Abstract

Several x-ray astronomy missions of the 1990s will contain focusing telescopes with significantly more collecting power than the Einstein Observatory. There is increasing emphasis on spectroscopy. ESA’s XMM with 104 cm2 of effective area will be the largest. A high throughput facility with over 105 cm2 of effective area and 20-sec of arc angular resolution is needed ultimately for various scientific studies such as high resolution spectroscopic observations of QSOs. At least one of the following techniques currently being developed for fabricating x-ray telescopes including automated figuring of flats as parabolic reflectors, replication of cylindrical shells, and the alignment of thin lacquer-coated conical foils is likely to permit the construction of modular arrays of telescopes with the area and angular resolution required.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. Gorenstein, “Modular Focussing Arrays for X-Ray Observations of Very High Sensitivity from the Space Shuttle,” Special Report to the Woods Hole Working Group (1973).
  2. R. Laine, R. Giralt, R. Zobl, P. A. J. de Korte, J. A. M. Bleeker, “X-Ray Imaging Telescopes on EXOSAT,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 181 (1979).
  3. P. A. J. de Korte, “Carbon-Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Techniques for the XMM LE-Telescopes,” in Proceedings, ESA Workshop on a Cosmic X-ray Spectroscopy Mission, Lyngby, Denmark, ESA SP-239 (1985), pp. 189–184.
  4. O. Citterio, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, B. Sacco, E. Santambrogio, “Optics for X-Ray Concentrators On Board the Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 102 (1986).
  5. M. Ulmer, Y. Matsui, D. K. Bedford, G. M. Simneff, P. Z. Takacs, “Electroformed Grazing Incidence X-Ray Mirrors for a Mirror Array Telescope,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3852 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. R. Hudec, B. Valnicek, “Czechoslovak Replica X-Ray Mirrors for Astronomical Applications,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 111 (1986).
  7. P. Serlemitsos, “Broad Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT),” in X-Ray Astronomy in the 1980s, NASA Tech. Mem. 83848 (1981), pp 441–460.
  8. P. L. Jensen, N. J. Westergaard, “Thin Foil High Throughput X-Ray Telescope,” in Proceedings, ESA Workshop on a Cosmic X-ray Spectroscopy Mission, Lyngby, Denmark, ESA SP-239 (1985), pp. 183–188.
  9. G. P. Garmire, “Experiments with Diamond-Turned Metal X-Ray Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 20 (1979).
  10. R. C. Catura, E. G. Joki, J. R. Vierra, M. J. Brookover, “Optics for X-Ray Astronomy,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 691, 118 (1986).
  11. P. Gorenstein, L. Cohen, D. Fabricant, “X-Ray Telescope Module for the LAMAR Space Shuttle Experiment,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 128 (1986).
  12. D. Fabricant, M. Conroy, L. Cohen, P. Gorenstein, “Automated Figure Formation for a Kirkpatrick-Baez Mirror,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 164 (1986).
  13. S. H. Moseley, J. C. Mather, D. McCammon, “Thermal Detectors as X-Ray Spectrometers,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 1257 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  14. W. C. Cash, R. Kohnert, “Very High X-Ray Efficiency from a Blazed Grating,” Appl. Opt. 21, 17 (1982).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. M. C. Hettrick, S. Bowyer, “Variable Line-Space Gratings: New Designs for Use in Grazing Incidence Spectrometers,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3921 (1983).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. S. M. Kahn, M. C. Hettrick, “The Application of Reflection Gratings to a Large Area X-Ray Spectroscopy Mission: A Discussion of Scientific Requirements and Various Design Options,” in Proceedings, ESA Workshop on a Cosmic X-ray Spectroscopy Mission, Lyngby, Denmark, ESA SP-239 (1985), pp. 237–244.
  17. I. M. Gioia et al., “The Medium Sensitivity Survey: A New Sample of X-Ray Sources with Optical Identifications and the Revised Extragalactic Log N–Log S,” Astrophys. J. 283, 495 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  18. D. A. Schwartz, W. H. Tucker, “Production of the Diffuse X-Ray Background Spectrum by Active Galactic Nuclei,” Astrophys. J. (in press) (1988).
    [Crossref]
  19. M. L. Shattenburg, C. R. Canizares, “High-Resolution X-Ray Spectroscopy of the Crab Nebula and the Oxygen Abundance of the Interstellar Medium,” Astrophys. J. 301, 759 (1986).
    [Crossref]

1987 (1)

1986 (6)

R. Hudec, B. Valnicek, “Czechoslovak Replica X-Ray Mirrors for Astronomical Applications,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 111 (1986).

