Abstract

Some simple formulas are derived to calculate the maximum effective area that can be obtained by Kirkpatrick-Baez, Wolter, and conical x-ray telescopes in those cases for which that area is limited by the focal length. Electroforming and epoxy replication techniques are reviewed, and the design and production technology chosen for the high throughput telescopes to be flown on the European X-Ray Spectroscopy Mission are presented.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. P. Van Speybroeck, R. C. Chase, T. F. Zehnpfennig, “Orthogonal Mirror Telescopes for X-Ray Astronomy,” Appl. Opt. 10, 945 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Gorenstein, “Modular Focusing Arrays for X-Ray Observations of Very High Sensitivity from the Space Shuttle,” Report to the National Academy of Sciences Working Group on High Energy Astronomy, Woods Hole, MA (1973).
  3. P. Gorenstein, “The Lamar X-Ray Astronomy Facility for Observations of Very High Sensitivity,” New Instrumentation for Space Astronomy, K. v.d. Hucht, G. S. Vaiana, Eds. (Pergamon, London, 1978), p. 237.
  4. P. Gorenstein, L. Cohen, D. Fabricant, “X-Ray Telescope Module for the LAMAR Space Experiment,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 128 (1985).
  5. P. J. Serlemitsos, “X-Ray Astronomy in the 1980s,” S. S. Holt, Ed, NASA Tech. Memo. 83848 (1981), p. 441.
  6. P. J. Serlemitsos, R. Petre, C. Glasser, F. Birsa, “Broad Band X-Ray Astronomical Spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 786 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. J. Serlemitsos, “Conical Foil X-Ray Mirrors: Performance and Projections,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 830, (1987).
  8. O. Citterio, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, B. Sacco, E. Santambrogio, “Optics for X-Ray Concentrators on Board the Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 102 (1985).
  9. B. Aschenbach, “X-Ray Telescopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 48, 579 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Gorenstein, D. Fabricant, L. Cohen, “The LAMAR Telescope Module for High Throughput Imaging and Spectroscopy,” Proc. ESA SP-239 (1985), p. 177.
  11. P. Gorenstein, “High Throughput Optics: An Overview,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 830 (1987).
  12. H. Kunieda, P. Serlemitsos, “Optical Assessment of Grazing Incidence X-Ray Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 830 (1987).
  13. P. de Korte, “In Flight Calibration Data Corrected for Finite Detector Resolution”; unpublished data (1987).
  14. O. Citterio et al., “Optics for the X-Ray Imaging Concentrators on Board of the X-Ray Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 830 (1987).
  15. R. Hudec et al., “Wolter I Type X-Ray Mirror System with Mean Resolution and Maximum Effective Collecting Area for the Spectral Region of 1–10 nm,” Publ. Astron. Inst. Czech. Acad. Sci. 61, 1 (1985).
  16. R. Hudec, B. Valnicek, “Czechoslovak Replica X-Ray Mirrors for Astronomical Applications,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 111 (1985).
  17. R. Hudec, B. Valnicek, “Grazing Incidence Replica Optics for Astronomical and Laboratory Applications,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 830 (1987).
  18. M. P. Ulmer, W. R. Purcell, J. E. A. Loughlin, M. P. Kowalski, “Electroform Replication used for Multiple X-Ray Mirror Production,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4233 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. P. Ulmer, “An Electroformed Mirror Array for High Energy X-Ray Astronomy,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 830 (1987).
  20. R. Lainé, R. Giralt, R. Zobl, P. A. J. de Korte, J. A. M. Bleeker, “X-Ray Imaging Telescope on EXOSAT,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 181 (1979).
  21. R. Hudec, Czech Astronomical Inst.; private communication (1987).
  22. O. Citterio, Milan Cosmic Physics Inst.; private communication (1987).
  23. P. A. J. de Korte, “X-Ray Scattering from Epoxy Replica Surfaces,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 189 (1979).
  24. P. A. J. de Korte, R. Giralt, J. N. Coste, C. Ernu, S. Frindel, J. Flamand, J. J. Contet, “EXOSAT X-Ray Imaging Optics,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1080 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. P. A. J. de Korte, “The Current Status of X-Ray and XUV-Replica Optics,” RAL Symposium on New Techniques in X-Ray and XUV-Optics, RL-83-010 (1982), p. 36.
  26. P. A. J. de Korte, J. Klug, G. Moreau, G. P. Whitcomb, “Carbon-Reinforced Epoxy Techniques for the XMM LE-Telescopes,” Proc. ESA SP-239 (1985), p. 189.
  27. B. Aschenbach, O. Citterio, J. M. Ellwood, P. Jensen, P. de Korte, A. Peacock, R. Willingale, “The High Throughput X-Ray Spectroscopy Mission; Report of the Telescope Working Group,” ESA SP-1084 (1987).
  28. H. Brauinger, Max-Planck-Institut fur Extraterrestische Physik, Munich; private communication (1987).

