Abstract

The scientific instrumentation onboard the Italian satellite for x-ray astronomy (SAX) foresees x-ray imaging concentrators operating in the 0.1–10-keV energy range with a spatial resolution of 1 min of arc. The optics is composed of thirty confocal-nested very thin double-cone mirrors. To achieve good optical quality and to allow the construction of several concentrators at an acceptable cost, a replica technique by electroforming the mirrors from masters is used. This paper presents the results obtained from a set of electroformed mirrors mounted on a concentrator prototype.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. Scarsi, “The SAX Mission,” Adv. Space Res. 3, 491 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Spada, “SAX Scientific Instrumentation,” in Proceedings, Conference on Nonthermal and Very High Temperature Phenomena in X-Ray Astronomy, Rome (1983), pp. 217–234.
  3. C. Perola, “The Scientific Objectives of the SAX Mission,” in Proceedings, Conference on Nonthermal and Very High Temperature Phenomena in X-Ray Astronomy, Rome (1983), pp. 173–230.
  4. O. Citterio, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, B. Sacco, E. Santambrogio, “Optics for X-Ray Concentrators on Board the Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 102 (1985).
  5. G. Bonelli, O. Citterio, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, “Characterization of the Mandrels Used to Produce Replicated Prototype X-Ray Mirror for the Italian X-Ray Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 830, (1987).
  6. B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, K.-H. Stephan, J. Trumper, “X-Ray Test Facilities at Max Planck Institut Garching,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 234 (1979).
  7. P. Beckmann, A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon, New York, 1963).
  8. B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, G. Hasinger, J. Trumper, “Measurements of X-Ray Scattering from Wolter-Type Telescopes and Various Flat Zerodur Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 257, 223 (1980).
  9. M. P. Ulmer, W. R. Purcell, D. K. Bedford, G. M. Simnett, “Electroformed Replication of Grazing Incidence X-Ray Optics,” Workshop on a Cosmic X-Ray Spectroscopy Mission (ESA SP-239), Lyngby, Denmark (1985), p. 195.
  10. D. K. Bedford, W. R. Purcell, G. M. Simnett, M. P. Ulmer, Y. Matsui, “Replicated X-Ray Mirrors for a Multi-Mirror Array,” Workshop on X-Ray Optics, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, U.K. (June1986).
  11. R. Hudec, B. Valnicek, “Czechoslovak Replica X-Ray Mirrors for Astronomical Applications,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 111 (1986).

1987 (1)

G. Bonelli, O. Citterio, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, “Characterization of the Mandrels Used to Produce Replicated Prototype X-Ray Mirror for the Italian X-Ray Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 830, (1987).

1986 (1)

R. Hudec, B. Valnicek, “Czechoslovak Replica X-Ray Mirrors for Astronomical Applications,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 111 (1986).

1985 (1)

O. Citterio, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, B. Sacco, E. Santambrogio, “Optics for X-Ray Concentrators on Board the Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 102 (1985).

1984 (1)

L. Scarsi, “The SAX Mission,” Adv. Space Res. 3, 491 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, G. Hasinger, J. Trumper, “Measurements of X-Ray Scattering from Wolter-Type Telescopes and Various Flat Zerodur Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 257, 223 (1980).

1979 (1)

B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, K.-H. Stephan, J. Trumper, “X-Ray Test Facilities at Max Planck Institut Garching,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 234 (1979).

Aschenbach, B.

B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, G. Hasinger, J. Trumper, “Measurements of X-Ray Scattering from Wolter-Type Telescopes and Various Flat Zerodur Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 257, 223 (1980).

B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, K.-H. Stephan, J. Trumper, “X-Ray Test Facilities at Max Planck Institut Garching,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 234 (1979).

Beckmann, P.

P. Beckmann, A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon, New York, 1963).

Bedford, D. K.

D. K. Bedford, W. R. Purcell, G. M. Simnett, M. P. Ulmer, Y. Matsui, “Replicated X-Ray Mirrors for a Multi-Mirror Array,” Workshop on X-Ray Optics, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, U.K. (June1986).

M. P. Ulmer, W. R. Purcell, D. K. Bedford, G. M. Simnett, “Electroformed Replication of Grazing Incidence X-Ray Optics,” Workshop on a Cosmic X-Ray Spectroscopy Mission (ESA SP-239), Lyngby, Denmark (1985), p. 195.

