Abstract

We have performed in situ oxide contamination and XUV reflectance vs angle of incidence studies on fresh aluminum and silicon films evaporated in an ultrahigh vacuum system (base pressure 2 × 10−10 Torr). Our ellipsometric measurements indicate that a surface monolayer of oxide forms on aluminum (1 h at 2 × 10−8-Torr oxygen) and silicon (1 h at 10−7-Torr oxygen). The monolayer formation time is inversely proportional to oxygen pressure. Our reflectance vs angle of incidence measurements at 58.4-nm wavelength indicate that unoxidized aluminum and silicon coatings can be used as multifacet retroreflectors with net retroreflectances in excess of 75% for aluminum and 50% for silicon.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. T. Atwood, “Short Wavelength Optics for Future Free Electron Lasers,” AIP Conf. Proc. 118, 294 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. L. Scott, P. N. Arendt, B. J. Cameron, B. E. Newnam, D. Windt, W. Cash, “Extreme Ultraviolet Multilayer Reflectors,” AIP Conf. Proc. 147, 260 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. D. Johnson, S. L. Hulbert, R. F. Garrett, G. P. Williams, M. L. Knotek, “In Situ Reactive Glow Discharge Cleaning of X-Ray Optical Surfaces,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 1042 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. L. Scott, P. N. Arendt, B. J. Cameron, R. Cordi, B. E. Newnam, D. Windt, W. Cash, “Metal Reflectors in the EUV,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 691, 20 (1986).
  5. H. Hartmann, R. Nord, H. Schwille, E. Bachor, “ROSAT Experience on X-Ray Optics Contamination,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 210 (1987).
  6. W. Burkett, B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, “Effects of Mirror Contamination Observed in the ROSAT Programme,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 217 (1987).
  7. J. P. Chauvineau, J. Corno, D. Decanini, L. Nevot, B. Pardo, “Characteristics of Multilayered Structures for Soft X-Ray Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 563, 248 (1985).
  8. E. D. Palik, Ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, Orlando, FL, 1985).
  9. M. L. Scott, P. N. Arendt, B. J. Cameron, B. E. Newnam, “Contamination Layers on EUV Reflectors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 156 (1987).
  10. B. E. Newnam, “Multifaceted Metal Mirror Designs for Soft X-Ray and EUV Free Electron Laser Resonators,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1985, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Gunther, D. Milam, B. E. Newnam, Eds., NBS Spec. Pub. (1987), to be published.
  11. H. J. Hagemann, W. Gudat, C. Kunz, “Optical Constants from the Far Infrared to the X-Ray Region: Mg, Al, Cu, Ag, Au, Bi, C, and A1203,” DESY SR Report 74/7 (1974).

1987 (4)

E. D. Johnson, S. L. Hulbert, R. F. Garrett, G. P. Williams, M. L. Knotek, “In Situ Reactive Glow Discharge Cleaning of X-Ray Optical Surfaces,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 1042 (1987).
[CrossRef]

H. Hartmann, R. Nord, H. Schwille, E. Bachor, “ROSAT Experience on X-Ray Optics Contamination,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 210 (1987).

W. Burkett, B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, “Effects of Mirror Contamination Observed in the ROSAT Programme,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 217 (1987).

M. L. Scott, P. N. Arendt, B. J. Cameron, B. E. Newnam, “Contamination Layers on EUV Reflectors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 156 (1987).

1986 (2)

M. L. Scott, P. N. Arendt, B. J. Cameron, R. Cordi, B. E. Newnam, D. Windt, W. Cash, “Metal Reflectors in the EUV,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 691, 20 (1986).

M. L. Scott, P. N. Arendt, B. J. Cameron, B. E. Newnam, D. Windt, W. Cash, “Extreme Ultraviolet Multilayer Reflectors,” AIP Conf. Proc. 147, 260 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

J. P. Chauvineau, J. Corno, D. Decanini, L. Nevot, B. Pardo, “Characteristics of Multilayered Structures for Soft X-Ray Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 563, 248 (1985).

