magazine (1Apr.1987).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. W. Stirk, R. A. Athale, C. B. Friedlander, “Optical Implementation of the Compare-and-Exchange Operation for Applications in Symbolic Computing,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 754, 27 (1987).
  18. B. S. Wherrett, “All-Optical Computation: a Design for Tackling a Specific Physical Problem,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2876 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. A. C. Walker, “Application of Bistable Optical Logic Gate Arrays to All-Optical Digital Parallel Processing,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1578 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. L. Zhang et al., “All-Optical Compare-and-Exchange Switches,” accepted by IEEE J. Selected Areas Commun., Special Issue on Photonic Switching.
  21. Y. H. Lee et al., “Speed and Effectiveness of Windowless GaAs Etalons as Optical Logic Gates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 486 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. Migus, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, J. L. Jewell, “One-Picosecond Optical NOR Gate at Room Temperature with a GaAs-AlGaAs Multiple-Quantum-Well Nonlinear Fabry-Perot Etalon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 70 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “The Symmetric Self-Electro-Optic Effect Device,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1987), postdeadline paper ThT12.
  24. D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “The Quantum Well Self-Electrooptic Effect Device: Optoelectronic Bistability and Oscillation, and Self-Linearized Modulation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1462 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  25. R. A. Athale, “Studies in Digital Optical Processing,” Ph.D. Thesis, U. California, San Diego (1980).
  26. S. H. Lee, S. C. Esener, M. A. Title, T. J. Drabik, “Two-Dimensional Si/PLZT Light Modulators: Design Considerations and Technology,” Opt. Eng. 25, 250 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  27. P. Wheatley et al., “Novel Nonresonant Optoelectronic Device,” Electron. Lett. 23, 92 (1987).
    [CrossRef]

1988

1987

R. Lippmann, “An Introduction to Computing with Neural Networks,” IEEE ASSP Magazine (1Apr.1987).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Stirk, R. A. Athale, C. B. Friedlander, “Optical Implementation of the Compare-and-Exchange Operation for Applications in Symbolic Computing,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 754, 27 (1987).

P. Wheatley et al., “Novel Nonresonant Optoelectronic Device,” Electron. Lett. 23, 92 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

A. W. Lohmann, “What Classical Optics Can Do for the Digital Optical Computer,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1543 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Walker, “Application of Bistable Optical Logic Gate Arrays to All-Optical Digital Parallel Processing,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1578 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Lee, S. C. Esener, M. A. Title, T. J. Drabik, “Two-Dimensional Si/PLZT Light Modulators: Design Considerations and Technology,” Opt. Eng. 25, 250 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lee et al., “Speed and Effectiveness of Windowless GaAs Etalons as Optical Logic Gates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 486 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

A. Migus, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, J. L. Jewell, “One-Picosecond Optical NOR Gate at Room Temperature with a GaAs-AlGaAs Multiple-Quantum-Well Nonlinear Fabry-Perot Etalon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “The Quantum Well Self-Electrooptic Effect Device: Optoelectronic Bistability and Oscillation, and Self-Linearized Modulation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1462 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Midwinter, “Light Electronics, Myth or Reality?,” IEE Proc. 132, Pt. J, No. 6, 371 (1985).

J. E. Midwinter, “Novel Approach to the Design of Optically Activated Wideband Switching Matrices,” IEE Proc. 134, Pt. J, No. 5, 261 (1985).

B. S. Wherrett, “All-Optical Computation: a Design for Tackling a Specific Physical Problem,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2876 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S. Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical Interconnections for VLSI Systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

C. D. Thompson, “The VLSI Complexity of Sorting,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-32, 1171 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1980

J. T. Schwartz, “Ultracomputers,” ACM Trans. Program Lang. Syst. 2, 484 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979

H. P. Moravec, “Fully Interconnecting Multiple Computers with Pipelined Sorting Nets,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-28, 795 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1971

H. S. Stone, “Parallel Processing with the Perfect Shuffle,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-20, 153 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Antonetti, A.

A. Migus, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, J. L. Jewell, “One-Picosecond Optical NOR Gate at Room Temperature with a GaAs-AlGaAs Multiple-Quantum-Well Nonlinear Fabry-Perot Etalon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Athale, R. A.