Bonelli, G.

G. Bonelli, O. Citterio, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, “Characterization of the Mandrels Used to Produce Replicated Prototype X-Ray Mirror for the Italian X-Ray Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 830, (1987).

Brauninger, H.

B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, G. Hasinger, J. Trumper, “Measurements of X-Ray Scattering from Wolter-Type Telescopes and Various Flat Zerodur Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 257, 223 (1980).

B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, K.-H. Stephan, J. Trumper, “X-Ray Test Facilities at Max Planck Institut Garching,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 234 (1979).

Citterio, O.

G. Bonelli, O. Citterio, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, “Characterization of the Mandrels Used to Produce Replicated Prototype X-Ray Mirror for the Italian X-Ray Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 830, (1987).

O. Citterio, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, B. Sacco, E. Santambrogio, “Optics for X-Ray Concentrators on Board the Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 102 (1985).

Conti, G.

G. Bonelli, O. Citterio, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, “Characterization of the Mandrels Used to Produce Replicated Prototype X-Ray Mirror for the Italian X-Ray Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 830, (1987).

O. Citterio, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, B. Sacco, E. Santambrogio, “Optics for X-Ray Concentrators on Board the Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 102 (1985).

Hasinger, G.

B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, G. Hasinger, J. Trumper, “Measurements of X-Ray Scattering from Wolter-Type Telescopes and Various Flat Zerodur Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 257, 223 (1980).

Hudec, R.

R. Hudec, B. Valnicek, “Czechoslovak Replica X-Ray Mirrors for Astronomical Applications,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 111 (1986).

Matsui, Y.

D. K. Bedford, W. R. Purcell, G. M. Simnett, M. P. Ulmer, Y. Matsui, “Replicated X-Ray Mirrors for a Multi-Mirror Array,” Workshop on X-Ray Optics, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, U.K. (June1986).

Mattaini, E.

G. Bonelli, O. Citterio, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, “Characterization of the Mandrels Used to Produce Replicated Prototype X-Ray Mirror for the Italian X-Ray Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 830, (1987).

O. Citterio, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, B. Sacco, E. Santambrogio, “Optics for X-Ray Concentrators on Board the Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 102 (1985).

Perola, C.

C. Perola, “The Scientific Objectives of the SAX Mission,” in Proceedings, Conference on Nonthermal and Very High Temperature Phenomena in X-Ray Astronomy, Rome (1983), pp. 173–230.

Purcell, W. R.

D. K. Bedford, W. R. Purcell, G. M. Simnett, M. P. Ulmer, Y. Matsui, “Replicated X-Ray Mirrors for a Multi-Mirror Array,” Workshop on X-Ray Optics, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, U.K. (June1986).

M. P. Ulmer, W. R. Purcell, D. K. Bedford, G. M. Simnett, “Electroformed Replication of Grazing Incidence X-Ray Optics,” Workshop on a Cosmic X-Ray Spectroscopy Mission (ESA SP-239), Lyngby, Denmark (1985), p. 195.

Sacco, B.

O. Citterio, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, B. Sacco, E. Santambrogio, “Optics for X-Ray Concentrators on Board the Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 102 (1985).

Santambrogio, E.

O. Citterio, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, B. Sacco, E. Santambrogio, “Optics for X-Ray Concentrators on Board the Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 102 (1985).

Scarsi, L.

L. Scarsi, “The SAX Mission,” Adv. Space Res. 3, 491 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Simnett, G. M.

D. K. Bedford, W. R. Purcell, G. M. Simnett, M. P. Ulmer, Y. Matsui, “Replicated X-Ray Mirrors for a Multi-Mirror Array,” Workshop on X-Ray Optics, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, U.K. (June1986).

M. P. Ulmer, W. R. Purcell, D. K. Bedford, G. M. Simnett, “Electroformed Replication of Grazing Incidence X-Ray Optics,” Workshop on a Cosmic X-Ray Spectroscopy Mission (ESA SP-239), Lyngby, Denmark (1985), p. 195.

Spada, G.

G. Spada, “SAX Scientific Instrumentation,” in Proceedings, Conference on Nonthermal and Very High Temperature Phenomena in X-Ray Astronomy, Rome (1983), pp. 217–234.

