Abstract

High throughput grazing incidence mirrors have been fabricated from float glass using a new inexpensive technique. An array of twelve such mirrors including grazing angles from 3 to 15° has been fabricated and tested. Optical measurement of this array shows a line spread function of 6.3-min of arc FWHM with 90% energy enclosed within 13 min of arc. Three-mirror arrays are used to provide 1-D focusing for a diffuse extreme ultraviolet spectrometer. This paper presents the fabrication techniques and testing procedures used, as well as the mirror performance results.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. Labov, S. Bowyer, C. Martin, “A Spectrometer to Measure the Diffuse, Astronomical Extreme Ultraviolet Background,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 627, 379 (1986).
  3. L. P. Van Speybroeck, R. C. Chase, T. F. Zehnpfennig, “Orthogonal Mirror Telescopes for X-Ray Astronomy,” Appl. Opt. 10, 945 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. C. Weisskopf, “Design of Grazing-Incidence X-Ray Telescopes. Part 1,” Appl. Opt. 12, 1436 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. W. K. H. Schmidt, “A Proposed X-Ray Focusing Device with Wide Field of View for Use in X-Ray Astronomy,” Nucl. Instum. Methods 127, 285 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. W. Kast, “Scanning Kirkpatrick-Baez X-Ray Telescope to Maximize Effective Area and Eliminate Spurious Images; Design,” Appl. Opt. 14, 537 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. R. P. Angel, “Lobster Eyes as X-Ray Telescopes,” Astrophys. J. 233, 364 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. K. H. Schmidt, “Wide Angle X-Ray Optics for Use in Astronomy,” Space Sci. Rev. 30, 615 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. G. Fabricant, L. M. Cohen, P. Gorenstein, “X-Ray Performance of the LAMAR Protoflight Mirror,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1456 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

1986 (1)

S. Labov, S. Bowyer, C. Martin, “A Spectrometer to Measure the Diffuse, Astronomical Extreme Ultraviolet Background,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 627, 379 (1986).

1981 (1)

W. K. H. Schmidt, “Wide Angle X-Ray Optics for Use in Astronomy,” Space Sci. Rev. 30, 615 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

J. R. P. Angel, “Lobster Eyes as X-Ray Telescopes,” Astrophys. J. 233, 364 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1975 (2)

W. K. H. Schmidt, “A Proposed X-Ray Focusing Device with Wide Field of View for Use in X-Ray Astronomy,” Nucl. Instum. Methods 127, 285 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Kast, “Scanning Kirkpatrick-Baez X-Ray Telescope to Maximize Effective Area and Eliminate Spurious Images; Design,” Appl. Opt. 14, 537 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973 (1)

1971 (1)

1948 (1)

Angel, J. R. P.

J. R. P. Angel, “Lobster Eyes as X-Ray Telescopes,” Astrophys. J. 233, 364 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Baez, A. V.

Bowyer, S.

S. Labov, S. Bowyer, C. Martin, “A Spectrometer to Measure the Diffuse, Astronomical Extreme Ultraviolet Background,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 627, 379 (1986).

Chase, R. C.

Cohen, L. M.

Fabricant, D. G.

Gorenstein, P.

Kast, J. W.

Kirkpatrick, P.

Labov, S.

S. Labov, S. Bowyer, C. Martin, “A Spectrometer to Measure the Diffuse, Astronomical Extreme Ultraviolet Background,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 627, 379 (1986).

Martin, C.

S. Labov, S. Bowyer, C. Martin, “A Spectrometer to Measure the Diffuse, Astronomical Extreme Ultraviolet Background,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 627, 379 (1986).

Schmidt, W. K. H.

W. K. H. Schmidt, “Wide Angle X-Ray Optics for Use in Astronomy,” Space Sci. Rev. 30, 615 (1981).
[CrossRef]

W. K. H. Schmidt, “A Proposed X-Ray Focusing Device with Wide Field of View for Use in X-Ray Astronomy,” Nucl. Instum. Methods 127, 285 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Van Speybroeck, L. P.

Weisskopf, M. C.

Zehnpfennig, T. F.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Astrophys. J. (1)

J. R. P. Angel, “Lobster Eyes as X-Ray Telescopes,” Astrophys. J. 233, 364 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Nucl. Instum. Methods (1)

W. K. H. Schmidt, “A Proposed X-Ray Focusing Device with Wide Field of View for Use in X-Ray Astronomy,” Nucl. Instum. Methods 127, 285 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

S. Labov, S. Bowyer, C. Martin, “A Spectrometer to Measure the Diffuse, Astronomical Extreme Ultraviolet Background,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 627, 379 (1986).

Space Sci. Rev. (1)

W. K. H. Schmidt, “Wide Angle X-Ray Optics for Use in Astronomy,” Space Sci. Rev. 30, 615 (1981).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Image profile for a single mirror element. The boxes are the data points and the lines simply connect the points. Measurement errors are smaller than the plotting symbols.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Energy enclosed as a function of distance from the center of the image for a single mirror element. The circles are the data points and the lines simply connect the points. Measurement errors are smaller than the plotting symbols.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Image profile for an array of twelve mirrors. The boxes are the data points and the lines simply connect the points. Measurement errors are smaller than the plotting symbols.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Energy enclosed as a function of distance from the center of the image for an array of twelve mirrors. The circles are the data points and the lines simply connect the points. Measurement errors are smaller than the plotting symbols.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Histogram of the detector image produced by a beam of monochromatic 237-Å radiation reflected off two different samples at 7° grazing angle. The dotted histogram indicates the image from an undisturbed sample of float glass, and the solid lines show the image from a bent glass sample. The total number of counts in each image is nearly the same.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Efficiency of the diffuse EUV spectrometer mirror arrays as a function of wavelength and incident angle. Each point is an average over the entire length of the mirror array and therefore includes losses due to baffles. The triangles show the efficiencies for mirrors coated with rhodium, and the squares and circles indicate platinum-coated arrays. The incident angle (θin) for each point changes with wavelength as described in the text.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Resolution as a function of incident angle (θin) of the diffuse EUV spectrometer mirror arrays. The triangles indicate measurements obtained with the 80–240-Å system, and the squares and circles with the 220–440-Å and the 420–650-Å systems, respectively. Open symbols indicate measurements taken before a sounding rocket launch, and solid symbols show postflight results. The solid, dotted, and dashed lines indicate the resolution predicted for the short, medium, and long wavelength systems, respectively.

Equations (6)

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z = x 2 p i 2 2 p i .
Δ x h Δ z tan θ i n
Δ x w D 2 tan θ i n tan ( θ i n + tan 1 D 2 f ) .
Δ θ { ( Δ z f tan θ i n ) 2 + [ D 2 f tan θ i n tan ( θ i n + tan 1 D 2 f ) ] 2 } 1 / 2 ,
D 2 f = 1 2 f / No . = tan ( 2 α max ) ,
z 2 = ( R 2 + x 2 ) sin 2 Ө .

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