C. W. Stirk, R. A. Athale, M. W. Haney, “Folded Perfect Shuffle Optical Processor,” Appl. Opt. 27, 202 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Stirk, R. A. Athale, C. B. Friedlander, “Optical Implementation of the Compare-and-Exchange Operation for Applications in Symbolic Computing,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 754, 27 (1987).

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S. Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical Interconnections for VLSI Systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Athale, “Studies in Digital Optical Processing,” Ph.D. Thesis, U. California, San Diego (1980).

Batcher, K. E.

K. E. Batcher, “Sorting Networks and Their Applications,” in Proceedings, 1968 Spring Joint Computer Conference, Vol. 32 (AFIPS Press, Reston, VA, 1968), pp. 307–314.

Burrus, C. A.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “The Quantum Well Self-Electrooptic Effect Device: Optoelectronic Bistability and Oscillation, and Self-Linearized Modulation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1462 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Chemla, D. S.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “The Quantum Well Self-Electrooptic Effect Device: Optoelectronic Bistability and Oscillation, and Self-Linearized Modulation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1462 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Chirovsky, L. M. F.

A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “The Symmetric Self-Electro-Optic Effect Device,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1987), postdeadline paper ThT12.

Cunningham, J. E.

A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “The Symmetric Self-Electro-Optic Effect Device,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1987), postdeadline paper ThT12.

Damen, T. C.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “The Quantum Well Self-Electrooptic Effect Device: Optoelectronic Bistability and Oscillation, and Self-Linearized Modulation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1462 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Drabik, T. J.

S. H. Lee, S. C. Esener, M. A. Title, T. J. Drabik, “Two-Dimensional Si/PLZT Light Modulators: Design Considerations and Technology,” Opt. Eng. 25, 250 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Esener, S. C.

S. H. Lee, S. C. Esener, M. A. Title, T. J. Drabik, “Two-Dimensional Si/PLZT Light Modulators: Design Considerations and Technology,” Opt. Eng. 25, 250 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Friedlander, C. B.

C. W. Stirk, R. A. Athale, C. B. Friedlander, “Optical Implementation of the Compare-and-Exchange Operation for Applications in Symbolic Computing,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 754, 27 (1987).

Gibbs, H. M.

A. Migus, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, J. L. Jewell, “One-Picosecond Optical NOR Gate at Room Temperature with a GaAs-AlGaAs Multiple-Quantum-Well Nonlinear Fabry-Perot Etalon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S. Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical Interconnections for VLSI Systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A. C.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “The Quantum Well Self-Electrooptic Effect Device: Optoelectronic Bistability and Oscillation, and Self-Linearized Modulation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1462 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Haney, M. W.

Henry, J. E.

A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “The Symmetric Self-Electro-Optic Effect Device,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1987), postdeadline paper ThT12.

Hinton, H. S.

A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “The Symmetric Self-Electro-Optic Effect Device,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1987), postdeadline paper ThT12.

H. S. Hinton, “Applications of the Photonic Switching Technology for Telecommunications Switching,” in Proceedings, International Conference on Communications (7–10 June 1987), to be published.

Huang, A.

A. Huang, “The Relationship Between STARLITE, a Wideband Digital Switch and Optics,” in Proceedings, International Conference on Communications, Toronto (22June1986).

A. Huang, S. Knauer, “Starlite: A Wideband Digital Switch,” in Proceedings, IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference, Atlanta, GA, Vol. 1, p. 121 (Nov.1984).

Hulin, D.

A. Migus, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, J. L. Jewell, “One-Picosecond Optical NOR Gate at Room Temperature with a GaAs-AlGaAs Multiple-Quantum-Well Nonlinear Fabry-Perot Etalon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Jewell, J. L.

A. Migus, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, J. L. Jewell, “One-Picosecond Optical NOR Gate at Room Temperature with a GaAs-AlGaAs Multiple-Quantum-Well Nonlinear Fabry-Perot Etalon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Knauer, S.

A. Huang, S. Knauer, “Starlite: A Wideband Digital Switch,” in Proceedings, IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference, Atlanta, GA, Vol. 1, p. 121 (Nov.1984).