Spizzichino, A.

P. Beckmann, A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon, New York, 1963).

Stephan, K.-H.

B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, K.-H. Stephan, J. Trumper, “X-Ray Test Facilities at Max Planck Institut Garching,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 234 (1979).

Trumper, J.

B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, G. Hasinger, J. Trumper, “Measurements of X-Ray Scattering from Wolter-Type Telescopes and Various Flat Zerodur Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 257, 223 (1980).

B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, K.-H. Stephan, J. Trumper, “X-Ray Test Facilities at Max Planck Institut Garching,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 234 (1979).

Ulmer, M. P.

D. K. Bedford, W. R. Purcell, G. M. Simnett, M. P. Ulmer, Y. Matsui, “Replicated X-Ray Mirrors for a Multi-Mirror Array,” Workshop on X-Ray Optics, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, U.K. (June1986).

M. P. Ulmer, W. R. Purcell, D. K. Bedford, G. M. Simnett, “Electroformed Replication of Grazing Incidence X-Ray Optics,” Workshop on a Cosmic X-Ray Spectroscopy Mission (ESA SP-239), Lyngby, Denmark (1985), p. 195.

Valnicek, B.

R. Hudec, B. Valnicek, “Czechoslovak Replica X-Ray Mirrors for Astronomical Applications,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 111 (1986).

Adv. Space Res. (1)

L. Scarsi, “The SAX Mission,” Adv. Space Res. 3, 491 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (5)

B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, G. Hasinger, J. Trumper, “Measurements of X-Ray Scattering from Wolter-Type Telescopes and Various Flat Zerodur Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 257, 223 (1980).

O. Citterio, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, B. Sacco, E. Santambrogio, “Optics for X-Ray Concentrators on Board the Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 102 (1985).

G. Bonelli, O. Citterio, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, “Characterization of the Mandrels Used to Produce Replicated Prototype X-Ray Mirror for the Italian X-Ray Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 830, (1987).

B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, K.-H. Stephan, J. Trumper, “X-Ray Test Facilities at Max Planck Institut Garching,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 234 (1979).

R. Hudec, B. Valnicek, “Czechoslovak Replica X-Ray Mirrors for Astronomical Applications,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 111 (1986).

Other (5)

P. Beckmann, A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon, New York, 1963).

M. P. Ulmer, W. R. Purcell, D. K. Bedford, G. M. Simnett, “Electroformed Replication of Grazing Incidence X-Ray Optics,” Workshop on a Cosmic X-Ray Spectroscopy Mission (ESA SP-239), Lyngby, Denmark (1985), p. 195.

D. K. Bedford, W. R. Purcell, G. M. Simnett, M. P. Ulmer, Y. Matsui, “Replicated X-Ray Mirrors for a Multi-Mirror Array,” Workshop on X-Ray Optics, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, U.K. (June1986).

G. Spada, “SAX Scientific Instrumentation,” in Proceedings, Conference on Nonthermal and Very High Temperature Phenomena in X-Ray Astronomy, Rome (1983), pp. 217–234.

C. Perola, “The Scientific Objectives of the SAX Mission,” in Proceedings, Conference on Nonthermal and Very High Temperature Phenomena in X-Ray Astronomy, Rome (1983), pp. 173–230.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Mechanical drawing of the concentrator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Concentrators prototype A1 and B1 mounted inside the Panter x-ray test facility.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Mechanical drawing of mandrels Z30 and C30.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Concentrator A1; two sources separated by 60 sec of arc at 0.9 keV.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Concentrator A1; two sources separated by 30 sec of arc at 8.0 keV.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Concentrator A1; two sources separated by 60 sec of arc at 0.9 keV.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Mirror Z30/1; two sources separated by 60 sec of arc at 8.0 keV.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Concentrator A1; focal plane image at 0.9 keV.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Encircled power functions at 0.9 keV; mirrors Z1/1 and C1/1 and theory.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Encircled power functions at 8.0 keV; mirrors Z30/1 and C30/1 and theory.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Design Parameters and Tolerances of the Mandrels

Tables Icon

Table II Summary of Reflectivity Measurements

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Table III Summary of X-Ray Imaging and Microroughness Measurements

Equations (1)

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I s I 0 = 1 exp [ ( 4 π σ sin α / λ ) 2 ] ,

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