Abstract

The quantum detection efficiency (QDE) of potassium bromide, applied directly to the surface of a microchannel plate (MCP), has been measured over the wavelength range from 44 to 1216 Å. We present the first measurements for the QDE of KBr between 44 and 256 Å. These show that there is a high QDE peak (~70%) centered at ~70 Å. The results at wavelengths above 256 Å agree with our previous study. Investigation of the angular dependence of the QDE indicates that maximum efficiencies are achieved for graze angles ≤10° at wavelengths below 171 Å. Examination of the photocathode surface with a scanning electron microscope shows that the KBr layer is rough, with granularity at the 0.5-μm level.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. Martin, S. Bowyer, “Quantum Efficiency of Opaque CsI Photocathodes with Channel Electron Multiplier Arrays in the Extreme and Far Ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4206 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, J. F. Pearson, M. J. Whiteley, M. Lewis, “The Soft X-Ray Detection Efficiency of Coated Microchannel Plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 272 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. P. Kowalski, G. G. Fritz, R. G. Cruddace, A. E. Unzicker, N. Swanson, “Quantum Efficiency of Cesium Iodide Photocathodes at Soft X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2440 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, S. Labov, J. Bixler, M. Lampton, “High Quantum Efficiency Opaque CsI Photocathodes for the Extreme and Far Ultraviolet,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 687, 117 (1986).
  5. G. W. Fraser, J. F. Pearson, J. E. Lees, “Caesium Bromide X-Ray Photocathodes,” Preprint, accepted for publication in Nucl. Instrum. Methods00,000 (1987).
  6. O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, J. Sokolowski, M. Lampton, “Ultraviolet Quantum Detection Efficiency of Potassium Bromide as an Opaque Photocathode Applied to Microchannel Plates,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3607 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. W. Duckett, P. H. Metzger, “Intrinsic Photoemission of Alkali Halides,” Phys. Rev. A 137, A953 (1965).
  8. P. Metzger, “On the Quantum Efficiencies of Twenty Alkali Halides in the 12–21 eV Region,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 26, 1879 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. L. Henke, J. Liesegang, S. D. Smith, “Soft X-Ray Induced Secondary Electron Emission from Semiconductors and Insulators: Models and Measurements,” Phys. Rev. 19, 3004 (1979).
  10. T. H. DiStefano, W. E. Spicer, “Photoemission from CsI: Experiment,” Phys. Rev. B 7, 1554 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Antinori, A. Balzarotti, M. Piacentini, “High-Resolution Reflection Spectra of Alkali Halides in the Far Ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. B 7, 1541 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. R. Philipp, H. Ehrenreich, “Intrinsic Optical Properties of Alkali Halides,” Phys. Rev. 131, 2016 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. C. Brown, C. Gahwiller, H. Fujita, A. B. Kunz, W. Scheifly, N. Carrera, “Extreme Ultraviolet Spectra of Ionic Crystals”, Phys. Rev. B 2, 2126 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. Martin, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, “Wedge and Strip Anodes for Centroid-Finding Position-Sensitive Photon and Particle Detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. F. Malina, P. Jelinsky, S. Bowyer, “Calibration Techniques and Results in the Soft X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet for Components of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Satellite,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 154 (1985).
  16. O. H. W. Siegmund, R. F. Malina, K. Coburn, D. Werthiemer, “Microchannel Plate EUV Detectors for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 776 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Ejiri, M. Watanabe, H. Saito, H. Yamashita, T. Shibaguchi, H. Nishida, N. Sato, “Absorption Spectra of Potassium and Rubidium Halides in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” in Proceedings, Third International Conference on Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Physics, Tokyo, Sec. 1, B1 (1971).
  18. R. C. Taylor, M. C. Hettrick, R. F. Malina, “Maximizing the Quantum Efficiency of Microchannel Plate Detectors: the Collection of Photoelectrons from the Interchannel Web Using an Electric Field,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54, 171 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, S. R. Milward, “Imaging Microchannel Plate Detectors for XUV Sky Survey Experiments,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 352 (1985).
  20. J. C. Phillips, “Ultraviolet Absorption of Insulators. III. fcc Alkali Halides,” Phys. Rev. A 136, A1705 (1964).
  21. G. W. Rubloff, “Far-Ultraviolet Reflectance Spectra and the Electronic Structure of Ionic Crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 5, 662 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. Llacer, E. L. Garwin, “Electron-Phonon Interaction in Alkali Halides. I. The Transport of Secondary Electrons with Energies Between 0.25 and 7.5 eV,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 2766 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  23. G. W. Fraser, “The Electron Detection Efficiency of Microchannel Plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 206, 445 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Cardona, R. Haensel, D. W. Lynch, B. Sonntag, Optical Properties of the Rubidium and Cesium Halides in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 1117 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  25. K. I. Grais, A. M. Bastawros, “A Study of Secondary Electron Emission in Insulators and Semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 5239 (1972).
    [CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1986 (2)