1984 (1)

D. T. Atwood, “Short Wavelength Optics for Future Free Electron Lasers,” AIP Conf. Proc. 118, 294 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Arendt, P. N.

M. L. Scott, P. N. Arendt, B. J. Cameron, B. E. Newnam, “Contamination Layers on EUV Reflectors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 156 (1987).

M. L. Scott, P. N. Arendt, B. J. Cameron, B. E. Newnam, D. Windt, W. Cash, “Extreme Ultraviolet Multilayer Reflectors,” AIP Conf. Proc. 147, 260 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Scott, P. N. Arendt, B. J. Cameron, R. Cordi, B. E. Newnam, D. Windt, W. Cash, “Metal Reflectors in the EUV,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 691, 20 (1986).

Aschenbach, B.

W. Burkett, B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, “Effects of Mirror Contamination Observed in the ROSAT Programme,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 217 (1987).

Atwood, D. T.

D. T. Atwood, “Short Wavelength Optics for Future Free Electron Lasers,” AIP Conf. Proc. 118, 294 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bachor, E.

H. Hartmann, R. Nord, H. Schwille, E. Bachor, “ROSAT Experience on X-Ray Optics Contamination,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 210 (1987).

Brauninger, H.

W. Burkett, B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, “Effects of Mirror Contamination Observed in the ROSAT Programme,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 217 (1987).

Burkett, W.

W. Burkett, B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, “Effects of Mirror Contamination Observed in the ROSAT Programme,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 217 (1987).

Cameron, B. J.

M. L. Scott, P. N. Arendt, B. J. Cameron, B. E. Newnam, “Contamination Layers on EUV Reflectors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 156 (1987).

M. L. Scott, P. N. Arendt, B. J. Cameron, B. E. Newnam, D. Windt, W. Cash, “Extreme Ultraviolet Multilayer Reflectors,” AIP Conf. Proc. 147, 260 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Scott, P. N. Arendt, B. J. Cameron, R. Cordi, B. E. Newnam, D. Windt, W. Cash, “Metal Reflectors in the EUV,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 691, 20 (1986).

Cash, W.

M. L. Scott, P. N. Arendt, B. J. Cameron, B. E. Newnam, D. Windt, W. Cash, “Extreme Ultraviolet Multilayer Reflectors,” AIP Conf. Proc. 147, 260 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Scott, P. N. Arendt, B. J. Cameron, R. Cordi, B. E. Newnam, D. Windt, W. Cash, “Metal Reflectors in the EUV,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 691, 20 (1986).

Chauvineau, J. P.

J. P. Chauvineau, J. Corno, D. Decanini, L. Nevot, B. Pardo, “Characteristics of Multilayered Structures for Soft X-Ray Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 563, 248 (1985).

Cordi, R.

M. L. Scott, P. N. Arendt, B. J. Cameron, R. Cordi, B. E. Newnam, D. Windt, W. Cash, “Metal Reflectors in the EUV,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 691, 20 (1986).

Corno, J.

J. P. Chauvineau, J. Corno, D. Decanini, L. Nevot, B. Pardo, “Characteristics of Multilayered Structures for Soft X-Ray Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 563, 248 (1985).

Decanini, D.

J. P. Chauvineau, J. Corno, D. Decanini, L. Nevot, B. Pardo, “Characteristics of Multilayered Structures for Soft X-Ray Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 563, 248 (1985).

Garrett, R. F.

E. D. Johnson, S. L. Hulbert, R. F. Garrett, G. P. Williams, M. L. Knotek, “In Situ Reactive Glow Discharge Cleaning of X-Ray Optical Surfaces,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 1042 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gudat, W.

H. J. Hagemann, W. Gudat, C. Kunz, “Optical Constants from the Far Infrared to the X-Ray Region: Mg, Al, Cu, Ag, Au, Bi, C, and A1203,” DESY SR Report 74/7 (1974).

Hagemann, H. J.

H. J. Hagemann, W. Gudat, C. Kunz, “Optical Constants from the Far Infrared to the X-Ray Region: Mg, Al, Cu, Ag, Au, Bi, C, and A1203,” DESY SR Report 74/7 (1974).