1987

P. J. Serlemitsos, “Conical Foil X-Ray Mirrors: Performance and Projections,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 830, (1987).

P. Gorenstein, “High Throughput Optics: An Overview,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 830 (1987).

H. Kunieda, P. Serlemitsos, “Optical Assessment of Grazing Incidence X-Ray Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 830 (1987).

O. Citterio et al., “Optics for the X-Ray Imaging Concentrators on Board of the X-Ray Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 830 (1987).

R. Hudec, B. Valnicek, “Grazing Incidence Replica Optics for Astronomical and Laboratory Applications,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 830 (1987).

M. P. Ulmer, “An Electroformed Mirror Array for High Energy X-Ray Astronomy,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 830 (1987).

1985

R. Hudec et al., “Wolter I Type X-Ray Mirror System with Mean Resolution and Maximum Effective Collecting Area for the Spectral Region of 1–10 nm,” Publ. Astron. Inst. Czech. Acad. Sci. 61, 1 (1985).

R. Hudec, B. Valnicek, “Czechoslovak Replica X-Ray Mirrors for Astronomical Applications,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 111 (1985).

O. Citterio, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, B. Sacco, E. Santambrogio, “Optics for X-Ray Concentrators on Board the Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 102 (1985).

B. Aschenbach, “X-Ray Telescopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 48, 579 (1985).
[CrossRef]

P. Gorenstein, L. Cohen, D. Fabricant, “X-Ray Telescope Module for the LAMAR Space Experiment,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 128 (1985).

1984

P. J. Serlemitsos, R. Petre, C. Glasser, F. Birsa, “Broad Band X-Ray Astronomical Spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 786 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Ulmer, W. R. Purcell, J. E. A. Loughlin, M. P. Kowalski, “Electroform Replication used for Multiple X-Ray Mirror Production,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4233 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981

1979

R. Lainé, R. Giralt, R. Zobl, P. A. J. de Korte, J. A. M. Bleeker, “X-Ray Imaging Telescope on EXOSAT,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 181 (1979).

P. A. J. de Korte, “X-Ray Scattering from Epoxy Replica Surfaces,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 189 (1979).

1971

Aschenbach, B.

B. Aschenbach, “X-Ray Telescopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 48, 579 (1985).
[CrossRef]

B. Aschenbach, O. Citterio, J. M. Ellwood, P. Jensen, P. de Korte, A. Peacock, R. Willingale, “The High Throughput X-Ray Spectroscopy Mission; Report of the Telescope Working Group,” ESA SP-1084 (1987).

Birsa, F.

P. J. Serlemitsos, R. Petre, C. Glasser, F. Birsa, “Broad Band X-Ray Astronomical Spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 786 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bleeker, J. A. M.

R. Lainé, R. Giralt, R. Zobl, P. A. J. de Korte, J. A. M. Bleeker, “X-Ray Imaging Telescope on EXOSAT,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 181 (1979).

Brauinger, H.

H. Brauinger, Max-Planck-Institut fur Extraterrestische Physik, Munich; private communication (1987).

Chase, R. C.

Citterio, O.

O. Citterio et al., “Optics for the X-Ray Imaging Concentrators on Board of the X-Ray Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 830 (1987).

O. Citterio, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, B. Sacco, E. Santambrogio, “Optics for X-Ray Concentrators on Board the Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 102 (1985).

B. Aschenbach, O. Citterio, J. M. Ellwood, P. Jensen, P. de Korte, A. Peacock, R. Willingale, “The High Throughput X-Ray Spectroscopy Mission; Report of the Telescope Working Group,” ESA SP-1084 (1987).

O. Citterio, Milan Cosmic Physics Inst.; private communication (1987).

Cohen, L.

P. Gorenstein, L. Cohen, D. Fabricant, “X-Ray Telescope Module for the LAMAR Space Experiment,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 128 (1985).

P. Gorenstein, D. Fabricant, L. Cohen, “The LAMAR Telescope Module for High Throughput Imaging and Spectroscopy,” Proc. ESA SP-239 (1985), p. 177.

Contet, J. J.

Conti, G.

O. Citterio, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, B. Sacco, E. Santambrogio, “Optics for X-Ray Concentrators on Board the Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 102 (1985).

Coste, J. N.

de Korte, P.

