Abstract

For the past decade, we have been developing at Goddard conical grazing incidence mirrors in an effort to increase the sensitivity and resolution of astronomical observations in the iron K spectral band around 7 keV. Tightly packed conical foils give us the option of trading some imaging capability for light weight, large throughput, and low cost, all crucial requirements at the higher energies where grazing angles become very small. Nearing the completion of the broad band x-ray telescope for NASA’s SHEAL II mission, we have decided important design and fabrication issues including reflector substrate material and supports and most techniques for reflector preparation, mirror assembly, and alignment. We will review the design, fabrication, status, and performance of our present mirrors. Future applications along with prospects for improved spatial resolution for these mirrors will be discussed.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. J. Serlemitsos, B. W. Smith, E. A. Boldt, S. S. Holt, J. H. Swank, “X-Radiation from Clusters of Galaxies: Spectral Evidence for a Hot Evolved Gas,” Astrophys. J. 211, L63 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. S. Holt, N. E. White, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, R. F. Mushotzky, P. J. Serlemitsos, B. W. Smith, “X-Ray Line Emission from Capella,” Astrophys. J. 234, L65 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. J. Serlemitsos, “X-Ray Astronomy in the 1980s,” NASA Tech. Mem. 83848 (1981), p. 441.
  4. P. J. Serlemitsos, R. Petre, C. Glasser, F. Birsa, “Broad Band X-Ray Astronomical Spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 786 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Petre, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Conical Imaging Mirrors for High-Speed X-ray Telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1833 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. Kunieda, P. J. Serlemitsos, “X-Ray Mirror Assessment with Optical Light,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1544 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

1985 (1)

1984 (1)

P. J. Serlemitsos, R. Petre, C. Glasser, F. Birsa, “Broad Band X-Ray Astronomical Spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 786 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

S. S. Holt, N. E. White, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, R. F. Mushotzky, P. J. Serlemitsos, B. W. Smith, “X-Ray Line Emission from Capella,” Astrophys. J. 234, L65 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

P. J. Serlemitsos, B. W. Smith, E. A. Boldt, S. S. Holt, J. H. Swank, “X-Radiation from Clusters of Galaxies: Spectral Evidence for a Hot Evolved Gas,” Astrophys. J. 211, L63 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Becker, R. H.

S. S. Holt, N. E. White, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, R. F. Mushotzky, P. J. Serlemitsos, B. W. Smith, “X-Ray Line Emission from Capella,” Astrophys. J. 234, L65 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Birsa, F.

P. J. Serlemitsos, R. Petre, C. Glasser, F. Birsa, “Broad Band X-Ray Astronomical Spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 786 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Boldt, E. A.

S. S. Holt, N. E. White, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, R. F. Mushotzky, P. J. Serlemitsos, B. W. Smith, “X-Ray Line Emission from Capella,” Astrophys. J. 234, L65 (1979).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Serlemitsos, B. W. Smith, E. A. Boldt, S. S. Holt, J. H. Swank, “X-Radiation from Clusters of Galaxies: Spectral Evidence for a Hot Evolved Gas,” Astrophys. J. 211, L63 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Glasser, C.

P. J. Serlemitsos, R. Petre, C. Glasser, F. Birsa, “Broad Band X-Ray Astronomical Spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 786 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Holt, S. S.

S. S. Holt, N. E. White, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, R. F. Mushotzky, P. J. Serlemitsos, B. W. Smith, “X-Ray Line Emission from Capella,” Astrophys. J. 234, L65 (1979).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Serlemitsos, B. W. Smith, E. A. Boldt, S. S. Holt, J. H. Swank, “X-Radiation from Clusters of Galaxies: Spectral Evidence for a Hot Evolved Gas,” Astrophys. J. 211, L63 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kunieda, H.

Mushotzky, R. F.

S. S. Holt, N. E. White, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, R. F. Mushotzky, P. J. Serlemitsos, B. W. Smith, “X-Ray Line Emission from Capella,” Astrophys. J. 234, L65 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Petre, R.