Hartmann, H.

H. Hartmann, R. Nord, H. Schwille, E. Bachor, “ROSAT Experience on X-Ray Optics Contamination,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 210 (1987).

Hulbert, S. L.

E. D. Johnson, S. L. Hulbert, R. F. Garrett, G. P. Williams, M. L. Knotek, “In Situ Reactive Glow Discharge Cleaning of X-Ray Optical Surfaces,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 1042 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, E. D.

E. D. Johnson, S. L. Hulbert, R. F. Garrett, G. P. Williams, M. L. Knotek, “In Situ Reactive Glow Discharge Cleaning of X-Ray Optical Surfaces,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 1042 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Knotek, M. L.

E. D. Johnson, S. L. Hulbert, R. F. Garrett, G. P. Williams, M. L. Knotek, “In Situ Reactive Glow Discharge Cleaning of X-Ray Optical Surfaces,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 1042 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kunz, C.

H. J. Hagemann, W. Gudat, C. Kunz, “Optical Constants from the Far Infrared to the X-Ray Region: Mg, Al, Cu, Ag, Au, Bi, C, and A1203,” DESY SR Report 74/7 (1974).

Nevot, L.

J. P. Chauvineau, J. Corno, D. Decanini, L. Nevot, B. Pardo, “Characteristics of Multilayered Structures for Soft X-Ray Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 563, 248 (1985).

Newnam, B. E.

M. L. Scott, P. N. Arendt, B. J. Cameron, B. E. Newnam, “Contamination Layers on EUV Reflectors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 156 (1987).

M. L. Scott, P. N. Arendt, B. J. Cameron, R. Cordi, B. E. Newnam, D. Windt, W. Cash, “Metal Reflectors in the EUV,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 691, 20 (1986).

M. L. Scott, P. N. Arendt, B. J. Cameron, B. E. Newnam, D. Windt, W. Cash, “Extreme Ultraviolet Multilayer Reflectors,” AIP Conf. Proc. 147, 260 (1986).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Newnam, “Multifaceted Metal Mirror Designs for Soft X-Ray and EUV Free Electron Laser Resonators,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1985, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Gunther, D. Milam, B. E. Newnam, Eds., NBS Spec. Pub. (1987), to be published.

Nord, R.

H. Hartmann, R. Nord, H. Schwille, E. Bachor, “ROSAT Experience on X-Ray Optics Contamination,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 210 (1987).

Pardo, B.

J. P. Chauvineau, J. Corno, D. Decanini, L. Nevot, B. Pardo, “Characteristics of Multilayered Structures for Soft X-Ray Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 563, 248 (1985).

Schwille, H.

H. Hartmann, R. Nord, H. Schwille, E. Bachor, “ROSAT Experience on X-Ray Optics Contamination,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 210 (1987).

Scott, M. L.

M. L. Scott, P. N. Arendt, B. J. Cameron, B. E. Newnam, “Contamination Layers on EUV Reflectors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 156 (1987).

M. L. Scott, P. N. Arendt, B. J. Cameron, B. E. Newnam, D. Windt, W. Cash, “Extreme Ultraviolet Multilayer Reflectors,” AIP Conf. Proc. 147, 260 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Scott, P. N. Arendt, B. J. Cameron, R. Cordi, B. E. Newnam, D. Windt, W. Cash, “Metal Reflectors in the EUV,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 691, 20 (1986).

Williams, G. P.

E. D. Johnson, S. L. Hulbert, R. F. Garrett, G. P. Williams, M. L. Knotek, “In Situ Reactive Glow Discharge Cleaning of X-Ray Optical Surfaces,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 1042 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Windt, D.

M. L. Scott, P. N. Arendt, B. J. Cameron, R. Cordi, B. E. Newnam, D. Windt, W. Cash, “Metal Reflectors in the EUV,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 691, 20 (1986).