M. P. Kowalski, G. G. Fritz, R. G. Cruddace, A. E. Unzicker, N. Swanson, “Quantum Efficiency of Cesium Iodide Photocathodes at Soft X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2440 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, S. Labov, J. Bixler, M. Lampton, “High Quantum Efficiency Opaque CsI Photocathodes for the Extreme and Far Ultraviolet,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 687, 117 (1986).

1985 (2)

R. F. Malina, P. Jelinsky, S. Bowyer, “Calibration Techniques and Results in the Soft X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet for Components of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Satellite,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 154 (1985).

M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, S. R. Milward, “Imaging Microchannel Plate Detectors for XUV Sky Survey Experiments,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 352 (1985).

1984 (2)

O. H. W. Siegmund, R. F. Malina, K. Coburn, D. Werthiemer, “Microchannel Plate EUV Detectors for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 776 (1984).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, J. F. Pearson, M. J. Whiteley, M. Lewis, “The Soft X-Ray Detection Efficiency of Coated Microchannel Plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 272 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

R. C. Taylor, M. C. Hettrick, R. F. Malina, “Maximizing the Quantum Efficiency of Microchannel Plate Detectors: the Collection of Photoelectrons from the Interchannel Web Using an Electric Field,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54, 171 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Fraser, “The Electron Detection Efficiency of Microchannel Plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 206, 445 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

C. Martin, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, “Wedge and Strip Anodes for Centroid-Finding Position-Sensitive Photon and Particle Detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

B. L. Henke, J. Liesegang, S. D. Smith, “Soft X-Ray Induced Secondary Electron Emission from Semiconductors and Insulators: Models and Measurements,” Phys. Rev. 19, 3004 (1979).

1973 (2)

T. H. DiStefano, W. E. Spicer, “Photoemission from CsI: Experiment,” Phys. Rev. B 7, 1554 (1973).
[CrossRef]

M. Antinori, A. Balzarotti, M. Piacentini, “High-Resolution Reflection Spectra of Alkali Halides in the Far Ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. B 7, 1541 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (2)

G. W. Rubloff, “Far-Ultraviolet Reflectance Spectra and the Electronic Structure of Ionic Crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 5, 662 (1972).
[CrossRef]

K. I. Grais, A. M. Bastawros, “A Study of Secondary Electron Emission in Insulators and Semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 5239 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1970 (2)

M. Cardona, R. Haensel, D. W. Lynch, B. Sonntag, Optical Properties of the Rubidium and Cesium Halides in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 1117 (1970).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Brown, C. Gahwiller, H. Fujita, A. B. Kunz, W. Scheifly, N. Carrera, “Extreme Ultraviolet Spectra of Ionic Crystals”, Phys. Rev. B 2, 2126 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

J. Llacer, E. L. Garwin, “Electron-Phonon Interaction in Alkali Halides. I. The Transport of Secondary Electrons with Energies Between 0.25 and 7.5 eV,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 2766 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1965 (2)

S. W. Duckett, P. H. Metzger, “Intrinsic Photoemission of Alkali Halides,” Phys. Rev. A 137, A953 (1965).

P. Metzger, “On the Quantum Efficiencies of Twenty Alkali Halides in the 12–21 eV Region,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 26, 1879 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

J. C. Phillips, “Ultraviolet Absorption of Insulators. III. fcc Alkali Halides,” Phys. Rev. A 136, A1705 (1964).

1963 (1)

H. R. Philipp, H. Ehrenreich, “Intrinsic Optical Properties of Alkali Halides,” Phys. Rev. 131, 2016 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Anger, H. O.

