Abstract

Electroformed grazing incidence mirrors were tested with x rays and were measured with an optical profiler. Their total effective areas are ≳70% of the theoretical values both for 1.5- and 6.4-keV x rays. The half-power diameters (HPDs) are ≲2 min of arc at 1.5 keV. Comparing the x-ray test result with the optical measurement, we set requirements of high-frequency roughness <14 Å and a midfrequency roughness <70 Å for a HPD < 1.5 min of arc at 7 keV. We also present a design of the mirror array telescope for high energies (MARTHE) which has a total effective area of ~1000 cm2 for 7-keV x rays.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. P. Ulmer, “Replication of Grazing Incidence Optics,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 149 (1986).
  2. O. Citterio et al., “Optics for the X-Ray Imaging Concentrators On Board of the X-Ray Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.830 (1987), in press.
  3. M. P. Ulmer, Y. Matsui, D. K. Bedford, G. M. Simnett, P. Z. Takacs, “Electroformed Grazing Incidence X-Ray Mirrors for a Mirror Array Telescope,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3852 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. B. Aschenbach, “X-Ray Telescopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 48, 579 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. K. Bedford, W. R. Purcell, G. M. Simnett, M. P. Ulmer, Y. Matsui, “Replicated X-Ray Mirrors for a Multi-Mirror Array,” in Proceedings, Workshop on X-Ray Optics, June 1986 (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxon, U.K., 1986).
  6. E. L. Church, P. Z. Takacs, “Use of an Optical Profiling Instrument for the Measurement of the Figure and Finish of Optical Quality Surface,” Wear 109, 241 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. L. Church, P. Z. Takacs, “Statistical and Signal Processing Concepts in Surface Metrology,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 645, 107 (1986).
  8. E. L. Church, P. Z. Takacs, “The Interpretation of Glancing Incidence Scattering Measurements,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 126 (1986).
  9. E. L. Church, M. R. Howells, T. V. Vorburger, “Spectral Analysis of the Finish of Diamond-Turned Mirror Surfaces,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 315, 202 (1981).
  10. P. Beckmann, A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon, London, 1963).
  11. R. J. Noll, P. E. Glenn, J. Osantowski, “Optical Surface Analysis Code (OSAC),” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 362, 78 (1983).
  12. P. Z. Takacs, “Metrology of Reflection Optics for Synchrotron Radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods in Phys. Res. A 246, 227 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Petre, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Design and Development of Conical X-Ray Imaging Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 98 (1986).
  14. R. C. Catura, E. G. Joki, D. T. Roethig, W. J. Brookover, “Lacquer Coated X-Ray Optics,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 140 (1986).
  15. O. Citterio, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, B. Sacco, E. Santambrogio, “Optics for X-Ray Concentrators On Board of the Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 579, 102 (1985).

1987 (1)

1986 (7)

M. P. Ulmer, “Replication of Grazing Incidence Optics,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 149 (1986).

E. L. Church, P. Z. Takacs, “Use of an Optical Profiling Instrument for the Measurement of the Figure and Finish of Optical Quality Surface,” Wear 109, 241 (1986).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Church, P. Z. Takacs, “Statistical and Signal Processing Concepts in Surface Metrology,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 645, 107 (1986).

E. L. Church, P. Z. Takacs, “The Interpretation of Glancing Incidence Scattering Measurements,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 126 (1986).

P. Z. Takacs, “Metrology of Reflection Optics for Synchrotron Radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods in Phys. Res. A 246, 227 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. Petre, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Design and Development of Conical X-Ray Imaging Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 98 (1986).

R. C. Catura, E. G. Joki, D. T. Roethig, W. J. Brookover, “Lacquer Coated X-Ray Optics,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 140 (1986).

1985 (2)

O. Citterio, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, B. Sacco, E. Santambrogio, “Optics for X-Ray Concentrators On Board of the Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 579, 102 (1985).

B. Aschenbach, “X-Ray Telescopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 48, 579 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

R. J. Noll, P. E. Glenn, J. Osantowski, “Optical Surface Analysis Code (OSAC),” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 362, 78 (1983).

1981 (1)

E. L. Church, M. R. Howells, T. V. Vorburger, “Spectral Analysis of the Finish of Diamond-Turned Mirror Surfaces,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 315, 202 (1981).

Aschenbach, B.

B. Aschenbach, “X-Ray Telescopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 48, 579 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Beckmann, P.

