Abstract

The prism excitation of a film waveguide with an optically nonlinear substrate consisting of the nematic liquid crystal MBBA has been investigated experimentally. We observed bistable behavior with respect to the incident optical power and the coupling angle as well.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. E. Kaplan, “Theory of Hysteresis Reflection and Refraction of Light by a Boundary of a Nonlinear Medium,” Sov. Phys. JETP 45, 896 (1977).
  2. P. W. Smith, W. I. Tomlinson, “Nonlinear Optical Interfaces: Switching Behaviour,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 30 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  3. I. C. Khoo, “Optical-Thermal Induced Total Internal Reflection-to-Transmission Switching at a Glass-Liquid Crystal Interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 645 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. M. Wysin, H. J. Simon, R. T. Deck, “Optical Bistability with Surface Plasmons,” Opt. Lett. 6, 30 (1981); P. Martinot, S. Laval, A. Koster, “Optical Bistability from Surface Plasmon Excitation Through a Nonlinear Medium,” J. Phys. 45, 597 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. Martinot, A. Koster, S. Laval, “Experimental Observation of Optical Bistability by Excitation of a Surface Plasmon Wave,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1140 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Lederer, U. Langbein, H.-E. Ponath, “Nonlinear waves guided by a dielectric slab,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 1 (1983).
  7. G. I. Stegeman, C. T. Seaton, I. Chilwell, S. D. Smith, “Nonlinear Waves Guided by Thin Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 830 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. J. Montemayor, R. T. Deck, “Optical Bistability with the Waveguide Mode,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B2, 1010 (1985).
  9. R. Reinisch, P. Arlot, G. Vitrant, E. Pic, “Bistable Operation of a Nonlinear Attenuated Total Reflexion Device: Resonant Excitation and Nonlinear Guided Waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 1248 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  10. V. J. Montemayor, R. T. Deck, “Optical Bistability with the Waveguide Mode: the Case of a Finite-Width Incident Beam,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 1211 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Vincent, N. Paraire, M. Neviere, A. Koster, R. Reinisch, “Gratings in Nonlinear Optics and Optical Bistability,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B2, 1106 (1985).
  12. Y. J. Chen, G. M. Carter, “Measurement of Third Order Nonlinear Susceptibilities by Surface Plasmons,,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 307 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. J. Chen, G. M. Carter, G. J. Sonek, J. M. Ballantyne, “Nonlinear Optical Coupling to Planar GaAs/AlGaAs Waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 272 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. D. Valera, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, R. L. Shoemaker, X. Mai, C. Liao, “Demonstration of Nonlinear Prism Coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 1013 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. M. Fortenberry et al., “Power-Dependent Coupling and Fast Switching in Distributed Coupling to ZnO Waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 687 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. Assanto, B. Svensson, D. Kuchibhatla, U. J. Gibson, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, “Prism Coupling into ZnS Waveguides: a Classic Example of a Nonlinear Coupler,” Opt. Lett. 11, 644 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. G. M. Carter, Y. J. Chen, “Nonlinear Optical Coupling between Radiation and Confined Modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 643 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  18. L. Csillag, I. Janossy, V. F. Kitaeva, N. Kroo, N. N. Sobolev, A. S. Zolotko, “Laser Induced Reorientation of Nematic Liquid Crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 78, 173 (1981).
    [CrossRef]

1986

Y. J. Chen, G. M. Carter, G. J. Sonek, J. M. Ballantyne, “Nonlinear Optical Coupling to Planar GaAs/AlGaAs Waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 272 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Fortenberry et al., “Power-Dependent Coupling and Fast Switching in Distributed Coupling to ZnO Waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 687 (1986).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Montemayor, R. T. Deck, “Optical Bistability with the Waveguide Mode: the Case of a Finite-Width Incident Beam,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 1211 (1986).
[CrossRef]

G. Assanto, B. Svensson, D. Kuchibhatla, U. J. Gibson, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, “Prism Coupling into ZnS Waveguides: a Classic Example of a Nonlinear Coupler,” Opt. Lett. 11, 644 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985

P. Martinot, A. Koster, S. Laval, “Experimental Observation of Optical Bistability by Excitation of a Surface Plasmon Wave,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1140 (1985).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Montemayor, R. T. Deck, “Optical Bistability with the Waveguide Mode,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B2, 1010 (1985).

R. Reinisch, P. Arlot, G. Vitrant, E. Pic, “Bistable Operation of a Nonlinear Attenuated Total Reflexion Device: Resonant Excitation and Nonlinear Guided Waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 1248 (1985).
[CrossRef]

P. Vincent, N. Paraire, M. Neviere, A. Koster, R. Reinisch, “Gratings in Nonlinear Optics and Optical Bistability,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B2, 1106 (1985).