C. Martin, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, “Wedge and Strip Anodes for Centroid-Finding Position-Sensitive Photon and Particle Detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Antinori, M.

M. Antinori, A. Balzarotti, M. Piacentini, “High-Resolution Reflection Spectra of Alkali Halides in the Far Ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. B 7, 1541 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Balzarotti, A.

M. Antinori, A. Balzarotti, M. Piacentini, “High-Resolution Reflection Spectra of Alkali Halides in the Far Ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. B 7, 1541 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Barstow, M. A.

M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, S. R. Milward, “Imaging Microchannel Plate Detectors for XUV Sky Survey Experiments,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 352 (1985).

G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, J. F. Pearson, M. J. Whiteley, M. Lewis, “The Soft X-Ray Detection Efficiency of Coated Microchannel Plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 272 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bastawros, A. M.

K. I. Grais, A. M. Bastawros, “A Study of Secondary Electron Emission in Insulators and Semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 5239 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bixler, J.

O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, S. Labov, J. Bixler, M. Lampton, “High Quantum Efficiency Opaque CsI Photocathodes for the Extreme and Far Ultraviolet,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 687, 117 (1986).

Bowyer, S.

R. F. Malina, P. Jelinsky, S. Bowyer, “Calibration Techniques and Results in the Soft X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet for Components of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Satellite,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 154 (1985).

C. Martin, S. Bowyer, “Quantum Efficiency of Opaque CsI Photocathodes with Channel Electron Multiplier Arrays in the Extreme and Far Ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4206 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, F. C.

F. C. Brown, C. Gahwiller, H. Fujita, A. B. Kunz, W. Scheifly, N. Carrera, “Extreme Ultraviolet Spectra of Ionic Crystals”, Phys. Rev. B 2, 2126 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Cardona, M.

M. Cardona, R. Haensel, D. W. Lynch, B. Sonntag, Optical Properties of the Rubidium and Cesium Halides in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 1117 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Carrera, N.

F. C. Brown, C. Gahwiller, H. Fujita, A. B. Kunz, W. Scheifly, N. Carrera, “Extreme Ultraviolet Spectra of Ionic Crystals”, Phys. Rev. B 2, 2126 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Coburn, K.

O. H. W. Siegmund, R. F. Malina, K. Coburn, D. Werthiemer, “Microchannel Plate EUV Detectors for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 776 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Cruddace, R. G.

DiStefano, T. H.

T. H. DiStefano, W. E. Spicer, “Photoemission from CsI: Experiment,” Phys. Rev. B 7, 1554 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Duckett, S. W.

S. W. Duckett, P. H. Metzger, “Intrinsic Photoemission of Alkali Halides,” Phys. Rev. A 137, A953 (1965).

Ehrenreich, H.

H. R. Philipp, H. Ehrenreich, “Intrinsic Optical Properties of Alkali Halides,” Phys. Rev. 131, 2016 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Ejiri, A.

A. Ejiri, M. Watanabe, H. Saito, H. Yamashita, T. Shibaguchi, H. Nishida, N. Sato, “Absorption Spectra of Potassium and Rubidium Halides in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” in Proceedings, Third International Conference on Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Physics, Tokyo, Sec. 1, B1 (1971).

Everman, E.

O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, J. Sokolowski, M. Lampton, “Ultraviolet Quantum Detection Efficiency of Potassium Bromide as an Opaque Photocathode Applied to Microchannel Plates,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3607 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, S. Labov, J. Bixler, M. Lampton, “High Quantum Efficiency Opaque CsI Photocathodes for the Extreme and Far Ultraviolet,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 687, 117 (1986).

Fraser, G. W.

M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, S. R. Milward, “Imaging Microchannel Plate Detectors for XUV Sky Survey Experiments,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 352 (1985).

G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, J. F. Pearson, M. J. Whiteley, M. Lewis, “The Soft X-Ray Detection Efficiency of Coated Microchannel Plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 272 (1984).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Fraser, “The Electron Detection Efficiency of Microchannel Plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 206, 445 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Fraser, J. F. Pearson, J. E. Lees, “Caesium Bromide X-Ray Photocathodes,” Preprint, accepted for publication in Nucl. Instrum. Methods00,000 (1987).