Knuth, D. E.

D. E. Knuth, The Art of Computer Programming, Vol. 3, Sorting and Searching (Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1973).

Kung, S. Y.

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S. Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical Interconnections for VLSI Systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

S. H. Lee, S. C. Esener, M. A. Title, T. J. Drabik, “Two-Dimensional Si/PLZT Light Modulators: Design Considerations and Technology,” Opt. Eng. 25, 250 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. H.

Y. H. Lee et al., “Speed and Effectiveness of Windowless GaAs Etalons as Optical Logic Gates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 486 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lentine, A. L.

A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “The Symmetric Self-Electro-Optic Effect Device,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1987), postdeadline paper ThT12.

Leonberger, F. J.

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S. Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical Interconnections for VLSI Systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lippmann, R.

R. Lippmann, “An Introduction to Computing with Neural Networks,” IEEE ASSP Magazine (1Apr.1987).
[CrossRef]

Lohmann, A.

A. Lohmann, W. Stork, G. Stucke, “Optical Implementation of the Perfect Shuffle,” in Technical Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Computing (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1985), paper WA3.

Lohmann, A. W.

Midwinter, J. E.

J. E. Midwinter, “Novel Approach to the Design of Optically Activated Wideband Switching Matrices,” IEE Proc. 134, Pt. J, No. 5, 261 (1985).

J. E. Midwinter, “Light Electronics, Myth or Reality?,” IEE Proc. 132, Pt. J, No. 6, 371 (1985).

Migus, A.

A. Migus, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, J. L. Jewell, “One-Picosecond Optical NOR Gate at Room Temperature with a GaAs-AlGaAs Multiple-Quantum-Well Nonlinear Fabry-Perot Etalon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “The Quantum Well Self-Electrooptic Effect Device: Optoelectronic Bistability and Oscillation, and Self-Linearized Modulation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1462 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “The Symmetric Self-Electro-Optic Effect Device,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1987), postdeadline paper ThT12.

Moravec, H. P.

H. P. Moravec, “Fully Interconnecting Multiple Computers with Pipelined Sorting Nets,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-28, 795 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

A. Migus, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, J. L. Jewell, “One-Picosecond Optical NOR Gate at Room Temperature with a GaAs-AlGaAs Multiple-Quantum-Well Nonlinear Fabry-Perot Etalon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

A. Migus, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, J. L. Jewell, “One-Picosecond Optical NOR Gate at Room Temperature with a GaAs-AlGaAs Multiple-Quantum-Well Nonlinear Fabry-Perot Etalon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, J. T.

J. T. Schwartz, “Ultracomputers,” ACM Trans. Program Lang. Syst. 2, 484 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Stirk, C. W.

C. W. Stirk, R. A. Athale, M. W. Haney, “Folded Perfect Shuffle Optical Processor,” Appl. Opt. 27, 202 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Stirk, R. A. Athale, C. B. Friedlander, “Optical Implementation of the Compare-and-Exchange Operation for Applications in Symbolic Computing,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 754, 27 (1987).

Stone, H. S.

H. S. Stone, “Parallel Processing with the Perfect Shuffle,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-20, 153 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Stork, W.

A. Lohmann, W. Stork, G. Stucke, “Optical Implementation of the Perfect Shuffle,” in Technical Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Computing (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1985), paper WA3.

Stucke, G.

A. Lohmann, W. Stork, G. Stucke, “Optical Implementation of the Perfect Shuffle,” in Technical Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Computing (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1985), paper WA3.

Thompson, C. D.

C. D. Thompson, “The VLSI Complexity of Sorting,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-32, 1171 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Title, M. A.

S. H. Lee, S. C. Esener, M. A. Title, T. J. Drabik, “Two-Dimensional Si/PLZT Light Modulators: Design Considerations and Technology,” Opt. Eng. 25, 250 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Walker, A. C.

Wheatley, P.

P. Wheatley et al., “Novel Nonresonant Optoelectronic Device,” Electron. Lett. 23, 92 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wherrett, B. S.