1984

P. W. Smith, W. I. Tomlinson, “Nonlinear Optical Interfaces: Switching Behaviour,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 30 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Valera, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, R. L. Shoemaker, X. Mai, C. Liao, “Demonstration of Nonlinear Prism Coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 1013 (1984).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman, C. T. Seaton, I. Chilwell, S. D. Smith, “Nonlinear Waves Guided by Thin Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 830 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

G. M. Carter, Y. J. Chen, “Nonlinear Optical Coupling between Radiation and Confined Modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 643 (1983).
[CrossRef]

F. Lederer, U. Langbein, H.-E. Ponath, “Nonlinear waves guided by a dielectric slab,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 1 (1983).

1982

I. C. Khoo, “Optical-Thermal Induced Total Internal Reflection-to-Transmission Switching at a Glass-Liquid Crystal Interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 645 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Chen, G. M. Carter, “Measurement of Third Order Nonlinear Susceptibilities by Surface Plasmons,,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 307 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

1977

A. E. Kaplan, “Theory of Hysteresis Reflection and Refraction of Light by a Boundary of a Nonlinear Medium,” Sov. Phys. JETP 45, 896 (1977).

Arlot, P.

R. Reinisch, P. Arlot, G. Vitrant, E. Pic, “Bistable Operation of a Nonlinear Attenuated Total Reflexion Device: Resonant Excitation and Nonlinear Guided Waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 1248 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Assanto, G.

Ballantyne, J. M.

Y. J. Chen, G. M. Carter, G. J. Sonek, J. M. Ballantyne, “Nonlinear Optical Coupling to Planar GaAs/AlGaAs Waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 272 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Carter, G. M.

Y. J. Chen, G. M. Carter, G. J. Sonek, J. M. Ballantyne, “Nonlinear Optical Coupling to Planar GaAs/AlGaAs Waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 272 (1986).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Carter, Y. J. Chen, “Nonlinear Optical Coupling between Radiation and Confined Modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 643 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Chen, G. M. Carter, “Measurement of Third Order Nonlinear Susceptibilities by Surface Plasmons,,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 307 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. J.

Y. J. Chen, G. M. Carter, G. J. Sonek, J. M. Ballantyne, “Nonlinear Optical Coupling to Planar GaAs/AlGaAs Waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 272 (1986).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Carter, Y. J. Chen, “Nonlinear Optical Coupling between Radiation and Confined Modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 643 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Chen, G. M. Carter, “Measurement of Third Order Nonlinear Susceptibilities by Surface Plasmons,,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 307 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Chilwell, I.

G. I. Stegeman, C. T. Seaton, I. Chilwell, S. D. Smith, “Nonlinear Waves Guided by Thin Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 830 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Csillag, L.

L. Csillag, I. Janossy, V. F. Kitaeva, N. Kroo, N. N. Sobolev, A. S. Zolotko, “Laser Induced Reorientation of Nematic Liquid Crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 78, 173 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Deck, R. T.

Fortenberry, R. M.

R. M. Fortenberry et al., “Power-Dependent Coupling and Fast Switching in Distributed Coupling to ZnO Waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 687 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, U. J.

Janossy, I.

L. Csillag, I. Janossy, V. F. Kitaeva, N. Kroo, N. N. Sobolev, A. S. Zolotko, “Laser Induced Reorientation of Nematic Liquid Crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 78, 173 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kaplan, A. E.

A. E. Kaplan, “Theory of Hysteresis Reflection and Refraction of Light by a Boundary of a Nonlinear Medium,” Sov. Phys. JETP 45, 896 (1977).

Khoo, I. C.

I. C. Khoo, “Optical-Thermal Induced Total Internal Reflection-to-Transmission Switching at a Glass-Liquid Crystal Interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 645 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kitaeva, V. F.

L. Csillag, I. Janossy, V. F. Kitaeva, N. Kroo, N. N. Sobolev, A. S. Zolotko, “Laser Induced Reorientation of Nematic Liquid Crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 78, 173 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Koster, A.

P. Vincent, N. Paraire, M. Neviere, A. Koster, R. Reinisch, “Gratings in Nonlinear Optics and Optical Bistability,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B2, 1106 (1985).

P. Martinot, A. Koster, S. Laval, “Experimental Observation of Optical Bistability by Excitation of a Surface Plasmon Wave,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1140 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kroo, N.