Fritz, G. G.

Fujita, H.

F. C. Brown, C. Gahwiller, H. Fujita, A. B. Kunz, W. Scheifly, N. Carrera, “Extreme Ultraviolet Spectra of Ionic Crystals”, Phys. Rev. B 2, 2126 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Gahwiller, C.

F. C. Brown, C. Gahwiller, H. Fujita, A. B. Kunz, W. Scheifly, N. Carrera, “Extreme Ultraviolet Spectra of Ionic Crystals”, Phys. Rev. B 2, 2126 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Garwin, E. L.

J. Llacer, E. L. Garwin, “Electron-Phonon Interaction in Alkali Halides. I. The Transport of Secondary Electrons with Energies Between 0.25 and 7.5 eV,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 2766 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Grais, K. I.

K. I. Grais, A. M. Bastawros, “A Study of Secondary Electron Emission in Insulators and Semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 5239 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Haensel, R.

M. Cardona, R. Haensel, D. W. Lynch, B. Sonntag, Optical Properties of the Rubidium and Cesium Halides in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 1117 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, J. Liesegang, S. D. Smith, “Soft X-Ray Induced Secondary Electron Emission from Semiconductors and Insulators: Models and Measurements,” Phys. Rev. 19, 3004 (1979).

Hettrick, M. C.

R. C. Taylor, M. C. Hettrick, R. F. Malina, “Maximizing the Quantum Efficiency of Microchannel Plate Detectors: the Collection of Photoelectrons from the Interchannel Web Using an Electric Field,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54, 171 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Jelinsky, P.

R. F. Malina, P. Jelinsky, S. Bowyer, “Calibration Techniques and Results in the Soft X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet for Components of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Satellite,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 154 (1985).

C. Martin, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, “Wedge and Strip Anodes for Centroid-Finding Position-Sensitive Photon and Particle Detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, M. P.

Kunz, A. B.

F. C. Brown, C. Gahwiller, H. Fujita, A. B. Kunz, W. Scheifly, N. Carrera, “Extreme Ultraviolet Spectra of Ionic Crystals”, Phys. Rev. B 2, 2126 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Labov, S.

O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, S. Labov, J. Bixler, M. Lampton, “High Quantum Efficiency Opaque CsI Photocathodes for the Extreme and Far Ultraviolet,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 687, 117 (1986).

Lampton, M.

O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, J. Sokolowski, M. Lampton, “Ultraviolet Quantum Detection Efficiency of Potassium Bromide as an Opaque Photocathode Applied to Microchannel Plates,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3607 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, S. Labov, J. Bixler, M. Lampton, “High Quantum Efficiency Opaque CsI Photocathodes for the Extreme and Far Ultraviolet,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 687, 117 (1986).

C. Martin, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, “Wedge and Strip Anodes for Centroid-Finding Position-Sensitive Photon and Particle Detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lees, J. E.

G. W. Fraser, J. F. Pearson, J. E. Lees, “Caesium Bromide X-Ray Photocathodes,” Preprint, accepted for publication in Nucl. Instrum. Methods00,000 (1987).

Lewis, M.

G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, J. F. Pearson, M. J. Whiteley, M. Lewis, “The Soft X-Ray Detection Efficiency of Coated Microchannel Plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 272 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Liesegang, J.

B. L. Henke, J. Liesegang, S. D. Smith, “Soft X-Ray Induced Secondary Electron Emission from Semiconductors and Insulators: Models and Measurements,” Phys. Rev. 19, 3004 (1979).

Llacer, J.

J. Llacer, E. L. Garwin, “Electron-Phonon Interaction in Alkali Halides. I. The Transport of Secondary Electrons with Energies Between 0.25 and 7.5 eV,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 2766 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Lynch, D. W.

M. Cardona, R. Haensel, D. W. Lynch, B. Sonntag, Optical Properties of the Rubidium and Cesium Halides in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 1117 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Malina, R. F.

R. F. Malina, P. Jelinsky, S. Bowyer, “Calibration Techniques and Results in the Soft X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet for Components of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Satellite,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 154 (1985).