P. Beckmann, A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon, London, 1963).

Bedford, D. K.

M. P. Ulmer, Y. Matsui, D. K. Bedford, G. M. Simnett, P. Z. Takacs, “Electroformed Grazing Incidence X-Ray Mirrors for a Mirror Array Telescope,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3852 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Bedford, W. R. Purcell, G. M. Simnett, M. P. Ulmer, Y. Matsui, “Replicated X-Ray Mirrors for a Multi-Mirror Array,” in Proceedings, Workshop on X-Ray Optics, June 1986 (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxon, U.K., 1986).

Brookover, W. J.

R. C. Catura, E. G. Joki, D. T. Roethig, W. J. Brookover, “Lacquer Coated X-Ray Optics,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 140 (1986).

Catura, R. C.

R. C. Catura, E. G. Joki, D. T. Roethig, W. J. Brookover, “Lacquer Coated X-Ray Optics,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 140 (1986).

Church, E. L.

E. L. Church, P. Z. Takacs, “Statistical and Signal Processing Concepts in Surface Metrology,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 645, 107 (1986).

E. L. Church, P. Z. Takacs, “The Interpretation of Glancing Incidence Scattering Measurements,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 126 (1986).

E. L. Church, P. Z. Takacs, “Use of an Optical Profiling Instrument for the Measurement of the Figure and Finish of Optical Quality Surface,” Wear 109, 241 (1986).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Church, M. R. Howells, T. V. Vorburger, “Spectral Analysis of the Finish of Diamond-Turned Mirror Surfaces,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 315, 202 (1981).

Citterio, O.

O. Citterio, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, B. Sacco, E. Santambrogio, “Optics for X-Ray Concentrators On Board of the Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 579, 102 (1985).

O. Citterio et al., “Optics for the X-Ray Imaging Concentrators On Board of the X-Ray Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.830 (1987), in press.

Conti, G.

O. Citterio, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, B. Sacco, E. Santambrogio, “Optics for X-Ray Concentrators On Board of the Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 579, 102 (1985).

Glenn, P. E.

R. J. Noll, P. E. Glenn, J. Osantowski, “Optical Surface Analysis Code (OSAC),” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 362, 78 (1983).

Howells, M. R.

E. L. Church, M. R. Howells, T. V. Vorburger, “Spectral Analysis of the Finish of Diamond-Turned Mirror Surfaces,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 315, 202 (1981).

Joki, E. G.

R. C. Catura, E. G. Joki, D. T. Roethig, W. J. Brookover, “Lacquer Coated X-Ray Optics,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 140 (1986).

Matsui, Y.

M. P. Ulmer, Y. Matsui, D. K. Bedford, G. M. Simnett, P. Z. Takacs, “Electroformed Grazing Incidence X-Ray Mirrors for a Mirror Array Telescope,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3852 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Bedford, W. R. Purcell, G. M. Simnett, M. P. Ulmer, Y. Matsui, “Replicated X-Ray Mirrors for a Multi-Mirror Array,” in Proceedings, Workshop on X-Ray Optics, June 1986 (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxon, U.K., 1986).

Mattaini, E.

O. Citterio, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, B. Sacco, E. Santambrogio, “Optics for X-Ray Concentrators On Board of the Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 579, 102 (1985).

Noll, R. J.

R. J. Noll, P. E. Glenn, J. Osantowski, “Optical Surface Analysis Code (OSAC),” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 362, 78 (1983).

Osantowski, J.

R. J. Noll, P. E. Glenn, J. Osantowski, “Optical Surface Analysis Code (OSAC),” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 362, 78 (1983).

Petre, R.

R. Petre, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Design and Development of Conical X-Ray Imaging Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 98 (1986).

Purcell, W. R.

D. K. Bedford, W. R. Purcell, G. M. Simnett, M. P. Ulmer, Y. Matsui, “Replicated X-Ray Mirrors for a Multi-Mirror Array,” in Proceedings, Workshop on X-Ray Optics, June 1986 (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxon, U.K., 1986).

Roethig, D. T.

R. C. Catura, E. G. Joki, D. T. Roethig, W. J. Brookover, “Lacquer Coated X-Ray Optics,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 140 (1986).

Sacco, B.

O. Citterio, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, B. Sacco, E. Santambrogio, “Optics for X-Ray Concentrators On Board of the Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 579, 102 (1985).

Santambrogio, E.

