Abstract

A grazing incidence x-ray mirror in the Kirkpatrick-Baez geometry was constructed and tested. Its geometric aperture measures 20 by 30 cm and its length is 100 cm. The focal length is 3.4 m measured from the front to the focal plane. It is the first of eight mirrors to be built for the LAMAR experiment of the Shuttle High Energy Astrophysics Laboratory. Its angular resolution was measured at 1.5 and 6.4 keV in a quasiparallel x-ray beam at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The half-power width (HPW) of the resolution function projected along a horizontal axis is 31 sec of arc at both energies and in visible light. With the addition of small isolation pads the mirror is able to withstand the vibration and acceleration levels of a Space Shuttle launch. The resolution remains under 35-sec of arc HPW for changes in temperature of 9.5°C and when a modest temperature gradient is imposed on the mirror.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. Gorenstein, “Modular Focussing Arrays for X-Ray Observations of Very High Sensitivity from the Space Shuttle,” Special Report to the Woods Hole Working Group (1973).
  2. F. R. Harnden, D. Fabricant, K. Topka, B. P. Flannery, W. H. Tucker, P. Gorenstein, “A Soft X-Ray Image of the Algol Region,” Astrophys. J. 214, 418 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Gorenstein, D. Fabricant, K. Topka, F. R. Harnden, W. H. Tucker, “Soft X-Ray Structure of the Perseus Cluster of Galaxies,” Astrophys. J. 224, 718 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Gorenstein, L. Cohen, D. Fabricant, “X-Ray Telescope Module for the LAMAR Space Shuttle Experiment,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 128 (1986).
  5. D. Fabricant, M. Conroy, L. Cohen, P. Gorenstein, “Automated Figure Formation for a Kirkpatrick-Baez Mirror,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 164 (1986).
  6. M. Zombeck, “Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) Interim Report, Optical Constants and Reflectivities for Nickel, Gold, and Platinum in the X-Ray Region of the Spectrum (0.1–10 keV),” SAO Report SAO-AXAF-83-016.

1986 (2)

P. Gorenstein, L. Cohen, D. Fabricant, “X-Ray Telescope Module for the LAMAR Space Shuttle Experiment,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 128 (1986).

D. Fabricant, M. Conroy, L. Cohen, P. Gorenstein, “Automated Figure Formation for a Kirkpatrick-Baez Mirror,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 164 (1986).

1978 (1)

P. Gorenstein, D. Fabricant, K. Topka, F. R. Harnden, W. H. Tucker, “Soft X-Ray Structure of the Perseus Cluster of Galaxies,” Astrophys. J. 224, 718 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

F. R. Harnden, D. Fabricant, K. Topka, B. P. Flannery, W. H. Tucker, P. Gorenstein, “A Soft X-Ray Image of the Algol Region,” Astrophys. J. 214, 418 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, L.

P. Gorenstein, L. Cohen, D. Fabricant, “X-Ray Telescope Module for the LAMAR Space Shuttle Experiment,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 128 (1986).

D. Fabricant, M. Conroy, L. Cohen, P. Gorenstein, “Automated Figure Formation for a Kirkpatrick-Baez Mirror,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 164 (1986).

Conroy, M.

D. Fabricant, M. Conroy, L. Cohen, P. Gorenstein, “Automated Figure Formation for a Kirkpatrick-Baez Mirror,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 164 (1986).

Fabricant, D.

P. Gorenstein, L. Cohen, D. Fabricant, “X-Ray Telescope Module for the LAMAR Space Shuttle Experiment,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 128 (1986).

D. Fabricant, M. Conroy, L. Cohen, P. Gorenstein, “Automated Figure Formation for a Kirkpatrick-Baez Mirror,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 164 (1986).

P. Gorenstein, D. Fabricant, K. Topka, F. R. Harnden, W. H. Tucker, “Soft X-Ray Structure of the Perseus Cluster of Galaxies,” Astrophys. J. 224, 718 (1978).
[CrossRef]

F. R. Harnden, D. Fabricant, K. Topka, B. P. Flannery, W. H. Tucker, P. Gorenstein, “A Soft X-Ray Image of the Algol Region,” Astrophys. J. 214, 418 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Flannery, B. P.

F. R. Harnden, D. Fabricant, K. Topka, B. P. Flannery, W. H. Tucker, P. Gorenstein, “A Soft X-Ray Image of the Algol Region,” Astrophys. J. 214, 418 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Gorenstein, P.

P. Gorenstein, L. Cohen, D. Fabricant, “X-Ray Telescope Module for the LAMAR Space Shuttle Experiment,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 128 (1986).

D. Fabricant, M. Conroy, L. Cohen, P. Gorenstein, “Automated Figure Formation for a Kirkpatrick-Baez Mirror,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 164 (1986).