M. L. Scott, P. N. Arendt, B. J. Cameron, B. E. Newnam, D. Windt, W. Cash, “Extreme Ultraviolet Multilayer Reflectors,” AIP Conf. Proc. 147, 260 (1986).
[CrossRef]

AIP Conf. Proc. (2)

D. T. Atwood, “Short Wavelength Optics for Future Free Electron Lasers,” AIP Conf. Proc. 118, 294 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Scott, P. N. Arendt, B. J. Cameron, B. E. Newnam, D. Windt, W. Cash, “Extreme Ultraviolet Multilayer Reflectors,” AIP Conf. Proc. 147, 260 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (5)

M. L. Scott, P. N. Arendt, B. J. Cameron, B. E. Newnam, “Contamination Layers on EUV Reflectors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 156 (1987).

M. L. Scott, P. N. Arendt, B. J. Cameron, R. Cordi, B. E. Newnam, D. Windt, W. Cash, “Metal Reflectors in the EUV,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 691, 20 (1986).

H. Hartmann, R. Nord, H. Schwille, E. Bachor, “ROSAT Experience on X-Ray Optics Contamination,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 210 (1987).

W. Burkett, B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, “Effects of Mirror Contamination Observed in the ROSAT Programme,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 217 (1987).

J. P. Chauvineau, J. Corno, D. Decanini, L. Nevot, B. Pardo, “Characteristics of Multilayered Structures for Soft X-Ray Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 563, 248 (1985).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

E. D. Johnson, S. L. Hulbert, R. F. Garrett, G. P. Williams, M. L. Knotek, “In Situ Reactive Glow Discharge Cleaning of X-Ray Optical Surfaces,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 1042 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

B. E. Newnam, “Multifaceted Metal Mirror Designs for Soft X-Ray and EUV Free Electron Laser Resonators,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1985, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Gunther, D. Milam, B. E. Newnam, Eds., NBS Spec. Pub. (1987), to be published.

H. J. Hagemann, W. Gudat, C. Kunz, “Optical Constants from the Far Infrared to the X-Ray Region: Mg, Al, Cu, Ag, Au, Bi, C, and A1203,” DESY SR Report 74/7 (1974).

E. D. Palik, Ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, Orlando, FL, 1985).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic drawing of our UHV deposition and analysis system. All the vacuum pumps are oil-free. The in situ visible ellipsometer and XUV reflectometer are used to measure the contamination of freshly evaporated films.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Ellipsometer measurement of the formation of a single monolayer of surface oxide on fresh aluminum exposed to 2 × 10−8 Torr of oxygen.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ellipsometer measurement of the formation of a single monolayer of surface oxide on fresh silicon exposed to 10−7 Torr of oxygen.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reflectance vs angle of incidence data for an aluminum film at 58.4-nm wavelength. The solid line is calculated for aluminum that is contamination free (corresponding to the ● data). The dashed line is calculated for aluminum with one surface monolayer of oxide (corresponding to the ■ data). The dotted line is calculated for aluminum with three surface monolayers of oxide (corresponding to the ▲ data).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Reflectance vs angle of incidence data for a silicon film at 58.4-nm wavelength. The solid line is calculated for silicon that is contamination free (corresponding to the ● data). The dashed line is calculated for silicon with one surface monolayer of oxide (corresponding to the ■ data). The dotted line is calculated for silicon with two monolayers of oxide (corresponding to the ▲ data).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Reflectance vs angle of incidence for a fresh aluminum film overcoating a previously deposited and oxidized aluminum film (solid line and ● data). This same film is measured again after two weeks in our UHV system at a helium pressure of 2 × 10−9 Torr or greater (dotted line and ■ data). The interference effect seen between 35° and 45° is due to subsurface reflections from the substrate and overcoated aluminum plus oxide layers.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Net reflectance vs the number of facets in a multifacet mirror calculated from the reflectance vs angle of incidence data. For example, the net reflectance for three facets is the reflectance measured at 60° cubed. Note that the net reflectance for two weeks is essentially unchanged (within experimental error) from the net reflectance at one week.

Tables (1)

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Table I Optical Constants of Aluminum and Silicon at 58.4-nm Wavelength

Equations (1)

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ϕ = n 1 n ( 90 ° )

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