O. Citterio, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, B. Sacco, E. Santambrogio, “Optics for X-Ray Concentrators On Board of the Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 579, 102 (1985).

Serlemitsos, P. J.

R. Petre, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Design and Development of Conical X-Ray Imaging Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 98 (1986).

Simnett, G. M.

M. P. Ulmer, Y. Matsui, D. K. Bedford, G. M. Simnett, P. Z. Takacs, “Electroformed Grazing Incidence X-Ray Mirrors for a Mirror Array Telescope,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3852 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Bedford, W. R. Purcell, G. M. Simnett, M. P. Ulmer, Y. Matsui, “Replicated X-Ray Mirrors for a Multi-Mirror Array,” in Proceedings, Workshop on X-Ray Optics, June 1986 (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxon, U.K., 1986).

Spizzichino, A.

P. Beckmann, A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon, London, 1963).

Takacs, P. Z.

M. P. Ulmer, Y. Matsui, D. K. Bedford, G. M. Simnett, P. Z. Takacs, “Electroformed Grazing Incidence X-Ray Mirrors for a Mirror Array Telescope,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3852 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. L. Church, P. Z. Takacs, “Statistical and Signal Processing Concepts in Surface Metrology,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 645, 107 (1986).

E. L. Church, P. Z. Takacs, “The Interpretation of Glancing Incidence Scattering Measurements,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 126 (1986).

E. L. Church, P. Z. Takacs, “Use of an Optical Profiling Instrument for the Measurement of the Figure and Finish of Optical Quality Surface,” Wear 109, 241 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. Z. Takacs, “Metrology of Reflection Optics for Synchrotron Radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods in Phys. Res. A 246, 227 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ulmer, M. P.

M. P. Ulmer, Y. Matsui, D. K. Bedford, G. M. Simnett, P. Z. Takacs, “Electroformed Grazing Incidence X-Ray Mirrors for a Mirror Array Telescope,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3852 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Ulmer, “Replication of Grazing Incidence Optics,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 149 (1986).

D. K. Bedford, W. R. Purcell, G. M. Simnett, M. P. Ulmer, Y. Matsui, “Replicated X-Ray Mirrors for a Multi-Mirror Array,” in Proceedings, Workshop on X-Ray Optics, June 1986 (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxon, U.K., 1986).

Vorburger, T. V.

E. L. Church, M. R. Howells, T. V. Vorburger, “Spectral Analysis of the Finish of Diamond-Turned Mirror Surfaces,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 315, 202 (1981).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Nucl. Instrum. Methods in Phys. Res. A (1)

P. Z. Takacs, “Metrology of Reflection Optics for Synchrotron Radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods in Phys. Res. A 246, 227 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (8)

R. Petre, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Design and Development of Conical X-Ray Imaging Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 98 (1986).

R. C. Catura, E. G. Joki, D. T. Roethig, W. J. Brookover, “Lacquer Coated X-Ray Optics,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 140 (1986).

O. Citterio, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, B. Sacco, E. Santambrogio, “Optics for X-Ray Concentrators On Board of the Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 579, 102 (1985).

M. P. Ulmer, “Replication of Grazing Incidence Optics,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 149 (1986).

E. L. Church, P. Z. Takacs, “Statistical and Signal Processing Concepts in Surface Metrology,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 645, 107 (1986).

E. L. Church, P. Z. Takacs, “The Interpretation of Glancing Incidence Scattering Measurements,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 126 (1986).

E. L. Church, M. R. Howells, T. V. Vorburger, “Spectral Analysis of the Finish of Diamond-Turned Mirror Surfaces,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 315, 202 (1981).

R. J. Noll, P. E. Glenn, J. Osantowski, “Optical Surface Analysis Code (OSAC),” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 362, 78 (1983).

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

B. Aschenbach, “X-Ray Telescopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 48, 579 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wear (1)

E. L. Church, P. Z. Takacs, “Use of an Optical Profiling Instrument for the Measurement of the Figure and Finish of Optical Quality Surface,” Wear 109, 241 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

D. K. Bedford, W. R. Purcell, G. M. Simnett, M. P. Ulmer, Y. Matsui, “Replicated X-Ray Mirrors for a Multi-Mirror Array,” in Proceedings, Workshop on X-Ray Optics, June 1986 (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxon, U.K., 1986).

P. Beckmann, A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon, London, 1963).

O. Citterio et al., “Optics for the X-Ray Imaging Concentrators On Board of the X-Ray Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.830 (1987), in press.

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