O. H. W. Siegmund, R. F. Malina, K. Coburn, D. Werthiemer, “Microchannel Plate EUV Detectors for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 776 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Taylor, M. C. Hettrick, R. F. Malina, “Maximizing the Quantum Efficiency of Microchannel Plate Detectors: the Collection of Photoelectrons from the Interchannel Web Using an Electric Field,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54, 171 (1983).
[CrossRef]

C. Martin, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, “Wedge and Strip Anodes for Centroid-Finding Position-Sensitive Photon and Particle Detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Martin, C.

C. Martin, S. Bowyer, “Quantum Efficiency of Opaque CsI Photocathodes with Channel Electron Multiplier Arrays in the Extreme and Far Ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4206 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Martin, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, “Wedge and Strip Anodes for Centroid-Finding Position-Sensitive Photon and Particle Detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Metzger, P.

P. Metzger, “On the Quantum Efficiencies of Twenty Alkali Halides in the 12–21 eV Region,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 26, 1879 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Metzger, P. H.

S. W. Duckett, P. H. Metzger, “Intrinsic Photoemission of Alkali Halides,” Phys. Rev. A 137, A953 (1965).

Milward, S. R.

M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, S. R. Milward, “Imaging Microchannel Plate Detectors for XUV Sky Survey Experiments,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 352 (1985).

Nishida, H.

A. Ejiri, M. Watanabe, H. Saito, H. Yamashita, T. Shibaguchi, H. Nishida, N. Sato, “Absorption Spectra of Potassium and Rubidium Halides in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” in Proceedings, Third International Conference on Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Physics, Tokyo, Sec. 1, B1 (1971).

Pearson, J. F.

G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, J. F. Pearson, M. J. Whiteley, M. Lewis, “The Soft X-Ray Detection Efficiency of Coated Microchannel Plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 272 (1984).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Fraser, J. F. Pearson, J. E. Lees, “Caesium Bromide X-Ray Photocathodes,” Preprint, accepted for publication in Nucl. Instrum. Methods00,000 (1987).

Philipp, H. R.

H. R. Philipp, H. Ehrenreich, “Intrinsic Optical Properties of Alkali Halides,” Phys. Rev. 131, 2016 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, J. C.

J. C. Phillips, “Ultraviolet Absorption of Insulators. III. fcc Alkali Halides,” Phys. Rev. A 136, A1705 (1964).

Piacentini, M.

M. Antinori, A. Balzarotti, M. Piacentini, “High-Resolution Reflection Spectra of Alkali Halides in the Far Ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. B 7, 1541 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Rubloff, G. W.

G. W. Rubloff, “Far-Ultraviolet Reflectance Spectra and the Electronic Structure of Ionic Crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 5, 662 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Saito, H.

A. Ejiri, M. Watanabe, H. Saito, H. Yamashita, T. Shibaguchi, H. Nishida, N. Sato, “Absorption Spectra of Potassium and Rubidium Halides in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” in Proceedings, Third International Conference on Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Physics, Tokyo, Sec. 1, B1 (1971).

Sato, N.

A. Ejiri, M. Watanabe, H. Saito, H. Yamashita, T. Shibaguchi, H. Nishida, N. Sato, “Absorption Spectra of Potassium and Rubidium Halides in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” in Proceedings, Third International Conference on Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Physics, Tokyo, Sec. 1, B1 (1971).

Scheifly, W.

F. C. Brown, C. Gahwiller, H. Fujita, A. B. Kunz, W. Scheifly, N. Carrera, “Extreme Ultraviolet Spectra of Ionic Crystals”, Phys. Rev. B 2, 2126 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Shibaguchi, T.

A. Ejiri, M. Watanabe, H. Saito, H. Yamashita, T. Shibaguchi, H. Nishida, N. Sato, “Absorption Spectra of Potassium and Rubidium Halides in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” in Proceedings, Third International Conference on Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Physics, Tokyo, Sec. 1, B1 (1971).

Siegmund, O. H. W.

O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, J. Sokolowski, M. Lampton, “Ultraviolet Quantum Detection Efficiency of Potassium Bromide as an Opaque Photocathode Applied to Microchannel Plates,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3607 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, S. Labov, J. Bixler, M. Lampton, “High Quantum Efficiency Opaque CsI Photocathodes for the Extreme and Far Ultraviolet,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 687, 117 (1986).