O. Citterio, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, B. Sacco, E. Santambrogio, “Optics for X-Ray Concentrators On Board the Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 102 (1986).

R. C. Catura, E. G. Joki, J. R. Vierra, M. J. Brookover, “Optics for X-Ray Astronomy,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 691, 118 (1986).

P. Gorenstein, L. Cohen, D. Fabricant, “X-Ray Telescope Module for the LAMAR Space Shuttle Experiment,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 128 (1986).

D. Fabricant, M. Conroy, L. Cohen, P. Gorenstein, “Automated Figure Formation for a Kirkpatrick-Baez Mirror,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 164 (1986).

M. L. Shattenburg, C. R. Canizares, “High-Resolution X-Ray Spectroscopy of the Crab Nebula and the Oxygen Abundance of the Interstellar Medium,” Astrophys. J. 301, 759 (1986).
[Crossref]

1984 (2)

I. M. Gioia et al., “The Medium Sensitivity Survey: A New Sample of X-Ray Sources with Optical Identifications and the Revised Extragalactic Log N–Log S,” Astrophys. J. 283, 495 (1984).
[Crossref]

S. H. Moseley, J. C. Mather, D. McCammon, “Thermal Detectors as X-Ray Spectrometers,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 1257 (1984).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

1982 (1)

1979 (2)

R. Laine, R. Giralt, R. Zobl, P. A. J. de Korte, J. A. M. Bleeker, “X-Ray Imaging Telescopes on EXOSAT,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 181 (1979).

G. P. Garmire, “Experiments with Diamond-Turned Metal X-Ray Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 20 (1979).

Bedford, D. K.

Bleeker, J. A. M.

R. Laine, R. Giralt, R. Zobl, P. A. J. de Korte, J. A. M. Bleeker, “X-Ray Imaging Telescopes on EXOSAT,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 181 (1979).

Bowyer, S.

Brookover, M. J.

R. C. Catura, E. G. Joki, J. R. Vierra, M. J. Brookover, “Optics for X-Ray Astronomy,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 691, 118 (1986).

Canizares, C. R.

M. L. Shattenburg, C. R. Canizares, “High-Resolution X-Ray Spectroscopy of the Crab Nebula and the Oxygen Abundance of the Interstellar Medium,” Astrophys. J. 301, 759 (1986).
[Crossref]

Cash, W. C.

Catura, R. C.

R. C. Catura, E. G. Joki, J. R. Vierra, M. J. Brookover, “Optics for X-Ray Astronomy,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 691, 118 (1986).

Citterio, O.

O. Citterio, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, B. Sacco, E. Santambrogio, “Optics for X-Ray Concentrators On Board the Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 102 (1986).

Cohen, L.

P. Gorenstein, L. Cohen, D. Fabricant, “X-Ray Telescope Module for the LAMAR Space Shuttle Experiment,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 128 (1986).

D. Fabricant, M. Conroy, L. Cohen, P. Gorenstein, “Automated Figure Formation for a Kirkpatrick-Baez Mirror,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 164 (1986).

Conroy, M.

D. Fabricant, M. Conroy, L. Cohen, P. Gorenstein, “Automated Figure Formation for a Kirkpatrick-Baez Mirror,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 164 (1986).

Conti, G.

O. Citterio, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, B. Sacco, E. Santambrogio, “Optics for X-Ray Concentrators On Board the Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 102 (1986).

de Korte, P. A. J.

R. Laine, R. Giralt, R. Zobl, P. A. J. de Korte, J. A. M. Bleeker, “X-Ray Imaging Telescopes on EXOSAT,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 181 (1979).

P. A. J. de Korte, “Carbon-Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Techniques for the XMM LE-Telescopes,” in Proceedings, ESA Workshop on a Cosmic X-ray Spectroscopy Mission, Lyngby, Denmark, ESA SP-239 (1985), pp. 189–184.

Fabricant, D.

P. Gorenstein, L. Cohen, D. Fabricant, “X-Ray Telescope Module for the LAMAR Space Shuttle Experiment,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 128 (1986).

D. Fabricant, M. Conroy, L. Cohen, P. Gorenstein, “Automated Figure Formation for a Kirkpatrick-Baez Mirror,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 164 (1986).

Garmire, G. P.

G. P. Garmire, “Experiments with Diamond-Turned Metal X-Ray Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 20 (1979).

Gioia, I. M.