R. Petre, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Conical Imaging Mirrors for High-Speed X-ray Telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1833 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Serlemitsos, R. Petre, C. Glasser, F. Birsa, “Broad Band X-Ray Astronomical Spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 786 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Serlemitsos, P. J.

H. Kunieda, P. J. Serlemitsos, “X-Ray Mirror Assessment with Optical Light,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1544 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Petre, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Conical Imaging Mirrors for High-Speed X-ray Telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1833 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Serlemitsos, R. Petre, C. Glasser, F. Birsa, “Broad Band X-Ray Astronomical Spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 786 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Holt, N. E. White, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, R. F. Mushotzky, P. J. Serlemitsos, B. W. Smith, “X-Ray Line Emission from Capella,” Astrophys. J. 234, L65 (1979).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Serlemitsos, B. W. Smith, E. A. Boldt, S. S. Holt, J. H. Swank, “X-Radiation from Clusters of Galaxies: Spectral Evidence for a Hot Evolved Gas,” Astrophys. J. 211, L63 (1977).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Serlemitsos, “X-Ray Astronomy in the 1980s,” NASA Tech. Mem. 83848 (1981), p. 441.

Smith, B. W.

S. S. Holt, N. E. White, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, R. F. Mushotzky, P. J. Serlemitsos, B. W. Smith, “X-Ray Line Emission from Capella,” Astrophys. J. 234, L65 (1979).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Serlemitsos, B. W. Smith, E. A. Boldt, S. S. Holt, J. H. Swank, “X-Radiation from Clusters of Galaxies: Spectral Evidence for a Hot Evolved Gas,” Astrophys. J. 211, L63 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Swank, J. H.

P. J. Serlemitsos, B. W. Smith, E. A. Boldt, S. S. Holt, J. H. Swank, “X-Radiation from Clusters of Galaxies: Spectral Evidence for a Hot Evolved Gas,” Astrophys. J. 211, L63 (1977).
[CrossRef]

White, N. E.

S. S. Holt, N. E. White, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, R. F. Mushotzky, P. J. Serlemitsos, B. W. Smith, “X-Ray Line Emission from Capella,” Astrophys. J. 234, L65 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Astrophys. J. (2)

P. J. Serlemitsos, B. W. Smith, E. A. Boldt, S. S. Holt, J. H. Swank, “X-Radiation from Clusters of Galaxies: Spectral Evidence for a Hot Evolved Gas,” Astrophys. J. 211, L63 (1977).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Holt, N. E. White, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, R. F. Mushotzky, P. J. Serlemitsos, B. W. Smith, “X-Ray Line Emission from Capella,” Astrophys. J. 234, L65 (1979).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (1)

P. J. Serlemitsos, R. Petre, C. Glasser, F. Birsa, “Broad Band X-Ray Astronomical Spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 786 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

P. J. Serlemitsos, “X-Ray Astronomy in the 1980s,” NASA Tech. Mem. 83848 (1981), p. 441.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Quantity ɛ2θ2, where ɛ is the reflection efficiency and θ is the grazing angle, is proportional to the effective area. Here it is plotted vs θ for a gold surface and for photon energies of 1.5, 2.5, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 keV.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of reflector support and alignment bars.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Effective areas vs photon energy for the two conical foil mirrors presently under fabrication at Goddard.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Geometric efficiency of the BBXRT mirror vs reflector number.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Effective area of the BBXRT mirror vs off-axis angle at 0.9 and 8 keV.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Geometric blur size of the BBXRT mirror vs off-axis angle.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Effectiveness of acrylic coating in covering characteristic foil streaks.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Vacuum chamber setup for evaporation from a vertical filament.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Flat templates and blades are used to trim and size reflectors as illustrated.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Drawing of mirror quadrant.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Mirror alignment fixture.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Design and Implementation Considerations (Single Mirror)

Tables Icon

Table II Single Mirror Parameters

Metrics