B. Aschenbach, O. Citterio, J. M. Ellwood, P. Jensen, P. de Korte, A. Peacock, R. Willingale, “The High Throughput X-Ray Spectroscopy Mission; Report of the Telescope Working Group,” ESA SP-1084 (1987).

P. de Korte, “In Flight Calibration Data Corrected for Finite Detector Resolution”; unpublished data (1987).

de Korte, P. A. J.

P. A. J. de Korte, R. Giralt, J. N. Coste, C. Ernu, S. Frindel, J. Flamand, J. J. Contet, “EXOSAT X-Ray Imaging Optics,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1080 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. J. de Korte, “X-Ray Scattering from Epoxy Replica Surfaces,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 189 (1979).

R. Lainé, R. Giralt, R. Zobl, P. A. J. de Korte, J. A. M. Bleeker, “X-Ray Imaging Telescope on EXOSAT,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 181 (1979).

P. A. J. de Korte, “The Current Status of X-Ray and XUV-Replica Optics,” RAL Symposium on New Techniques in X-Ray and XUV-Optics, RL-83-010 (1982), p. 36.

P. A. J. de Korte, J. Klug, G. Moreau, G. P. Whitcomb, “Carbon-Reinforced Epoxy Techniques for the XMM LE-Telescopes,” Proc. ESA SP-239 (1985), p. 189.

Ellwood, J. M.

B. Aschenbach, O. Citterio, J. M. Ellwood, P. Jensen, P. de Korte, A. Peacock, R. Willingale, “The High Throughput X-Ray Spectroscopy Mission; Report of the Telescope Working Group,” ESA SP-1084 (1987).

Ernu, C.

Fabricant, D.

P. Gorenstein, L. Cohen, D. Fabricant, “X-Ray Telescope Module for the LAMAR Space Experiment,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 128 (1985).

P. Gorenstein, D. Fabricant, L. Cohen, “The LAMAR Telescope Module for High Throughput Imaging and Spectroscopy,” Proc. ESA SP-239 (1985), p. 177.

Flamand, J.

Frindel, S.

Giralt, R.

P. A. J. de Korte, R. Giralt, J. N. Coste, C. Ernu, S. Frindel, J. Flamand, J. J. Contet, “EXOSAT X-Ray Imaging Optics,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1080 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Lainé, R. Giralt, R. Zobl, P. A. J. de Korte, J. A. M. Bleeker, “X-Ray Imaging Telescope on EXOSAT,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 181 (1979).

Glasser, C.

P. J. Serlemitsos, R. Petre, C. Glasser, F. Birsa, “Broad Band X-Ray Astronomical Spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 786 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Gorenstein, P.

P. Gorenstein, “High Throughput Optics: An Overview,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 830 (1987).

P. Gorenstein, L. Cohen, D. Fabricant, “X-Ray Telescope Module for the LAMAR Space Experiment,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 128 (1985).

P. Gorenstein, “Modular Focusing Arrays for X-Ray Observations of Very High Sensitivity from the Space Shuttle,” Report to the National Academy of Sciences Working Group on High Energy Astronomy, Woods Hole, MA (1973).

P. Gorenstein, “The Lamar X-Ray Astronomy Facility for Observations of Very High Sensitivity,” New Instrumentation for Space Astronomy, K. v.d. Hucht, G. S. Vaiana, Eds. (Pergamon, London, 1978), p. 237.

P. Gorenstein, D. Fabricant, L. Cohen, “The LAMAR Telescope Module for High Throughput Imaging and Spectroscopy,” Proc. ESA SP-239 (1985), p. 177.

Hudec, R.

R. Hudec, B. Valnicek, “Grazing Incidence Replica Optics for Astronomical and Laboratory Applications,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 830 (1987).

R. Hudec et al., “Wolter I Type X-Ray Mirror System with Mean Resolution and Maximum Effective Collecting Area for the Spectral Region of 1–10 nm,” Publ. Astron. Inst. Czech. Acad. Sci. 61, 1 (1985).

R. Hudec, B. Valnicek, “Czechoslovak Replica X-Ray Mirrors for Astronomical Applications,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 111 (1985).

R. Hudec, Czech Astronomical Inst.; private communication (1987).

Jensen, P.

B. Aschenbach, O. Citterio, J. M. Ellwood, P. Jensen, P. de Korte, A. Peacock, R. Willingale, “The High Throughput X-Ray Spectroscopy Mission; Report of the Telescope Working Group,” ESA SP-1084 (1987).

Klug, J.

P. A. J. de Korte, J. Klug, G. Moreau, G. P. Whitcomb, “Carbon-Reinforced Epoxy Techniques for the XMM LE-Telescopes,” Proc. ESA SP-239 (1985), p. 189.

