Abstract

Intrinsic stress and microstructure of mixed composition films were investigated for several binary systems of IR optical materials. These properties were measured for the entire range of compositions and for mixing obtained by codeposition and by layering of alternate pure components. The variation of stress with composition was observed to be significantly different, depending on the method of mixing. Microstructural analysis revealed a corresponding difference in the grain structure of the films. Low compressive stress films were obtained by coevaporation of high tensile stress materials. These can be used to produce thick and mechanically stable gradient-index optical coatings.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. V. N. Yadava, S. K. Sharma, K. L. Chopra, “Variable Refractive Index Optical Coatings,” Thin Solid Films 17, 243 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. H. Southwell, “Coating Design Using Very Thin High- and Low-Index Layers,” Appl. Opt. 24, 457 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. H. Berning, “Use of Equivalent Films in the Designs of Infrared Multilayer Antireflection Coatings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 431 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Fujiwara, “Refractive Indices of Evaporated Cerium Dioxide-Cerium Fluoride,” “Refractive Indices of Evaporated Cerium Fluoride-Zinc Sulfide Films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 880, 1317 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Jacobson, J. O. Martensson, “Evaporated Inhomogeneous Thin Films,” Appl. Opt. 5, 29 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Demiryont, “Optical Properties of SiO2–TiO2 Composite Films,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2647 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. F. DeNatale, A. B. Harker, “Mixed Cation Optical Thin Films from Tailored Composition Targets,” presented at Materials Research Symposium, Boston, MA (Dec. 1986).
  8. H. Sankur, F. Woodbery, R. H. Hall, W. J. Gunning, “Properties of Thin Fluoride Films Deposited by Laser-Assisted Evaporation,” presented at Materials Research Symposium, Boston, MA (Dec. 1986).
  9. H. K. Pulker, J. Mäser, “The Origin of Mechanical Stress in Vacuum-Deposited MgF2 and ZnS Films,” Thin Solid Films 59, 65 (1979).
    [CrossRef]

1985 (2)

1979 (1)

H. K. Pulker, J. Mäser, “The Origin of Mechanical Stress in Vacuum-Deposited MgF2 and ZnS Films,” Thin Solid Films 59, 65 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

V. N. Yadava, S. K. Sharma, K. L. Chopra, “Variable Refractive Index Optical Coatings,” Thin Solid Films 17, 243 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

1963 (1)

S. Fujiwara, “Refractive Indices of Evaporated Cerium Dioxide-Cerium Fluoride,” “Refractive Indices of Evaporated Cerium Fluoride-Zinc Sulfide Films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 880, 1317 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

Berning, P. H.

Chopra, K. L.

V. N. Yadava, S. K. Sharma, K. L. Chopra, “Variable Refractive Index Optical Coatings,” Thin Solid Films 17, 243 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Demiryont, H.

DeNatale, J. F.

J. F. DeNatale, A. B. Harker, “Mixed Cation Optical Thin Films from Tailored Composition Targets,” presented at Materials Research Symposium, Boston, MA (Dec. 1986).

Fujiwara, S.

S. Fujiwara, “Refractive Indices of Evaporated Cerium Dioxide-Cerium Fluoride,” “Refractive Indices of Evaporated Cerium Fluoride-Zinc Sulfide Films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 880, 1317 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Gunning, W. J.

H. Sankur, F. Woodbery, R. H. Hall, W. J. Gunning, “Properties of Thin Fluoride Films Deposited by Laser-Assisted Evaporation,” presented at Materials Research Symposium, Boston, MA (Dec. 1986).

Hall, R. H.

H. Sankur, F. Woodbery, R. H. Hall, W. J. Gunning, “Properties of Thin Fluoride Films Deposited by Laser-Assisted Evaporation,” presented at Materials Research Symposium, Boston, MA (Dec. 1986).

Harker, A. B.

J. F. DeNatale, A. B. Harker, “Mixed Cation Optical Thin Films from Tailored Composition Targets,” presented at Materials Research Symposium, Boston, MA (Dec. 1986).

Jacobson, R.

Martensson, J. O.

Mäser, J.

H. K. Pulker, J. Mäser, “The Origin of Mechanical Stress in Vacuum-Deposited MgF2 and ZnS Films,” Thin Solid Films 59, 65 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Pulker, H. K.

H. K. Pulker, J. Mäser, “The Origin of Mechanical Stress in Vacuum-Deposited MgF2 and ZnS Films,” Thin Solid Films 59, 65 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Sankur, H.

H. Sankur, F. Woodbery, R. H. Hall, W. J. Gunning, “Properties of Thin Fluoride Films Deposited by Laser-Assisted Evaporation,” presented at Materials Research Symposium, Boston, MA (Dec. 1986).

Sharma, S. K.

V. N. Yadava, S. K. Sharma, K. L. Chopra, “Variable Refractive Index Optical Coatings,” Thin Solid Films 17, 243 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Southwell, W. H.

Woodbery, F.

H. Sankur, F. Woodbery, R. H. Hall, W. J. Gunning, “Properties of Thin Fluoride Films Deposited by Laser-Assisted Evaporation,” presented at Materials Research Symposium, Boston, MA (Dec. 1986).

Yadava, V. N.

V. N. Yadava, S. K. Sharma, K. L. Chopra, “Variable Refractive Index Optical Coatings,” Thin Solid Films 17, 243 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

P. H. Berning, “Use of Equivalent Films in the Designs of Infrared Multilayer Antireflection Coatings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 431 (1962).
[CrossRef]

S. Fujiwara, “Refractive Indices of Evaporated Cerium Dioxide-Cerium Fluoride,” “Refractive Indices of Evaporated Cerium Fluoride-Zinc Sulfide Films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 880, 1317 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (2)

V. N. Yadava, S. K. Sharma, K. L. Chopra, “Variable Refractive Index Optical Coatings,” Thin Solid Films 17, 243 (1973).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Pulker, J. Mäser, “The Origin of Mechanical Stress in Vacuum-Deposited MgF2 and ZnS Films,” Thin Solid Films 59, 65 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. F. DeNatale, A. B. Harker, “Mixed Cation Optical Thin Films from Tailored Composition Targets,” presented at Materials Research Symposium, Boston, MA (Dec. 1986).

H. Sankur, F. Woodbery, R. H. Hall, W. J. Gunning, “Properties of Thin Fluoride Films Deposited by Laser-Assisted Evaporation,” presented at Materials Research Symposium, Boston, MA (Dec. 1986).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Stress vs effective composition for layered Ge–ZnS thin films.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Intrinsic stress vs composition in MgF2–Ge mixed thin films: (a) Layered and (b) Codeposited.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Intrinsic stress behavior of CeF3–Ge codeposited thin films.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Stress vs composition for ZnS–Ge codeposited thin films.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Intrinsic stress behavior of Ge–CdTe codeposited thin films.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Incremental intrinsic stress vs film thickness in MgF2–Ge mixed films.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Composition dependence of microstructure in MgF2–Ge thin films.

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