I. M. Gioia et al., “The Medium Sensitivity Survey: A New Sample of X-Ray Sources with Optical Identifications and the Revised Extragalactic Log N–Log S,” Astrophys. J. 283, 495 (1984).
[Crossref]

Giralt, R.

R. Laine, R. Giralt, R. Zobl, P. A. J. de Korte, J. A. M. Bleeker, “X-Ray Imaging Telescopes on EXOSAT,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 181 (1979).

Gorenstein, P.

D. Fabricant, M. Conroy, L. Cohen, P. Gorenstein, “Automated Figure Formation for a Kirkpatrick-Baez Mirror,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 164 (1986).

P. Gorenstein, L. Cohen, D. Fabricant, “X-Ray Telescope Module for the LAMAR Space Shuttle Experiment,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 128 (1986).

P. Gorenstein, “Modular Focussing Arrays for X-Ray Observations of Very High Sensitivity from the Space Shuttle,” Special Report to the Woods Hole Working Group (1973).

Hettrick, M. C.

M. C. Hettrick, S. Bowyer, “Variable Line-Space Gratings: New Designs for Use in Grazing Incidence Spectrometers,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3921 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Kahn, M. C. Hettrick, “The Application of Reflection Gratings to a Large Area X-Ray Spectroscopy Mission: A Discussion of Scientific Requirements and Various Design Options,” in Proceedings, ESA Workshop on a Cosmic X-ray Spectroscopy Mission, Lyngby, Denmark, ESA SP-239 (1985), pp. 237–244.

Hudec, R.

R. Hudec, B. Valnicek, “Czechoslovak Replica X-Ray Mirrors for Astronomical Applications,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 111 (1986).

Jensen, P. L.

P. L. Jensen, N. J. Westergaard, “Thin Foil High Throughput X-Ray Telescope,” in Proceedings, ESA Workshop on a Cosmic X-ray Spectroscopy Mission, Lyngby, Denmark, ESA SP-239 (1985), pp. 183–188.

Joki, E. G.

R. C. Catura, E. G. Joki, J. R. Vierra, M. J. Brookover, “Optics for X-Ray Astronomy,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 691, 118 (1986).

Kahn, S. M.

S. M. Kahn, M. C. Hettrick, “The Application of Reflection Gratings to a Large Area X-Ray Spectroscopy Mission: A Discussion of Scientific Requirements and Various Design Options,” in Proceedings, ESA Workshop on a Cosmic X-ray Spectroscopy Mission, Lyngby, Denmark, ESA SP-239 (1985), pp. 237–244.

Kohnert, R.

Laine, R.

R. Laine, R. Giralt, R. Zobl, P. A. J. de Korte, J. A. M. Bleeker, “X-Ray Imaging Telescopes on EXOSAT,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 181 (1979).

Mather, J. C.

S. H. Moseley, J. C. Mather, D. McCammon, “Thermal Detectors as X-Ray Spectrometers,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 1257 (1984).
[Crossref]

Matsui, Y.

Mattaini, E.

O. Citterio, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, B. Sacco, E. Santambrogio, “Optics for X-Ray Concentrators On Board the Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 102 (1986).

McCammon, D.

S. H. Moseley, J. C. Mather, D. McCammon, “Thermal Detectors as X-Ray Spectrometers,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 1257 (1984).
[Crossref]

Moseley, S. H.

S. H. Moseley, J. C. Mather, D. McCammon, “Thermal Detectors as X-Ray Spectrometers,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 1257 (1984).
[Crossref]

Sacco, B.

O. Citterio, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, B. Sacco, E. Santambrogio, “Optics for X-Ray Concentrators On Board the Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 102 (1986).

Santambrogio, E.

O. Citterio, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, B. Sacco, E. Santambrogio, “Optics for X-Ray Concentrators On Board the Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 102 (1986).

Schwartz, D. A.

D. A. Schwartz, W. H. Tucker, “Production of the Diffuse X-Ray Background Spectrum by Active Galactic Nuclei,” Astrophys. J. (in press) (1988).
[Crossref]

Serlemitsos, P.

P. Serlemitsos, “Broad Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT),” in X-Ray Astronomy in the 1980s, NASA Tech. Mem. 83848 (1981), pp 441–460.

Shattenburg, M. L.

M. L. Shattenburg, C. R. Canizares, “High-Resolution X-Ray Spectroscopy of the Crab Nebula and the Oxygen Abundance of the Interstellar Medium,” Astrophys. J. 301, 759 (1986).
[Crossref]

Simneff, G. M.