P. Gorenstein, D. Fabricant, K. Topka, F. R. Harnden, W. H. Tucker, “Soft X-Ray Structure of the Perseus Cluster of Galaxies,” Astrophys. J. 224, 718 (1978).
[CrossRef]

F. R. Harnden, D. Fabricant, K. Topka, B. P. Flannery, W. H. Tucker, P. Gorenstein, “A Soft X-Ray Image of the Algol Region,” Astrophys. J. 214, 418 (1977).
[CrossRef]

P. Gorenstein, “Modular Focussing Arrays for X-Ray Observations of Very High Sensitivity from the Space Shuttle,” Special Report to the Woods Hole Working Group (1973).

Harnden, F. R.

P. Gorenstein, D. Fabricant, K. Topka, F. R. Harnden, W. H. Tucker, “Soft X-Ray Structure of the Perseus Cluster of Galaxies,” Astrophys. J. 224, 718 (1978).
[CrossRef]

F. R. Harnden, D. Fabricant, K. Topka, B. P. Flannery, W. H. Tucker, P. Gorenstein, “A Soft X-Ray Image of the Algol Region,” Astrophys. J. 214, 418 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Topka, K.

P. Gorenstein, D. Fabricant, K. Topka, F. R. Harnden, W. H. Tucker, “Soft X-Ray Structure of the Perseus Cluster of Galaxies,” Astrophys. J. 224, 718 (1978).
[CrossRef]

F. R. Harnden, D. Fabricant, K. Topka, B. P. Flannery, W. H. Tucker, P. Gorenstein, “A Soft X-Ray Image of the Algol Region,” Astrophys. J. 214, 418 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Tucker, W. H.

P. Gorenstein, D. Fabricant, K. Topka, F. R. Harnden, W. H. Tucker, “Soft X-Ray Structure of the Perseus Cluster of Galaxies,” Astrophys. J. 224, 718 (1978).
[CrossRef]

F. R. Harnden, D. Fabricant, K. Topka, B. P. Flannery, W. H. Tucker, P. Gorenstein, “A Soft X-Ray Image of the Algol Region,” Astrophys. J. 214, 418 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Zombeck, M.

M. Zombeck, “Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) Interim Report, Optical Constants and Reflectivities for Nickel, Gold, and Platinum in the X-Ray Region of the Spectrum (0.1–10 keV),” SAO Report SAO-AXAF-83-016.

Astrophys. J. (2)

F. R. Harnden, D. Fabricant, K. Topka, B. P. Flannery, W. H. Tucker, P. Gorenstein, “A Soft X-Ray Image of the Algol Region,” Astrophys. J. 214, 418 (1977).
[CrossRef]

P. Gorenstein, D. Fabricant, K. Topka, F. R. Harnden, W. H. Tucker, “Soft X-Ray Structure of the Perseus Cluster of Galaxies,” Astrophys. J. 224, 718 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (2)

P. Gorenstein, L. Cohen, D. Fabricant, “X-Ray Telescope Module for the LAMAR Space Shuttle Experiment,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 128 (1986).

D. Fabricant, M. Conroy, L. Cohen, P. Gorenstein, “Automated Figure Formation for a Kirkpatrick-Baez Mirror,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 164 (1986).

Other (2)

M. Zombeck, “Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) Interim Report, Optical Constants and Reflectivities for Nickel, Gold, and Platinum in the X-Ray Region of the Spectrum (0.1–10 keV),” SAO Report SAO-AXAF-83-016.

P. Gorenstein, “Modular Focussing Arrays for X-Ray Observations of Very High Sensitivity from the Space Shuttle,” Special Report to the Woods Hole Working Group (1973).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Figure adjustment apparatus on an optical bench. The pins bonded to the top and bottom of the reflectors are attached to the slotted bars. Precision linear translators tune the figure as they vary the positions of the slotted bar.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

View of the complete mirror (front and rear modules) in a vacuum chamber at the MSFC X-Ray Calibration Facility. A 2.54-cm slit (which is not opened to its full height) defines a fixed direction for the x-ray beam.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Angular resolution function of the rear section of the mirror at 1.5 keV as measured with the HRI detector. This is the 1-D image projected along a horizontal axis.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The 1.5-keV 1-D angular resolution (projected along a horizontal axis) of the rear section measured with a scanning small aperture proportional counter.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Same as Fig. 4 at 6.4 keV.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Projected angular resolution function of the rear section in visible light.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The 6.4-keV reflectivity of float glass with various metallic coatings.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Same as Fig. 7 at 8.09 keV.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Angular Resolution of the Rear Mirror Module

Tables Icon

Table II Effective Area of the LAMAR Protoflight Mirror

Tables Icon

Table III Effective Area of the Rear Module in a 1-D Configuration

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