L. Csillag, I. Janossy, V. F. Kitaeva, N. Kroo, N. N. Sobolev, A. S. Zolotko, “Laser Induced Reorientation of Nematic Liquid Crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 78, 173 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kuchibhatla, D.

Langbein, U.

F. Lederer, U. Langbein, H.-E. Ponath, “Nonlinear waves guided by a dielectric slab,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 1 (1983).

Laval, S.

P. Martinot, A. Koster, S. Laval, “Experimental Observation of Optical Bistability by Excitation of a Surface Plasmon Wave,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1140 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, F.

F. Lederer, U. Langbein, H.-E. Ponath, “Nonlinear waves guided by a dielectric slab,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 1 (1983).

Liao, C.

J. D. Valera, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, R. L. Shoemaker, X. Mai, C. Liao, “Demonstration of Nonlinear Prism Coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 1013 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Mai, X.

J. D. Valera, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, R. L. Shoemaker, X. Mai, C. Liao, “Demonstration of Nonlinear Prism Coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 1013 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Martinot, P.

P. Martinot, A. Koster, S. Laval, “Experimental Observation of Optical Bistability by Excitation of a Surface Plasmon Wave,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1140 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Montemayor, V. J.

V. J. Montemayor, R. T. Deck, “Optical Bistability with the Waveguide Mode: the Case of a Finite-Width Incident Beam,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 1211 (1986).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Montemayor, R. T. Deck, “Optical Bistability with the Waveguide Mode,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B2, 1010 (1985).

Neviere, M.

P. Vincent, N. Paraire, M. Neviere, A. Koster, R. Reinisch, “Gratings in Nonlinear Optics and Optical Bistability,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B2, 1106 (1985).

Paraire, N.

P. Vincent, N. Paraire, M. Neviere, A. Koster, R. Reinisch, “Gratings in Nonlinear Optics and Optical Bistability,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B2, 1106 (1985).

Pic, E.

R. Reinisch, P. Arlot, G. Vitrant, E. Pic, “Bistable Operation of a Nonlinear Attenuated Total Reflexion Device: Resonant Excitation and Nonlinear Guided Waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 1248 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ponath, H.-E.

F. Lederer, U. Langbein, H.-E. Ponath, “Nonlinear waves guided by a dielectric slab,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 1 (1983).

Reinisch, R.

R. Reinisch, P. Arlot, G. Vitrant, E. Pic, “Bistable Operation of a Nonlinear Attenuated Total Reflexion Device: Resonant Excitation and Nonlinear Guided Waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 1248 (1985).
[CrossRef]

P. Vincent, N. Paraire, M. Neviere, A. Koster, R. Reinisch, “Gratings in Nonlinear Optics and Optical Bistability,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B2, 1106 (1985).

Seaton, C. T.

G. Assanto, B. Svensson, D. Kuchibhatla, U. J. Gibson, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, “Prism Coupling into ZnS Waveguides: a Classic Example of a Nonlinear Coupler,” Opt. Lett. 11, 644 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Valera, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, R. L. Shoemaker, X. Mai, C. Liao, “Demonstration of Nonlinear Prism Coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 1013 (1984).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman, C. T. Seaton, I. Chilwell, S. D. Smith, “Nonlinear Waves Guided by Thin Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 830 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Shoemaker, R. L.

J. D. Valera, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, R. L. Shoemaker, X. Mai, C. Liao, “Demonstration of Nonlinear Prism Coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 1013 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Simon, H. J.

Smith, P. W.

P. W. Smith, W. I. Tomlinson, “Nonlinear Optical Interfaces: Switching Behaviour,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 30 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Smith, S. D.

G. I. Stegeman, C. T. Seaton, I. Chilwell, S. D. Smith, “Nonlinear Waves Guided by Thin Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 830 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Sobolev, N. N.

L. Csillag, I. Janossy, V. F. Kitaeva, N. Kroo, N. N. Sobolev, A. S. Zolotko, “Laser Induced Reorientation of Nematic Liquid Crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 78, 173 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sonek, G. J.

Y. J. Chen, G. M. Carter, G. J. Sonek, J. M. Ballantyne, “Nonlinear Optical Coupling to Planar GaAs/AlGaAs Waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 272 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

G. Assanto, B. Svensson, D. Kuchibhatla, U. J. Gibson, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, “Prism Coupling into ZnS Waveguides: a Classic Example of a Nonlinear Coupler,” Opt. Lett. 11, 644 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Valera, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, R. L. Shoemaker, X. Mai, C. Liao, “Demonstration of Nonlinear Prism Coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 1013 (1984).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman, C. T. Seaton, I. Chilwell, S. D. Smith, “Nonlinear Waves Guided by Thin Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 830 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Svensson, B.