Takacs, P. Z.

Tucker, W. H.

D. A. Schwartz, W. H. Tucker, “Production of the Diffuse X-Ray Background Spectrum by Active Galactic Nuclei,” Astrophys. J. (in press) (1988).
[Crossref]

Ulmer, M.

Valnicek, B.

R. Hudec, B. Valnicek, “Czechoslovak Replica X-Ray Mirrors for Astronomical Applications,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 111 (1986).

Vierra, J. R.

R. C. Catura, E. G. Joki, J. R. Vierra, M. J. Brookover, “Optics for X-Ray Astronomy,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 691, 118 (1986).

Westergaard, N. J.

P. L. Jensen, N. J. Westergaard, “Thin Foil High Throughput X-Ray Telescope,” in Proceedings, ESA Workshop on a Cosmic X-ray Spectroscopy Mission, Lyngby, Denmark, ESA SP-239 (1985), pp. 183–188.

Zobl, R.

R. Laine, R. Giralt, R. Zobl, P. A. J. de Korte, J. A. M. Bleeker, “X-Ray Imaging Telescopes on EXOSAT,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 181 (1979).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Astrophys. J. (2)

I. M. Gioia et al., “The Medium Sensitivity Survey: A New Sample of X-Ray Sources with Optical Identifications and the Revised Extragalactic Log N–Log S,” Astrophys. J. 283, 495 (1984).
[Crossref]

M. L. Shattenburg, C. R. Canizares, “High-Resolution X-Ray Spectroscopy of the Crab Nebula and the Oxygen Abundance of the Interstellar Medium,” Astrophys. J. 301, 759 (1986).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. H. Moseley, J. C. Mather, D. McCammon, “Thermal Detectors as X-Ray Spectrometers,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 1257 (1984).
[Crossref]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (7)

G. P. Garmire, “Experiments with Diamond-Turned Metal X-Ray Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 20 (1979).

R. C. Catura, E. G. Joki, J. R. Vierra, M. J. Brookover, “Optics for X-Ray Astronomy,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 691, 118 (1986).

P. Gorenstein, L. Cohen, D. Fabricant, “X-Ray Telescope Module for the LAMAR Space Shuttle Experiment,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 128 (1986).

D. Fabricant, M. Conroy, L. Cohen, P. Gorenstein, “Automated Figure Formation for a Kirkpatrick-Baez Mirror,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 164 (1986).

R. Hudec, B. Valnicek, “Czechoslovak Replica X-Ray Mirrors for Astronomical Applications,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 111 (1986).

R. Laine, R. Giralt, R. Zobl, P. A. J. de Korte, J. A. M. Bleeker, “X-Ray Imaging Telescopes on EXOSAT,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 181 (1979).

O. Citterio, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, B. Sacco, E. Santambrogio, “Optics for X-Ray Concentrators On Board the Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 102 (1986).

Other (6)

P. Gorenstein, “Modular Focussing Arrays for X-Ray Observations of Very High Sensitivity from the Space Shuttle,” Special Report to the Woods Hole Working Group (1973).

P. A. J. de Korte, “Carbon-Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Techniques for the XMM LE-Telescopes,” in Proceedings, ESA Workshop on a Cosmic X-ray Spectroscopy Mission, Lyngby, Denmark, ESA SP-239 (1985), pp. 189–184.

P. Serlemitsos, “Broad Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT),” in X-Ray Astronomy in the 1980s, NASA Tech. Mem. 83848 (1981), pp 441–460.

P. L. Jensen, N. J. Westergaard, “Thin Foil High Throughput X-Ray Telescope,” in Proceedings, ESA Workshop on a Cosmic X-ray Spectroscopy Mission, Lyngby, Denmark, ESA SP-239 (1985), pp. 183–188.

D. A. Schwartz, W. H. Tucker, “Production of the Diffuse X-Ray Background Spectrum by Active Galactic Nuclei,” Astrophys. J. (in press) (1988).
[Crossref]

S. M. Kahn, M. C. Hettrick, “The Application of Reflection Gratings to a Large Area X-Ray Spectroscopy Mission: A Discussion of Scientific Requirements and Various Design Options,” in Proceedings, ESA Workshop on a Cosmic X-ray Spectroscopy Mission, Lyngby, Denmark, ESA SP-239 (1985), pp. 237–244.

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Figures (1)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

View of the High Throughput Facility on NASA’s Space Station.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I High Throughput Telescopes

Tables Icon

Table II Future X-Ray Telescope Missions

Metrics