O. H. W. Siegmund, R. F. Malina, K. Coburn, D. Werthiemer, “Microchannel Plate EUV Detectors for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 776 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Smith, S. D.

B. L. Henke, J. Liesegang, S. D. Smith, “Soft X-Ray Induced Secondary Electron Emission from Semiconductors and Insulators: Models and Measurements,” Phys. Rev. 19, 3004 (1979).

Sokolowski, J.

Sonntag, B.

M. Cardona, R. Haensel, D. W. Lynch, B. Sonntag, Optical Properties of the Rubidium and Cesium Halides in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 1117 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Spicer, W. E.

T. H. DiStefano, W. E. Spicer, “Photoemission from CsI: Experiment,” Phys. Rev. B 7, 1554 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, N.

Taylor, R. C.

R. C. Taylor, M. C. Hettrick, R. F. Malina, “Maximizing the Quantum Efficiency of Microchannel Plate Detectors: the Collection of Photoelectrons from the Interchannel Web Using an Electric Field,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54, 171 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Unzicker, A. E.

Vallerga, J. V.

O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, J. Sokolowski, M. Lampton, “Ultraviolet Quantum Detection Efficiency of Potassium Bromide as an Opaque Photocathode Applied to Microchannel Plates,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3607 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, S. Labov, J. Bixler, M. Lampton, “High Quantum Efficiency Opaque CsI Photocathodes for the Extreme and Far Ultraviolet,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 687, 117 (1986).

Watanabe, M.

A. Ejiri, M. Watanabe, H. Saito, H. Yamashita, T. Shibaguchi, H. Nishida, N. Sato, “Absorption Spectra of Potassium and Rubidium Halides in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” in Proceedings, Third International Conference on Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Physics, Tokyo, Sec. 1, B1 (1971).

Werthiemer, D.

O. H. W. Siegmund, R. F. Malina, K. Coburn, D. Werthiemer, “Microchannel Plate EUV Detectors for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 776 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Whiteley, M. J.

G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, J. F. Pearson, M. J. Whiteley, M. Lewis, “The Soft X-Ray Detection Efficiency of Coated Microchannel Plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 272 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, H.

A. Ejiri, M. Watanabe, H. Saito, H. Yamashita, T. Shibaguchi, H. Nishida, N. Sato, “Absorption Spectra of Potassium and Rubidium Halides in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” in Proceedings, Third International Conference on Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Physics, Tokyo, Sec. 1, B1 (1971).

Appl. Opt. (3)

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (1)

O. H. W. Siegmund, R. F. Malina, K. Coburn, D. Werthiemer, “Microchannel Plate EUV Detectors for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 776 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

J. Llacer, E. L. Garwin, “Electron-Phonon Interaction in Alkali Halides. I. The Transport of Secondary Electrons with Energies Between 0.25 and 7.5 eV,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 2766 (1969).
[CrossRef]

K. I. Grais, A. M. Bastawros, “A Study of Secondary Electron Emission in Insulators and Semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 5239 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

P. Metzger, “On the Quantum Efficiencies of Twenty Alkali Halides in the 12–21 eV Region,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 26, 1879 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods (2)

G. W. Fraser, “The Electron Detection Efficiency of Microchannel Plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 206, 445 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, J. F. Pearson, M. J. Whiteley, M. Lewis, “The Soft X-Ray Detection Efficiency of Coated Microchannel Plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 272 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (2)

B. L. Henke, J. Liesegang, S. D. Smith, “Soft X-Ray Induced Secondary Electron Emission from Semiconductors and Insulators: Models and Measurements,” Phys. Rev. 19, 3004 (1979).