Wiegmann, W.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “The Quantum Well Self-Electrooptic Effect Device: Optoelectronic Bistability and Oscillation, and Self-Linearized Modulation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1462 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wood, T. H.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “The Quantum Well Self-Electrooptic Effect Device: Optoelectronic Bistability and Oscillation, and Self-Linearized Modulation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1462 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang et al., “All-Optical Compare-and-Exchange Switches,” accepted by IEEE J. Selected Areas Commun., Special Issue on Photonic Switching.

ACM Trans. Program Lang. Syst.

J. T. Schwartz, “Ultracomputers,” ACM Trans. Program Lang. Syst. 2, 484 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. H. Lee et al., “Speed and Effectiveness of Windowless GaAs Etalons as Optical Logic Gates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 486 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. Migus, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, J. L. Jewell, “One-Picosecond Optical NOR Gate at Room Temperature with a GaAs-AlGaAs Multiple-Quantum-Well Nonlinear Fabry-Perot Etalon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

P. Wheatley et al., “Novel Nonresonant Optoelectronic Device,” Electron. Lett. 23, 92 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEE Proc.

J. E. Midwinter, “Novel Approach to the Design of Optically Activated Wideband Switching Matrices,” IEE Proc. 134, Pt. J, No. 5, 261 (1985).

J. E. Midwinter, “Light Electronics, Myth or Reality?,” IEE Proc. 132, Pt. J, No. 6, 371 (1985).

IEEE ASSP Magazine

R. Lippmann, “An Introduction to Computing with Neural Networks,” IEEE ASSP Magazine (1Apr.1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “The Quantum Well Self-Electrooptic Effect Device: Optoelectronic Bistability and Oscillation, and Self-Linearized Modulation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1462 (1985).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Comput.

C. D. Thompson, “The VLSI Complexity of Sorting,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-32, 1171 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Stone, “Parallel Processing with the Perfect Shuffle,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-20, 153 (1971).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Moravec, “Fully Interconnecting Multiple Computers with Pipelined Sorting Nets,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-28, 795 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

S. H. Lee, S. C. Esener, M. A. Title, T. J. Drabik, “Two-Dimensional Si/PLZT Light Modulators: Design Considerations and Technology,” Opt. Eng. 25, 250 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S. Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical Interconnections for VLSI Systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.

C. W. Stirk, R. A. Athale, C. B. Friedlander, “Optical Implementation of the Compare-and-Exchange Operation for Applications in Symbolic Computing,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 754, 27 (1987).

Other

L. Zhang et al., “All-Optical Compare-and-Exchange Switches,” accepted by IEEE J. Selected Areas Commun., Special Issue on Photonic Switching.

A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “The Symmetric Self-Electro-Optic Effect Device,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1987), postdeadline paper ThT12.

A. Lohmann, W. Stork, G. Stucke, “Optical Implementation of the Perfect Shuffle,” in Technical Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Computing (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1985), paper WA3.

D. E. Knuth, The Art of Computer Programming, Vol. 3, Sorting and Searching (Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1973).

A. Huang, “The Relationship Between STARLITE, a Wideband Digital Switch and Optics,” in Proceedings, International Conference on Communications, Toronto (22June1986).

H. S. Hinton, “Applications of the Photonic Switching Technology for Telecommunications Switching,” in Proceedings, International Conference on Communications (7–10 June 1987), to be published.

A. Huang, S. Knauer, “Starlite: A Wideband Digital Switch,” in Proceedings, IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference, Atlanta, GA, Vol. 1, p. 121 (Nov.1984).

K. E. Batcher, “Sorting Networks and Their Applications,” in Proceedings, 1968 Spring Joint Computer Conference, Vol. 32 (AFIPS Press, Reston, VA, 1968), pp. 307–314.

R. A. Athale, “Studies in Digital Optical Processing,” Ph.D. Thesis, U. California, San Diego (1980).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Compare-and-exchange module. Rules: Condition 1, if high ≥ low then high → high and low → low. Condition 2, if high < low then high → low and low → high.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Pipelined bitonic sorter on a perfect shuffle connected network.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time evolution of digital compare and exchange.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transfer function of a latching AND gate; (b) latching AND implementation of the compare operation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Regenerative exchange circuit.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Polarization encoded exchange.

Metrics