Abstract

The imaging capability of a thin foil x-ray mirror has been examined with optical light, using a laser beam and a wide optical parallel beam. These measurements reveal that (1) image broadening due to millimeter scale waviness (orange peel) of the aluminum substrate, partly intrinsic to the foil and partly caused during the foil treatment, is 1.2-min of arc half-power diameter (HPD) in two reflections; (2) slope errors due to foil shaping and misalignment cause broadening of 1.6–2.0-min of arc HPD; (3) total broadening is ~3-min of arc HPD, which is consistent with the broadening of 2.6-min of arc HPD measured with x rays.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. J. Serlemitsos, “Broad-Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT),” in Proceedings, Workshop on X-Ray Astronomy in the 1980s (1981), p. 441.
  2. P. J. Serlemitsos, R. Petre, C. Glasser, F. Birsa, “Broad Band X-Ray Astronomical Spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 786 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Petre, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Conical Imaging Mirrors for High-Speed X-Ray Telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1833 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. Petre, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Design and Development of Conical X-Ray Imaging Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 98 (1986).
  5. H. Kunieda et al., “Roughness Measurement of X-Ray Mirror Surfaces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1292 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Bennett, “Surface Characterization of Grazing Incidence Optics in the Extreme Ultraviolet and X-ray Regions,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 60 (1986).
  7. Y. Tawara, Nagoya University, Japan; private communication.
  8. F. Makino et al., “Grazing Incidence Optics for the X-Ray Astronomy Mission SXO,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.830 (1987), in press.

1986 (3)

R. Petre, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Design and Development of Conical X-Ray Imaging Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 98 (1986).

H. Kunieda et al., “Roughness Measurement of X-Ray Mirror Surfaces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1292 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Bennett, “Surface Characterization of Grazing Incidence Optics in the Extreme Ultraviolet and X-ray Regions,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 60 (1986).

1985 (1)

1984 (1)

P. J. Serlemitsos, R. Petre, C. Glasser, F. Birsa, “Broad Band X-Ray Astronomical Spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 786 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, J.

J. Bennett, “Surface Characterization of Grazing Incidence Optics in the Extreme Ultraviolet and X-ray Regions,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 60 (1986).

Birsa, F.

P. J. Serlemitsos, R. Petre, C. Glasser, F. Birsa, “Broad Band X-Ray Astronomical Spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 786 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Glasser, C.

P. J. Serlemitsos, R. Petre, C. Glasser, F. Birsa, “Broad Band X-Ray Astronomical Spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 786 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kunieda, H.

H. Kunieda et al., “Roughness Measurement of X-Ray Mirror Surfaces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1292 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Makino, F.

F. Makino et al., “Grazing Incidence Optics for the X-Ray Astronomy Mission SXO,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.830 (1987), in press.

Petre, R.

R. Petre, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Design and Development of Conical X-Ray Imaging Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 98 (1986).

R. Petre, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Conical Imaging Mirrors for High-Speed X-Ray Telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1833 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Serlemitsos, R. Petre, C. Glasser, F. Birsa, “Broad Band X-Ray Astronomical Spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 786 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Serlemitsos, P. J.

R. Petre, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Design and Development of Conical X-Ray Imaging Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 98 (1986).

R. Petre, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Conical Imaging Mirrors for High-Speed X-Ray Telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1833 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Serlemitsos, R. Petre, C. Glasser, F. Birsa, “Broad Band X-Ray Astronomical Spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 786 (1984).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Serlemitsos, “Broad-Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT),” in Proceedings, Workshop on X-Ray Astronomy in the 1980s (1981), p. 441.

Tawara, Y.

Y. Tawara, Nagoya University, Japan; private communication.

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (1)

P. J. Serlemitsos, R. Petre, C. Glasser, F. Birsa, “Broad Band X-Ray Astronomical Spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 786 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Kunieda et al., “Roughness Measurement of X-Ray Mirror Surfaces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1292 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (2)

J. Bennett, “Surface Characterization of Grazing Incidence Optics in the Extreme Ultraviolet and X-ray Regions,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 60 (1986).

R. Petre, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Design and Development of Conical X-Ray Imaging Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 98 (1986).

Other (3)

P. J. Serlemitsos, “Broad-Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT),” in Proceedings, Workshop on X-Ray Astronomy in the 1980s (1981), p. 441.

Y. Tawara, Nagoya University, Japan; private communication.

F. Makino et al., “Grazing Incidence Optics for the X-Ray Astronomy Mission SXO,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.830 (1987), in press.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measuring system of a He–Ne laser beam reflection using a position-sensitive photodiode (Hamamatsu S-1200) and a minicomputer (PDP-11).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Displacement of reflected beam spots. The dashed lines indicate the width which includes 50% of the data points.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measuring system with an optical parallel beam (38-cm diameter, 20-sec of arc parallelism).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Images of five foils in a mirror housing (BBXRT secondary mirror) taken at a distance of ~1800 mm from the mirror.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated beam pattern for the BBXRT secondary mirror. The intrinsic beam pattern (rectangular shape), the diffracted beam pattern (open squares), and the profile to be observed with a Gaussian width of 1-min of arc HPD are plotted.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Ratio of intensities encircled by apertures of 1.59-mm diameter (Ia) and 9.53-mm diameter (Ib) (focal length = 2515 mm, wavelength = 7000 Å). The ratios are calculated with several Gaussian widths (0.0–0.8-min of arc HPD). The open squares show observed data.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Fluctuation of the Surface Normal Vector

Tables Icon

Table II Optical Assessment of Thin Foil Mirrors

Metrics