Kowalski, M. P.

Kunieda, H.

H. Kunieda, P. Serlemitsos, “Optical Assessment of Grazing Incidence X-Ray Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 830 (1987).

Lainé, R.

R. Lainé, R. Giralt, R. Zobl, P. A. J. de Korte, J. A. M. Bleeker, “X-Ray Imaging Telescope on EXOSAT,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 181 (1979).

Loughlin, J. E. A.

Mattaini, E.

O. Citterio, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, B. Sacco, E. Santambrogio, “Optics for X-Ray Concentrators on Board the Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 102 (1985).

Moreau, G.

P. A. J. de Korte, J. Klug, G. Moreau, G. P. Whitcomb, “Carbon-Reinforced Epoxy Techniques for the XMM LE-Telescopes,” Proc. ESA SP-239 (1985), p. 189.

Peacock, A.

B. Aschenbach, O. Citterio, J. M. Ellwood, P. Jensen, P. de Korte, A. Peacock, R. Willingale, “The High Throughput X-Ray Spectroscopy Mission; Report of the Telescope Working Group,” ESA SP-1084 (1987).

Petre, R.

P. J. Serlemitsos, R. Petre, C. Glasser, F. Birsa, “Broad Band X-Ray Astronomical Spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 786 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Purcell, W. R.

Sacco, B.

O. Citterio, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, B. Sacco, E. Santambrogio, “Optics for X-Ray Concentrators on Board the Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 102 (1985).

Santambrogio, E.

O. Citterio, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, B. Sacco, E. Santambrogio, “Optics for X-Ray Concentrators on Board the Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 102 (1985).

Serlemitsos, P.

H. Kunieda, P. Serlemitsos, “Optical Assessment of Grazing Incidence X-Ray Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 830 (1987).

Serlemitsos, P. J.

P. J. Serlemitsos, “Conical Foil X-Ray Mirrors: Performance and Projections,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 830, (1987).

P. J. Serlemitsos, R. Petre, C. Glasser, F. Birsa, “Broad Band X-Ray Astronomical Spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 786 (1984).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Serlemitsos, “X-Ray Astronomy in the 1980s,” S. S. Holt, Ed, NASA Tech. Memo. 83848 (1981), p. 441.

Ulmer, M. P.

M. P. Ulmer, “An Electroformed Mirror Array for High Energy X-Ray Astronomy,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 830 (1987).

M. P. Ulmer, W. R. Purcell, J. E. A. Loughlin, M. P. Kowalski, “Electroform Replication used for Multiple X-Ray Mirror Production,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4233 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valnicek, B.

R. Hudec, B. Valnicek, “Grazing Incidence Replica Optics for Astronomical and Laboratory Applications,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 830 (1987).

R. Hudec, B. Valnicek, “Czechoslovak Replica X-Ray Mirrors for Astronomical Applications,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 111 (1985).

Van Speybroeck, L. P.

Whitcomb, G. P.

P. A. J. de Korte, J. Klug, G. Moreau, G. P. Whitcomb, “Carbon-Reinforced Epoxy Techniques for the XMM LE-Telescopes,” Proc. ESA SP-239 (1985), p. 189.

Willingale, R.

B. Aschenbach, O. Citterio, J. M. Ellwood, P. Jensen, P. de Korte, A. Peacock, R. Willingale, “The High Throughput X-Ray Spectroscopy Mission; Report of the Telescope Working Group,” ESA SP-1084 (1987).

Zehnpfennig, T. F.

Zobl, R.

R. Lainé, R. Giralt, R. Zobl, P. A. J. de Korte, J. A. M. Bleeker, “X-Ray Imaging Telescope on EXOSAT,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 181 (1979).

Appl. Opt.

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.

P. J. Serlemitsos, R. Petre, C. Glasser, F. Birsa, “Broad Band X-Ray Astronomical Spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 786 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.

P. J. Serlemitsos, “Conical Foil X-Ray Mirrors: Performance and Projections,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 830, (1987).

O. Citterio, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, B. Sacco, E. Santambrogio, “Optics for X-Ray Concentrators on Board the Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 102 (1985).

P. Gorenstein, L. Cohen, D. Fabricant, “X-Ray Telescope Module for the LAMAR Space Experiment,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 128 (1985).

M. P. Ulmer, “An Electroformed Mirror Array for High Energy X-Ray Astronomy,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 830 (1987).

R. Lainé, R. Giralt, R. Zobl, P. A. J. de Korte, J. A. M. Bleeker, “X-Ray Imaging Telescope on EXOSAT,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 181 (1979).