Tomlinson, W. I.

P. W. Smith, W. I. Tomlinson, “Nonlinear Optical Interfaces: Switching Behaviour,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 30 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Valera, J. D.

J. D. Valera, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, R. L. Shoemaker, X. Mai, C. Liao, “Demonstration of Nonlinear Prism Coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 1013 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Vincent, P.

P. Vincent, N. Paraire, M. Neviere, A. Koster, R. Reinisch, “Gratings in Nonlinear Optics and Optical Bistability,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B2, 1106 (1985).

Vitrant, G.

R. Reinisch, P. Arlot, G. Vitrant, E. Pic, “Bistable Operation of a Nonlinear Attenuated Total Reflexion Device: Resonant Excitation and Nonlinear Guided Waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 1248 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wysin, G. M.

Zolotko, A. S.

L. Csillag, I. Janossy, V. F. Kitaeva, N. Kroo, N. N. Sobolev, A. S. Zolotko, “Laser Induced Reorientation of Nematic Liquid Crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 78, 173 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

F. Lederer, U. Langbein, H.-E. Ponath, “Nonlinear waves guided by a dielectric slab,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 1 (1983).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

G. I. Stegeman, C. T. Seaton, I. Chilwell, S. D. Smith, “Nonlinear Waves Guided by Thin Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 830 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. Reinisch, P. Arlot, G. Vitrant, E. Pic, “Bistable Operation of a Nonlinear Attenuated Total Reflexion Device: Resonant Excitation and Nonlinear Guided Waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 1248 (1985).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, “Optical-Thermal Induced Total Internal Reflection-to-Transmission Switching at a Glass-Liquid Crystal Interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 645 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Chen, G. M. Carter, “Measurement of Third Order Nonlinear Susceptibilities by Surface Plasmons,,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 307 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Chen, G. M. Carter, G. J. Sonek, J. M. Ballantyne, “Nonlinear Optical Coupling to Planar GaAs/AlGaAs Waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 272 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Valera, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, R. L. Shoemaker, X. Mai, C. Liao, “Demonstration of Nonlinear Prism Coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 1013 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Fortenberry et al., “Power-Dependent Coupling and Fast Switching in Distributed Coupling to ZnO Waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 687 (1986).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Carter, Y. J. Chen, “Nonlinear Optical Coupling between Radiation and Confined Modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 643 (1983).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

P. Martinot, A. Koster, S. Laval, “Experimental Observation of Optical Bistability by Excitation of a Surface Plasmon Wave,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1140 (1985).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Smith, W. I. Tomlinson, “Nonlinear Optical Interfaces: Switching Behaviour,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 30 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

P. Vincent, N. Paraire, M. Neviere, A. Koster, R. Reinisch, “Gratings in Nonlinear Optics and Optical Bistability,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B2, 1106 (1985).

V. J. Montemayor, R. T. Deck, “Optical Bistability with the Waveguide Mode,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B2, 1010 (1985).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.

L. Csillag, I. Janossy, V. F. Kitaeva, N. Kroo, N. N. Sobolev, A. S. Zolotko, “Laser Induced Reorientation of Nematic Liquid Crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 78, 173 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Sov. Phys. JETP

A. E. Kaplan, “Theory of Hysteresis Reflection and Refraction of Light by a Boundary of a Nonlinear Medium,” Sov. Phys. JETP 45, 896 (1977).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup and structure of the nonlinear prism coupler. The coupler is situated in the focus of two crossed cylindrical lenses, one of which has a long focal length to assure a definite incident angle: 1, liquid crystal MBBA, n c = 1.57 + n2·I; 2, waveguide (SiO2–Ta2O5) n f = 1.635; D = 1.6 μm; 3, coupling gap (SiO2) n g = 1.46; d = 0.25 μm; taper angle ɛ ≃ 0.015°; 4, prism (SF 13 glass) n p = 1.7536.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental plots R = Pref1/Pin vs Pin (and the corresponding intensity Iin) for various values of Δθ. ΔӨ ≡ θθres defines the offset of the incident angle θ with respect to the resonant coupling angle for very small Pin.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated reflectivity R vs input intensity Iin for uniform coupling gap n f = 1.635 + i· 1.6 × 10−4, n c = 1.57 + n2I, n2 = 10−9 m2/W, all the other parameters are as shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental verification of angular optical bistability. R is plotted vs θ for various values of input power Pin.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated plots R vs θ with the same parameters as shown in Fig. 3.

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