H. R. Philipp, H. Ehrenreich, “Intrinsic Optical Properties of Alkali Halides,” Phys. Rev. 131, 2016 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

S. W. Duckett, P. H. Metzger, “Intrinsic Photoemission of Alkali Halides,” Phys. Rev. A 137, A953 (1965).

J. C. Phillips, “Ultraviolet Absorption of Insulators. III. fcc Alkali Halides,” Phys. Rev. A 136, A1705 (1964).

Phys. Rev. B (5)

G. W. Rubloff, “Far-Ultraviolet Reflectance Spectra and the Electronic Structure of Ionic Crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 5, 662 (1972).
[CrossRef]

M. Cardona, R. Haensel, D. W. Lynch, B. Sonntag, Optical Properties of the Rubidium and Cesium Halides in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 1117 (1970).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Brown, C. Gahwiller, H. Fujita, A. B. Kunz, W. Scheifly, N. Carrera, “Extreme Ultraviolet Spectra of Ionic Crystals”, Phys. Rev. B 2, 2126 (1970).
[CrossRef]

T. H. DiStefano, W. E. Spicer, “Photoemission from CsI: Experiment,” Phys. Rev. B 7, 1554 (1973).
[CrossRef]

M. Antinori, A. Balzarotti, M. Piacentini, “High-Resolution Reflection Spectra of Alkali Halides in the Far Ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. B 7, 1541 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (3)

R. F. Malina, P. Jelinsky, S. Bowyer, “Calibration Techniques and Results in the Soft X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet for Components of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Satellite,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 154 (1985).

M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, S. R. Milward, “Imaging Microchannel Plate Detectors for XUV Sky Survey Experiments,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 352 (1985).

O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, S. Labov, J. Bixler, M. Lampton, “High Quantum Efficiency Opaque CsI Photocathodes for the Extreme and Far Ultraviolet,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 687, 117 (1986).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

R. C. Taylor, M. C. Hettrick, R. F. Malina, “Maximizing the Quantum Efficiency of Microchannel Plate Detectors: the Collection of Photoelectrons from the Interchannel Web Using an Electric Field,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54, 171 (1983).
[CrossRef]

C. Martin, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, “Wedge and Strip Anodes for Centroid-Finding Position-Sensitive Photon and Particle Detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

A. Ejiri, M. Watanabe, H. Saito, H. Yamashita, T. Shibaguchi, H. Nishida, N. Sato, “Absorption Spectra of Potassium and Rubidium Halides in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” in Proceedings, Third International Conference on Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Physics, Tokyo, Sec. 1, B1 (1971).

G. W. Fraser, J. F. Pearson, J. E. Lees, “Caesium Bromide X-Ray Photocathodes,” Preprint, accepted for publication in Nucl. Instrum. Methods00,000 (1987).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of the photocathode test configuration showing the photocathode layer, photoelectron repelling grid, and the top microchannel plate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Quantum efficiency vs wavelength for a 15,000-Å thick KBr opaque photocathode at a 15° graze angle to the channel axis using a 120-V mm−1 repelling field. Errors are as described in the text.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Quantum efficiency vs wavelength for 15,000-Å thick KBr opaque photocathodes at a 10° grze angle to the channel axis using a 120-V mm−1 repelling field. The present measurements are used for 171 Å and below; previous measurements6 are used for 256 Å and above. Errors are as described in the text.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Quantum efficiency vs wavelength for 15,000-Å thick KBr opaque photocathodes at a 40° graze angle to the channel axis using a 120-V−1 repelling field. The present measurements are used for 171 Å and below; previous measurements6 are used for 256 Å and above. Errors are as described in the text.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Characteristic attenuation distance (dc) for incident radiation in KBr as a function of wavelength. The short-wavelength data are from Ref. 13, the data from 400 to 500 Å are from Ref. 17, the data from 500 to 950 Å are from Ref. 11, and the data above 950 Å are from Ref. 12.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Quantum efficiency vs graze angle to the channel axis for a 15,000-Å thick opaque KBr photocathode using 68-Å radiation with a 120-V mm−1 repelling field. Relative errors are shown; absolute errors are as described in the text.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Quantum efficiency vs graze angle to the channel axis for a 15,000-Å thick opaque KBr photocathode using 171-Å radiation with a 120-V mm−1 repelling field. Relative errors are shown; absolute errors are as described in the text.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Scanning electron micrograph of the surface of a microchannel plate coated with a 15,000-Å thick layer of KBr. Note that the rough texture of the surface is quite different from the smooth layer assumed by simple photocathode models.

Equations (2)

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Q D E = P c P a e ( 1 R n ) ,
P a e = P o L s ( L s + d c sin θ ) 1

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