P. Gorenstein, “High Throughput Optics: An Overview,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 830 (1987).

H. Kunieda, P. Serlemitsos, “Optical Assessment of Grazing Incidence X-Ray Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 830 (1987).

O. Citterio et al., “Optics for the X-Ray Imaging Concentrators on Board of the X-Ray Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 830 (1987).

R. Hudec, B. Valnicek, “Czechoslovak Replica X-Ray Mirrors for Astronomical Applications,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 111 (1985).

R. Hudec, B. Valnicek, “Grazing Incidence Replica Optics for Astronomical and Laboratory Applications,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 830 (1987).

P. A. J. de Korte, “X-Ray Scattering from Epoxy Replica Surfaces,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 189 (1979).

Publ. Astron. Inst. Czech. Acad. Sci.

R. Hudec et al., “Wolter I Type X-Ray Mirror System with Mean Resolution and Maximum Effective Collecting Area for the Spectral Region of 1–10 nm,” Publ. Astron. Inst. Czech. Acad. Sci. 61, 1 (1985).

Rep. Prog. Phys.

B. Aschenbach, “X-Ray Telescopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 48, 579 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Other

P. Gorenstein, D. Fabricant, L. Cohen, “The LAMAR Telescope Module for High Throughput Imaging and Spectroscopy,” Proc. ESA SP-239 (1985), p. 177.

P. J. Serlemitsos, “X-Ray Astronomy in the 1980s,” S. S. Holt, Ed, NASA Tech. Memo. 83848 (1981), p. 441.

P. Gorenstein, “Modular Focusing Arrays for X-Ray Observations of Very High Sensitivity from the Space Shuttle,” Report to the National Academy of Sciences Working Group on High Energy Astronomy, Woods Hole, MA (1973).

P. Gorenstein, “The Lamar X-Ray Astronomy Facility for Observations of Very High Sensitivity,” New Instrumentation for Space Astronomy, K. v.d. Hucht, G. S. Vaiana, Eds. (Pergamon, London, 1978), p. 237.

P. de Korte, “In Flight Calibration Data Corrected for Finite Detector Resolution”; unpublished data (1987).

R. Hudec, Czech Astronomical Inst.; private communication (1987).

O. Citterio, Milan Cosmic Physics Inst.; private communication (1987).

P. A. J. de Korte, “The Current Status of X-Ray and XUV-Replica Optics,” RAL Symposium on New Techniques in X-Ray and XUV-Optics, RL-83-010 (1982), p. 36.

P. A. J. de Korte, J. Klug, G. Moreau, G. P. Whitcomb, “Carbon-Reinforced Epoxy Techniques for the XMM LE-Telescopes,” Proc. ESA SP-239 (1985), p. 189.

B. Aschenbach, O. Citterio, J. M. Ellwood, P. Jensen, P. de Korte, A. Peacock, R. Willingale, “The High Throughput X-Ray Spectroscopy Mission; Report of the Telescope Working Group,” ESA SP-1084 (1987).

H. Brauinger, Max-Planck-Institut fur Extraterrestische Physik, Munich; private communication (1987).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Packing efficiency for Wolter I or conical and Kirkpatrick-Baez-type high-throughput telescopes in the critical angle-limited case. Indicated are efficiencies obtained in current designs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the electroforming replication process.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the epoxy replication process.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Effective area as a function of x-ray energy for the XMM optics design compared with other x-ray astronomy missions.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Cross section through the XMM telescope: a side view.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Base line lay-up of the CFRE replica x-ray mirror shell.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I XMM Wolter I X-Ray Telescope Characteristics

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

cos θ c = 1 δ .
δ = N 0 Z r e ρ λ 2 2 π A ,
θ c deg = 0 . 93 λ nm ρ ( g / cm 3 ) ,
θ c deg 4 . 1 λ nm , sin θ c 0 . 089 / E keV .
A c = 4 η ¯ r 2 R c 2 = 4 η ¯ r 2 ( F sin 2 θ c ) 2 ,
A c = π η ¯ r 2 R c 2 = π η ¯ r 2 ( F sin 4 θ c ) 2 ,
A c ( K B ) 0 . 06 ( F E ) 2 , A c ( W / C ) 0 . 2 ( F E ) 2 ,
Γ K B = [ 1 x ln ( x + 1 x ) ] 2 , Γ W / C = [ 1 2 x + 2 x 2 ln ( x + 1 x ) ] 2 ,
Γ W / C = [ 1 / ( 1 + 4 C F / L ) ] .
Δ K-B = 1 1 4 Y 2 , Δ W / C = 1 1 3 Y 2 ,

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